GEMET Thesaurus 4.0 (‘General Multilingual Environmental Thesaurus’)(EEA)

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Please note: The version below (4.0) is slightly older than the latest version 4.2.0 available from

Size: 5,374 Dutch-English terms, with definitions

Creator: The European Environment Agency

Dutch English English definition
aaltjes nematode A group of unsegmented worms which have been variously recognized as an order, class, and phylum. (Source: MGH)
aanbeveling recommendation Recommendation refers to an action which is advisory in nature rather than one having any binding effect.
aanbod supply (trade) The willingness and ability to sell a range of quantities of a good at a range of prices, during a given time period. Supply is one half of the market exchange process; the other is demand. (Source: AMOS2)
aandeel in de opbrengst royalty Compensation for the use of a person's property, based on an agreed percentage of the income arising from its use.
aandoening die met het milieu te maken heeft environmentally related disease
aangelegd afvoerwateringssysteem built drainage system Collection of open and/or closed drains, together with structures and pumps used to collect and dispose of excess surface or subsurface water. (Source: LANDY)
aangifte notification Information concerning a fact, actually communicated to a person by an authorized person. (Source: BLACK)
aangroei fouling growth The adhesion of different marine organisms to the underwater parts of ships, causing the ships to loose speed. (Source: MGH)
aanhoudend geluid steady noise Unceasing prolonged noise, without interruption. (Source: CED)
aankondiging advertisement The action of drawing public attention to goods, services or events, often through paid announcements in newspapers, magazines, television or radio. (Source: C / RHW)
aanleg van verkeersroutes traffic route construction
aanpassingsperiode adaptation period
aansprakelijkheid liability Subjection to a legal obligation. Liability is civil or criminal according to whether it is enforced by the civil or criminal courts. (Source: JCU)
aansprakelijkheid van de producent producer liability Obligations, responsibilities or debts imposed upon all members of an industry that manufactures or produces a product or service causing injury or harm to a consumer and apportioned according to each member's share of the market for the product. (Source: BLD)
aansprakelijkheid voor milieuverontreiniging pollution liability Liability for injuries arising from the release of hazardous substances or pollutants or contaminants. (Source: LEE)
aansprakelijkheid voor nucleaire schade liability for nuclear damages Subjection to a legal obligation, such as financial recompense or ecological reparations, for any harm or damage inflicted on persons, property or the environment during the production, use or transport of radioactive materials used as an energy source or in weaponry. (Source: BLD / MHD)
aansprakelijkheid voor zee-ongevallen liability for marine accidents Subjection to a legal obligation, such as financial recompense or ecological reparations, for any harm or damage inflicted on persons, property or the environment in the course of commercial or recreational activity in, on or near a sea. (Source: BLD / RHW)
aansprakelijkheidswetgeving liability legislation A law or body of laws enacted that pertains to or establishes an obligation, debt or responsibility for loss, penalty, evil, expense or burden. (Source: BLD / ISEP)
aantal uren zonneschijn duration of sunshine Period of the day during which the sun is shining. (Source: RAMADE)
aantasting van de ozonlaag ozone layer depletion The fragile shield of ozone is been damaged by chemicals released on earth. The main chemicals that are depleting stratospheric ozone are chlorofluorocarbons which are used in refrigerators, aerosols, and as cleaners in many industries, and halons, which are used in fire extinguishers. The damage is caused when these chemicals release highly reactive forms of chlorine and bromine. Over the past 30 years ozone levels over parts of Antarctica have dropped by almost 40% during some months and a 'hole' in ozone concentrations is clearly visible in satellite observations. (Source: WRIGHT)
aantoonbaarheid demonstrability
aantrekkelijke kant van waterrecreatie aquatic recreational amenity
aanvangstraining initial training Any education, instruction or discipline occurring at the beginning of an activity, task, occupation or life span. (Source: RHW)
aanvullende overeenkomst van Brussel Brussels additional agreement
aanvullende verpakking additional packaging Additional packaging around the normal sales packaging. For example as protection against theft or for the purpose of advertising; the customer may leave the additional packaging in the shop for waste collection. (Source: RRDA)
aardbeving earthquake The violent shaking of the ground produced by deep seismic waves, beneath the epicentre, generated by a sudden decrease or release in a volume of rock of elastic strain accumulated over a long time in regions of seismic activity (tectonic earthquake). The magnitude of an earthquake is represented by the Richter scale; the intensity by the Mercalli scale. (Source: GUNN)
aardewerk ceramics The art and techniques of producing articles of clay, porcelain, etc. (Source: CED)
aardewerkindustrie ceramics industry Manufacturing plant producing ceramic items. (Source: LEE)
aardgas natural gas A natural fuel containing methane and hydrocarbons that occurs in certain geologic formations. (Source: LANDY)
aardgasexploratie natural gas exploration Underground prospection conducted with various methods to discover natural gas deposits which are usually found in the immediate vicinity of crude petroleum. (Source: ZINZAN / PARCOR)
aardgaswinning natural gas extraction The tapping of natural gas from wells located under the sea and in general from underground sources often in association with petroleum deposits; it is used as a fuel, having largely replaced coal-gas for this purpose, and as a source of intermediates for organic synthesis. (Source: GRAHAWa / UVAROVa / GILP96a)
aardkorst earth's crust The outer layers of the Earth's structure, varying between 6 and 48 km in thickness, and comprising all the material above the Mohorovicic Discontinuity (a seismic discontinuity occurring between the crust of the earth and the underlying mantle; the discontinuity occurs at an average depth of 35 km below the continents and at about 10 km below the oceans). The earlier idea of a cool solid skin overlaying a hot molten interior has now been replaced by a concept of a crust composed of two shells: an inner basic unit composed of sima (oceanic crust) and an outer granitic unit composed of sial (continental crust). (Source: WHIT)
aardolie; ruwe aardolie petroleum A comparatively volatile liquid bitumen composed principally of hydrocarbon, with traces of sulphur, nitrogen or oxygen compounds; can be removed from the earth in a liquid state. (Source: MGH)
aardolie-exploratie oil exploration
aardolie-geologie petroleum geology The branch of economic geology that relates to the origin, migration and accumulation of oil and gas, and to the discovery of commercial deposits. Its practice involves the application of geochemistry, geophysics, paleontology, structural geology and stratigraphy to the problems of finding hydrocarbons. (Source: BJGEO)
aardolie-industrie petroleum industry Manufacturing industry utilizing complex combination of interdependent operations engaged in the storage and transportation, separation of crude molecular constituents, molecular cracking, molecular rebuilding, and solvent finishing to produce petrochemical products. (Source: PZ)
aardolieramp oil disaster The disaster caused by the dumping and accidental spillage of oil into waterways from ships and land-based or offshore installations. Oil pollution may destroy or damage aquatic life and wildlife such as birds, contaminate water supplies and create fire hazards. (Source: GILP96)
aardolieverbruik petroleum consumption Petroleum belongs to non-renewable energy sources; it is a complex substance derived from the carbonized remains of trees, ferns, mosses, and other types of vegetable matter. The principal chemical constituents of oil are carbon, hydrogen, and sulphur. The various fuels made from crude oil are jet fuel, gasoline, kerosine, diesel fuel, and heavy fuel oils. Major oil consumption is in the following areas: transportation, residential-commercial, industrial and for generating electric power. (Source: PARCOR)
aardoliewinning oil extraction Recovery of oil by surface mining, as in tar sands or oil shales, or from tunnels in a shallow reservoir. (Source: BJGEO)
aardrijkskunde, geografie geography
aardverschuiving landslide Mass-movement landforms and processes involving the downslope transport, under gravitationary influence of soil and rock material en masse. (Source: BJGEO)
aardwetenschappen earth science The science that deals with the earth or any part thereof; includes the disciplines of geology, geography, oceanography and meteorology, among others. (Source: MGH)
abiotische factor abiotic factor Physical, chemical and other non-living environmental factors. They are essential for living plants and animals of an ecosystem, providing the essential elements and nutrients that are necessary for growth. The abiotic elements also include the climatic and pedologic components of the ecosystem. (Source: LBC / WRIGHT)
abiotische omgeving abiotic environment The non-living components of the environment (rocks, minerals, soil, water and climate). (Source: WRIGHT)
absorptie (blootstelling) absorption (exposure) The taking in of fluids or other substances by cells or tissues. (Source: LANDY)
academisch academic
accu accumulator A rechargeable device for storing electrical energy in the form of chemical energy, consisting of one or more separate secondary cells. (Source: CED)
achtergrondgeluid background noise Noise coming from source other than the noise source being monitored. (Source: KOREN)
achtergrondniveau background level Term used in a variety of situations, always as the constant or natural amount of a given substance, radiation, noise, etc. (Source: KORENa)
achtergrondstraling background radiation Radiation resulting from natural sources, as opposed to man-made sources, and to which people are exposed in everyday, normal life; for example from rocks and soil. (Source: WRIGHT / MGH)
achteruitgang van het bos forest deterioration Reduction of tree population in forests caused by acidic precipitation, forest fires, air pollution, deforestation, pests and diseases of trees, wildlife, etc. (Source: WPR)
achteruitgang van het ecosysteem ecosystem degradation Degradation or destruction of large natural environments. When one ecosystem is under attack as a result of natural or man-made disaster it is extremely difficult to calculate the ripple effects throughout nature. When two or more ecosystems are being degraded the probabilities of synergistic destructiveness multiply. Ecosystems in many regions are threatened, despite their biological richness and their promise of material benefits. (Source: WPR)
actie action The process of doing or an act or performance that has been carried out; a legal proceeding brought by one party against another. (Source: RHW)
actief slib activated sludge Sludge that has been aerated and subjected to bacterial action; used to speed breakdown of organism matter in raw sewage during secondary waste treatment. (Source: LANDY)
actiegroep action group A collection of persons united to address specific sociopolitical or socioeconomic concerns. (Source: RHW)
acties acts
actieve kool activated carbon A powdered, granular or pelleted form of amorphous carbon characterized by a very large surface area per unit volume because of an enormous number of fine pores. (Source: LANDY)
actieve populatie active population The number of people available and eligible for employment within a given enterprise, region or nation. (Source: ODE)
actinide actinide A group of 15 radioactive elements some of which occur naturally while others are produced in nuclear reactions. They include plutonium, americium and neptunium. The health hazard presented by the actinides, if they are released into the environment, comes from the potency of their radioactive characteristics. They are alpha-emitters, and therefore can cause intense localized damage in tissues if absorbed into the body. (Source: WRIGHT)
actinium actinium A radioactive element of the actinide series, occurring as a decay product of uranium. It is used as an alpha particle source and in neutron production. (Source: CED)
additief additive Substances mixed in small quantities with another product to modify its chemical or physical state. Additives are used to make food look visually more attractive, in the case of colouring agents, as well as to preserve and extend the life of the product. (Source: WRIGHT)
ademhaling respiration The process in living organisms of taking in oxygen from the surroundings and giving out carbon dioxide. (Source: CED)
ademhalingskanaal respiratory tract The structures and passages involved with intake, expulsion, and exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the vertebrate body. (Source: MGH)
ademhalingsstelsel respiratory system The structures and passages involved with the intake, expulsion and exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the vertebrate body. (Source: MGH)
ademhalingsziekte respiratory disease
administratief beroep administrative occupation
administratief recht administrative law Body of law created by administrative agencies in the form of rules, regulations, orders and decisions to carry out regulatory powers and duties of such agencies. (Source: BLACK)
administratief rechtsgebied administrative jurisdiction The extent, power or territory in which an office with executive or managerial authority administers justice or declares judgments. (Source: RHW / BLD)
administratieve akte administrative deed Any formal and legitimate step taken or decision made on matters of policy by a chief or other top-level officer within an organization. (Source: DAM)
administratieve instructie administrative instructions Education in the theories and practices of managing an office, business or organization. (Source: RHW)
administratieve organisatie administrative organisation
administratieve procedure administrative procedure
administratieve rechter administrative court (administration) An independent, specialized judicial tribunal in which judges or officials are authorized by a government agency to conduct hearings and render decisions in proceedings between the government agency and the persons, businesses or other organizations that it regulates. (Source: BLD)
administratieve sanctie administrative sanction Generally, any formal official imposition of penalty or fine; destruction, taking, seizure, or withholding of property; assessment of damages, reimbursement, restitution, compensation, costs, charges or fees; requirement, revocation or suspension of license; and taking other compulsory or restrictive action by organization, agency or its representative.
adsorptie adsorption The physical or chemical bonding of molecules of gas, liquid or a dissolved substance to the external surface of a solid or the internal surface, if the material is porous, in a very thin layer. (Source: ALL)
advies consultancy The position or practice of a qualified person paid for advice or services. (Source: OED)
aërobe behandeling aerobic treatment The introduction of air into sewage so as to provide aerobic biochemical stabilization during a detention period. (Source: KOREN)
aërobe voorwaarden aerobic condition Life common to the majority of animal and plants species requiring the presence of oxygen. (Source: LAROUSa)
aërobiologie aerobiology The study of the atmospheric dispersal of airborne fungus spores, pollen grains, and microorganisms; and, more broadly, of airborne propagules of algae and protozoans, minute insects such as aphids, and pollution gases and particles which exert specific biologic effects. (Source: MGH)
aërodynamisch geluid aerodynamic noise Acoustic noise caused by turbulent airflow over the surface of a body. (Source: MGH)
aëroob proces aerobic process A process requiring the presence of oxygen. (Source: MGH)
aërosol aerosol A gaseous suspension of ultramicroscopic particles of a liquid or a solid. (Source: MGH)
afbakeningsprocedure scoping procedure The prescribed step or manner of proceeding in an environmental impact assessment, by which a public discussion is held to discuss the information that needs to be developed, the alternatives that need to be considered and other important environmental issues. (Source: ERG)
afbraak decomposition The more or less permanent breakdown of a molecule into simpler molecules or atoms. (Source: MGH)
afbraak degradation A type of organic chemical reaction in which a compound is converted into a simpler compound in stages. (Source: ALL2)
afbraak onder invloed van licht photodegradation The capability of being decomposed by prolonged exposure to light. (Source: CEDa)
afbraak van gebouwen building destruction The tearing down of buildings by mechanical means. (Source: MGHa)
afbraak van stratosferische ozon stratospheric ozone depletion Damage of the ozone shield by chemicals released on Earth. The main chemicals that are depleting stratospheric ozone are chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), which are used in refrigerators, aerosols, and as cleaners in many industries, and halons which are used in fire extinguishers. The damage is caused when these chemicals release highly reactive forms of chlorine and bromine. (Source: WRIGHT)
afbraak van verontreinigende stoffen pollutant degradation The physical, chemical or biological breakdown of a complex polluting material into simpler components. (Source: FFD)
afbraakproduct degradation product Those chemicals resulting from partial decomposition or chemical breakdown of substances. (Source: LEE)
afbreekbaarheid degradability The capacity of being decomposed chemically or biologically. (Source: CED)
afdekking [actie] covering
afdekking van een afvalstortplaats landfill covering The protective shielding, consisting of soil or some other material, that encloses disposal sites for compacted, non-hazardous solid waste, or secures disposal sites for hazardous waste to minimize the chance of releasing hazardous substances into the environment. (Source: TOE)
afdekstro litter Straw, hay or similar material used as bedding by animals. (Source: CED)
affakkelen flaring 1) Flares use open flames during normal and/or emergency operations to combust hazardous gaseous. The system has no special features to control temperature or time of combustion; however, supplemental fuel may be required to sustain the combustion. Historically, flares have been used to dispose of waste gases in the oil and gas industry and at wastewater treatment plants having anaerobic digestors. Regulation for thermal destruction of hazardous wastes limit the practical use of flaring to combustion of relatively simple hydrocarbons, such as methane from digesters or landfill gas collection systems. 2) A control device that burns hazardous materials to prevent their release into the environment; may operate continuously or intermittently, usually on top a stack. (Source: CORBIT / EPAGLO)
afgedankt geneeskrachtig medicijn discarded medicinal drug
afgegraven grond excavation heap Residue in form of a heap, consisting of earth or other material, produced by excavation.
afgesloten natuurgebied central park area The core area of a park or of a reserve where there can be no interference with the natural ecosystem. (Source: WRIGHT)
afgevaardigd beheer delegated management The process of assigning or transferring authority, decision making or a specific administrative function from one entity to another. (Source: OED)
afgevaardigde van een fabriek plant delegate A person authorized to act on behalf of workers or managers of a company, such as at business conventions or at meetings involving labor relations. (Source: RHW)
afgifte gemuteerde micro-organismen mutated micro-organisms release The release of mutated micro-organisms creates the risk that they may exhibit some previously unknown pathogenicity, might take over from some naturally occurring bacteria (possibly having other positive functions which thus are lost) or pass on some unwanted trait to such indigenous bacteria. There is also concern that an uncontrolled genetic mutation could produce from such an engineered microorganism, a form with hazardous consequences for the environment. (Source: WPR)
afgraven excavation (process) The removal of earth from its natural position. (Source: HARRIS)
afgraving excavated hole A pit, cavity, or other uncovered cutting produced by excavation. (Source: BJGEOa)
afgravingplaats excavation site The location chosen for an excavation, meaning the act or process of removing soil and/or rock materials by digging, blasting, breaking, loading either at the surface or underground. (Source: BJGEOa)
afgravingskant excavation side Sloping surface of an excavation. (Source: RRDA)
afname decrease
Afrika Africa The second largest of the continents, on the Mediterranean in the north, the Atlantic in the west, and the Red Sea, Gulf of Aden, and Indian Ocean in the east. The Sahara desert divides the continent unequally into North Africa and Africa south of Sahara. The largest lake is Lake Victoria and the chief rivers are the Nile, Niger, Congo, and Zambezi. The hottest continent, Africa has vast mineral resources, many of which are still undeveloped. (Source: CED / AMHER)
afscheider; scheider separator A machine for separating materials of different specific gravity by means of water or air. (Source: MGH)
afscheiding in water emission to water The discharge of solid, liquid or gaseous pollutants or contaminants into a body of water. (Source: WWC)
afschermen screening The reduction of the electric field about a nucleus by the space charge of the surrounding electrons. (Source: MGH)
afschrijven write-off Accounting procedure that is used when an asset is uncollectible and is therefore charged-off as a loss. (Source: ISEP / RHW)
afschrikking deterrence Punishment aiming at deterring the criminal from repeating his offences or deterring others from committing similar acts. (Source: DICLAW)
afschrikmiddel deterrent Any measure, implement or policy designed to discourage or restrain the actions or advance of another agent, organization or state. (Source: RHW)
afsluiting van de onderlaag van een afvalstortplaats landfill base sealing Sealing of a landfill with a relatively impermeable barrier designed to keep leachate inside. Liner materials include plastic and dense clay. (Source: EPAGLO)
afsmelting van een reactorkern core meltdown An accidental overheating of the part of the nuclear reactor where fission takes place, causing fuel elements and other parts of the reactor to melt, potentially leading to catastrophic consequences in which dangerous levels of radioactive materials would be released into the environment. (Source: FFD)
afsnijden van waterplantengroei water weed cutting Cutting down by scythe or machine at intervals the vegetation growth and grasses on banks and berms of irrigation and drainage channels or cropped areas. (Source: ECHO1)
afspoelen rinsing The removal of thin layers of surface material more or less evenly from an extensive area of gently sloping land, by broad continuous sheets of running water rather than by streams flowing in well-defined channels; e.g. erosion that occurs when rain washes away a thin layer of topsoil. (Source: BJGEO)
afstandsverwarming teleheating The supply of heat, either in the form of steam or hot water, from a central source to a group of buildings. (Source: MGH)
afsterving necrosis The pathologic death of living tissue in a plant or animal.
aftappen van ondergronds water exploitation of underground water The process of extracting underground water from a source. (Source: BJGEO)
afvaardiging delegation A person or group chosen to represent another or others. (Source: CED)
afval waste
afval afkomstig van de gezondheidssector health-care activities waste
afval van gewassen crop waste Any unusable portion of plant matter left in a field after harvest. (Source: CNI)
afval van strooiapparaat refuse shredder A machine used to break up refuse material into smaller pieces by tearing and/or impact. (Source: PORT)
afvalanalyse waste analysis An investigation carried out to decide what arrangements are appropriate for dealing with different kinds of wastes. (Source: PORTa)
afvalbak waste bin A container for litter, rubbish, etc. (Source: CED)
afvalbalans waste balance The inventory of all waste produced or recovered during a certain time period, classified by type and quantity. (Source: DOG)
afvalbeheer waste management The total supervision of waste production, handling, processing, storage, and transport from its point of generation to its final acceptable disposal. (Source: HMD / ISEP)
afvalbeperking waste minimisation Measures or techniques, including plans and directives, that reduce the amount of wastes generated. Examples of waste minimisation are environmentally-sound recycling and source reduction practices. (Source: TOE / DEE)
afvalbeperking waste reduction Practices that reduce the amount of waste generated by a specific source through the redesigning of products or patterns of production or consumption. (Source: TOE)
afvalcategorie type of waste A grouping by type of unusable material left over from any process. (Source: ISEP)
afvalclassificatie waste classification The arrangement of unwanted materials left over from manufacturing processes or refuse from places of human or animal habitation into a variety of categories based on chemical and microbiological constituents or other common characteristics. (Source: TOE)
afvalgassenverspreiding waste gas dispersion The process of breaking up and producing a diffuse distribution of the unusable aeriform fluid or suspension of fine particles in air resulting from a manufacturing process or the burning of a substance in an enclosed area. (Source: OED / RHW)
afvalgebruik waste use The incorporation of wastes into natural or artificial cycles, mainly in order to recover secondary raw materials or energy.
afvalheffing waste charge Imposed fee, expense, or cost for the management of refuse or unwanted materials left over from a manufacturing process. (Source: TOE / RHW)
afvalinvoervergunning waste importation permit An authorization, license or equivalent control document issued by a government agency that approves bringing in refuse or unwanted materials left over from a manufacturing process from foreign countries. (Source: TOE)
afvalinzameling waste collection The periodic or on-demand removal of solid waste from primary source locations using a collection vehicle and followed by the depositing of this waste at some central facility or disposal site. (Source: GSW / ISEP)
afvalinzameling bij de bron waste collection at source The gathering and transporting of refuse from its place of origin. (Source: RHW)
afvalolie waste oil Oil arising as a waste product of the use of oils in a wide range of industrial and commercial activities, such as engineering, power generation and vehicle maintenance and should be properly disposed of, or treated in order to be reused. (Source: GRAHAW / DEE)
afvalomzettingstechniek waste conversion technique Any specialized procedure or method used to transform refuse from one state, form or chemical composition into another. (Source: RHW / ISEP)
afvalontgassing waste degasification The removal of gaseous components form waste. (Source: RRDA)
afvalopslag waste storage Temporary holding of waste pending treatment or disposal. Storage methods include containers, tanks, waste piles, and surface impoundments. (Source: RRDA)
afvalproducent waste producer Sources of waste generation, typically used to refer to the domestic, commercial/industrial, or construction and demolition sectors. (Source: USERS)
afvalrecycling waste recycling A method of recovering wastes as resources which includes the collection, and often involving the treatment, of waste products for use as a replacement of all or part of the raw material in a manufacturing process. (Source: GRT)
afvalsanering pollution abatement waste Wastes resulting from the operations of pollutant removal from industries, cleaning processes, etc. (Source: RRDA)
afvalsortering waste sorting Separating waste into different materials, such as glass, metal, paper, plastic, etc. (Source: PHC)
afvalsorteringseenheid waste sorting unit Centralized recycling centres to which waste materials are brought and where they are separated. (Source: CORBIT)
afvalstatistieken waste statistics Determination of the quantity and character of the wastes discarded by a community, by spot sampling procedure. (Source: CORBIT)
afvalstoffen,vervuilende stoffen, vervuiling wastes, pollutants, pollution
afvalstortplaats landfill The oldest method of waste disposal for the solid matter discarded in the domestic dustbin, along with the packaging material and paper from high street shops and offices. Landfill sites are usually disused quarries and gravel pits. When they were filled, previous practice was to cover them up with soil and forget about them. Housing estates have been built, often with disastrous consequences, on old landfill dumps. Waste burial has now become a serious technology and a potential source of energy. Landfill sites can be designed to be bioreactors, which deliberately produce methane, gas as a source of biofuel or alternative energy. Traditionally, waste tips remained exposed to air and aerobic microbes - those which thrive in air - in order to turn some of the waste into compost. However, open tips also encourage vermin, smell in hot weather and disfigure the landscape. In the 1960s, as a tidier and safer option, landfill operators began to seal each day's waste in a clay cell. While excluding vermin, the clay also excluded air. Decomposition relied on anaerobic microbes, which die in air. However, the process produced methane (natural gas), which was a safety hazard. The methane is now extracted by sinking a network of perforated pipes into the site. (Source: WRIGHT)
afvalstortplaats waste dump Area where wastes are deposited and burned. (Source: ZINZAN)
afvalstortplaatspercolaat landfill leachate Liquid that has seeped through solid waste in a landfill and has extracted soluble dissolved or suspended materials in the process. (Source: WWC)
afvaltranvervoer waste transport Transportation of wastes by means of special vehicles. (Source: RRDA)
afvalverbranding incineration of waste The controlled burning of solid, liquid, or gaseous combustible wastes to produce gases and solid residues containing little or no combustible material in order to reduce the bulk of the original waste materials. (Source: ISEP)
afvalverbrandingsinstallatie waste incinerator Establishment where waste is burnt. (Source: PHC)
afvalverwerking waste disposal The orderly process of discarding unwanted or useless material. (Source: GSW)
afvalverwerking waste treatment Any process or combination of processes that changes the chemical, physical or biological composition or character of any waste or reduces or removes its harmful properties or characteristics for any purpose. (Source: HMD)
afvalverwerkingkost waste disposal cost The amount of money incurred for the action of removing or getting rid of refuse or unwanted materials left over from a manufacturing process. (Source: EFP / OED / TOE)
afvalverwerkingseffluent waste treatment effluent Partially or completely treated water or waste water flowing out of a waste treatment plant. (Source: DEE)
afvalverwerkingsfabriek waste treatment plant Place where waste material is treated to make it reusable or so it may be disposed of safely. (Source: PHC)
afvalverwerkingsheffing waste disposal charge Imposed fee, expense, or cost for the action of removing or getting rid of refuse or unwanted materials left over from a manufacturing process. (Source: TOE / RHW)
afvalverwerkingsindustrie waste processing industry
afvalverwerkingsplan sanitation plan Plans for the control of the physical factors in the human environment that can harm development, health, or survival. (Source: LANDY)
afvalverwerkingswet waste disposal act Law that settles the rules concerning the disposal, recycling and treatment of wastes. (Source: DIZAMB)
afvalverwijderingsindustrie waste removal industry The aggregate of commercial enterprises primarily concerned with eliminating or getting rid of refuse from places of human or animal habitation or of unwanted materials left over from a manufacturing process. (Source: TOE)
afvalvijver tailings pond Any collection of liquid effluents or wastewater drained or separated out during the processing of crops or mineral ores. (Source: TOE)
afvalvoorkoming waste avoidance All measures by which production and consumption processes are caused to generate less (or no waste), or to generate only those wastes that can be treated without causing problems.
afvalwarmte waste heat Heat derived from the cooling process of electric power generating plants and which can cause thermal pollution of water courses, promoting algal bloom. (Source: MGH)
afvalwarmteheffing waste heat charge The release of heat generated as a byproduct from industrial or power generation processes. (Source: TOE)
afvalwater sewage Any liquid-born waste that contains animal or plant matter in suspension or solution, soils and storm water, or chemicals in solution. (Source: APD)
afvalwater waste water Used water, or water that is not needed, which is permitted to escape, or unavoidably escapes from canals, ditches, reservoirs or other bodies of water, for which the owners of these structures are legally responsible. (Source: WWC)
afvalwaterbelasting waste water load The amount of spent or used water, often containing dissolved and suspended matter, that is found in a stream or some other body of water. (Source: WWC)
afvalwaterheffing waste water charge Imposed fee, expense, or cost for the management of spent or used water that contains dissolved or suspended matter from a home, community farm, or industry. (Source: TOE / RHW)
afvalwaterkwaliteit waste water quality The state or condition of spent or used water that contains dissolved or suspended matter from a home, community farm or industry. (Source: TOE / RHW)
afvalwaterslib waste water sludge The removed materials resulting from physical, biological and chemical treatment of waste water. (Source: WWC)
afvalwaterstatistieken waste water statistics
afvalwatervermindering waste water reduction The act or process of lessening the volume of used or spent water that is discharged from homes, businesses or industries. (Source: RHW / FFD / TOE)
afvalwatervervuiling waste water pollution The impairment of the quality of some medium due to the introduction of spent or used water from a community or industry. (Source: WWC)
afvalwaterverwerking waste water disposal Collection and removal of wastewater deriving from industrial and urban settlements by means of a system of pipes and treatment plants. (Source: MANCOS)
afvalwaterverwerking waste water treatment Any process to which wastewater is subjected which would remove, or otherwise render harmless to human health and the environment, its constituent wastes. (Source: WWC / WQA)
afvalwaterverwerkingsfabriek waste water treatment plant Plant where, through physical-chemical and biological processes, organic matter, bacteria, viruses and solids are removed from residential, commercial and industrial wastewaters before they are discharged in rivers, lakes and seas. (Source: PARCOR)
afvalwaterverwerkingssysteem sewage treatment system Sewage treatment comes in two stages - primary and secondary treatment. The primary stage involves a process of screening solids from sewage, leaving a sludge and relatively clear water for further treatment or for disposal into rivers, the sea or on to the land. In the secondary stage the sludge is stirred constantly in vast tanks to get more oxygen into the mixture, allowing bacteria to break down the organic matter and leave a harmless residue that falls as a sediment to the bottom of the tank. After processing, the clear water on top of the tank is discharged into rivers and the sediment is used as landfill or discharged at sea. (Source: WRIGHT)
afvalwaterwetgeving waste water legislation A binding rule or body of rules prescribed by a government to regulate the outflow and disposal of spent or used water from a home, community, farm or industry that contains dissolved or suspended matter. (Source: TOE)
afvalwaterzuivering waste water purification Processing of waste water for reuse. (Source: LANDY)
afvalwaterzuivering ter plekke on-site wastewater treatment A process in which used or spent water is treated at the point of origin or where it was produced, by using a septic tank or some other system to remove or reduce the impact of constituent wastes on human health and the environment. (Source: WQL / WWC)
afvalwetgeving waste legislation A binding rule or body of rules prescribed by a government to regulate the disposal of unwanted materials left over from a manufacturing process or the refuse from places of human or animal habitation. (Source: TOE)
afvoer van overgestroomd water flood runoff The total quantity of water flowing from the catchment during the period of the flood. (Source: ECHO2)
afvoerbuis in zee sea outfall The point, location or structure where effluent discharges into a body of marine waters such as a sea, ocean, etc. (Source: WWC)
afvoerlucht waste air Exhaust or gaseous air given off by any industrial, manufacturing or chemical process. (Source: TOE / RHW)
afvoerstelsel voor regenwater rain water sewer system Channels for clearing away rain water. (Source: PHC)
afwateren draining The removal of water from a marshy area by artificial means, e.g. the introduction of drains. (Source: WHIT)
afwatering drainage 1) Removal of groundwater or surface water, or of water from structures, by gravity or pumping.2) The discharge of water from a soil by percolation (the process by which surface water moves downwards through cracks, joints and pores in soil and rocks). (Source: MGH / WHIT)
afwatering drainage water Incidental surface waters from diverse sources such as rainfall, snow melt or permafrost melt. (Source: JJK)
afwatering runoff Rate at which water is removed by flowing over the soil surface. This rate is determined by the texture of the soil, slope, climate, and land use cover (e.g. paved surface, grass, forest, bare soil). (Source: LANDY)
afwatering van de ondergrond subsoil drainage The removal of surplus water from within the soil by natural or artificial means, such as by drains placed below the surface to lower the water table below the root zone. (Source: BJGEO)
afwatering van de oppervlakte surface runoff Water that travels over the soil surface to the nearest surface stream; runoff of a drainage basin that has not passed beneath the surface since precipitation. (Source: BJGEO)
afwateringsgebied watershed The dividing line between two adjacent river systems, such as a ridge. (Source: CED)
afwateringssyteem drainage system A surface stream, or a body of impounded surface water, together with all other such streams and water bodies that are tributary to it and by which a region is drained. An artificial drainage system includes also surface and subsurface conduits. (Source: BJGEO)
afweermiddel defence The act or process of protecting citizens or any geographical area by preparing for or by using military means to resist the attack of an enemy. (Source: OED)
afwisselend geluid intermittent noise Noise occurring at regular or irregular intervals. (Source: CED)
afwisseling alteration The act of altering or the state of being altered. (Source: CED)
afzetting deposition The process by which polluting material is precipitated from the atmosphere and accumulates in ecosystems. (Source: APD)
afzetting sedimentation (geology) The act or process of forming or accumulating sediment in layers, including such processes as the separation of rock particles from the material from which the sediment is derived, the transportation of these particles to the site of deposition, the actual deposition or settling of the particles, the chemical and other changes occurring in the sediment, and the ultimate consolidation of the sediment into solid rock. (Source: BJGEO)
afzetting sediment Any material transported by water which will ultimately settle to the bottom after the water loses its transporting power. (Source: LANDY)
afzetting in zee marine sediment Solid fragmental material, originated from weathering of rocks, that has settled down from a state of suspension in the water. (Source: BJGEOa)
afzetting van verontreinigende stoffen pollutant deposition The act or process in which polluting agents settle or accumulate naturally in ecosystems. (Source: APD)
afzettingsbekken sedimentary basin A geomorphic feature of the earth in which the surface has subsided for a prolonged time, including deep ocean floors, intercontinental rifts and elevated and interior drainage basins. (Source: MHD)
afzettingsbekken sedimentation basin A basin in which suspended matter is removed either by quiescent settlement or by continuous flow at high velocity and extended retention time to allow deposition. (Source: MGH)
Agenda 21 Agenda 21 Agenda 21, the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development, is a comprehensive programme of action to be achieved by governments, development agencies, United Nations organizations and independent sector groups in every area where human activity affects the environment. Agenda 21 was adopted by the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, the Earth Summit. Agenda 21 is the response to the UN General Assembly's call, in December 1989, for a global meeting to devise strategies to halt and reverse the effects of environment degradation 'in the context of increased national and international efforts to promote sustainable and environmentally sound development in all countries'. (Source: WRIGHT)
agens dat inwerkt op de oppervlakte surface-active agent A substance that, when used in small quantities, modifies the surface properties of liquids or solids. A surface-active agent reduces surface tension in a fluid or the interfacial tension between two immiscible fluids, such as oil and water. Surfactants are particularly useful in accomplishing the wetting or penetration of solids by aqueous liquids and serve in the manner of detergent, emulsifying, or dispersing agents. They are more effective than soap in certain situations and are used by conservators for such purposes as cleaning, wetting, and dispersing. (Source: PALIM)
agens met directe inducerende werking direct discharger Factories and industrial concerns which do not discharge their sewage directly into public sewers, but directly into a waterway. (Source: AZENP)
aggregaatonttrekking aggregate extraction Extraction of crushed rock or gravel screened to sizes for use in road surfaces, concretes, or bituminous mixes. (Source: KOREN)
agrarische beroepsbevolking working population engaged in agriculture The number of a particular region or nation's working population gainfully employed or otherwise occupied with the production of crops, livestock or poultry. (Source: RHW)
agrochemisch agrochemical Any substance or mixture of substances used or intended to be used for preventing, destroying, repelling, attracting, inhibiting, or controlling any insects, rodents, birds, nematodes, bacteria, fungi, weeds or other forms of plant, animal or microbial life regarded as pests. (Source: GILP96)
agro-industrie agroindustry Industry dealing with the supply, processing and distribution of farm products. (Source: PHC)
agrovoeding agri-foodstuff Industry dealing with the production, processing, and supply of agricultural food products. (Source: PHCa)
AIDS AIDS The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome is caused by HIV-virus manifested by opportunistic infections and/or malignancies, and the mortality rate is very high. The syndrome results from a breakdown of the body's disease-fighting mechanism that leaves it defenceless against infections, such as pulmonary tuberculosis, Pneumocystis pneumonia, certain blood infections, candidiasis, invasive cervical cancer, Kaposi's sarcoma or any of over 20 other indicator diseases. No effective treatment is available. A striking feature of AIDS is the wide spectrum and frequency of infections with life-threatening pathogens seldom seen in normal hosts. The illness may begin with insidious signs and symptoms, and the process may be more diffuse than when the same conditions are seen in other immune-compromised patients. Four patterns of disease occur in AIDS patients. The pulmonary pattern, the central nervous system pattern, the gastrointestinal pattern, and the pattern of fever of unknown origin. Most patients who recover from a given opportunistic infection subsequently either have a relapse or develop a new type of infection. Many patients continue to have a wasting syndrome and experience such infections as oral thrush. Feelings of depression and isolation are common among AIDS patients and can be intensified if health care workers display fear of the syndrome. (Source: WPR)
akker field A limited area of land with grass or crops growing on it, which is usually surrounded by fences or closely planted bushes when it is part of a farm. (Source: CAMB)
akkerbouw arable farming Growing crops as opposed to dairy farming, cattle farming, etc. (Source: PHC)
akten act 1) Something done voluntarily by a person, and of such a nature that certain legal consequences attach to it.2) Documents, decrees, edicts, laws, judgments, etc. (Source: WESTS)
alarm alarm Signalling an impending danger in order to call attention to some event or condition. (Source: CED / AMHER)
alarmsysteem warning system Any series of procedures and devices designed to detect sudden or potential threats to persons, property or the environment, often utilizing radar technology. (Source: RHW)
alcohol alcohol A group of organic chemical compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. The molecules in the series vary in chain length and are composed of a hydrocarbon plus a hydroxyl group. Alcohol includes methanol and ethanol. (Source: EIADOE)
alcoholbenzine gasohol A mixture of 80% or 90% petrol with 20% or 10% ethyl alcohol, for use as a fuel in internal combustion engines. (Source: CED)
alcoholbrandstof fuel alcohol Alternative source of energy for motor vehicles. It is produced by fermentation of sugar cane by the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (Source: DICCHE)
alfastraling alpha radiation A stream of alpha particles which are ejected from many radioactive substances having a penetrating power of a few cm in air but can be stopped by a thin piece of paper. (Source: MGH / PITT)
algemeen general
algemeen onderwijs general education Informal learning or formal instruction with broad application to human existence beyond the domain of any particular subject or discipline, often equated with liberal arts in the university setting and contrasted to courses required for a specific major or program. (Source: ISEP / COE)
algemene administratieve opdracht general administrative order An administrative mandate outlining the process by which a concept, plan, decree or law is to be put into actual practice by a specific organization or government agency. (Source: DAM)
algemene scheikunde general chemistry The study of the elements and the compounds they form. (Source: DICCHE)
algemene termen general terms
algendodende stof algicide Any substance or chemical applied to kill or control algal growth. (Source: LANDY)
algengroei algal bloom Excessive and rapid growth of algae and other aquatic plants when they are stimulated to grow too quickly by pollution. It takes place when there are too many nutrients in the water and is aggravated when accompanied by a rise in temperature. Although the algae grow quickly they soon die because they have swallowed up all the water's nutrients. As they decompose they tend to rise to the surface and form a green slime. Algal bloom have increased because higher levels of nitrogen and phosphates from agricultural areas have leached from the fields into water courses. (Source: WRIGHT)
alicyclische samenstelling alicyclic compound Any substance composed of two or more unlike atoms held together by chemical bonds characterized by straight-chained, branched or cyclic properties. (Source: RHW)
alifatische koolwaterstof aliphatic hydrocarbon Hydrocarbons having an open chain of carbon atoms, whether normal or forked, saturated or unsaturated. (Source: MGH)
alifatische verbinding aliphatic compound Any organic compound of hydrogen and carbon characterized by a straight chain of the carbon atoms. (Source: MGH)
alkalische batterij alkaline battery A primary cell that uses an alkaline electrolyte, usually potassium hydroxide, and delivers about 1.5 volts at much higher current rates than the common carbon-zinc cell. Also known as alkaline-manganese cell. (Source: MGH)
alkalische bodem alkali land Any geomorphic area, often a level lake-like plain, with soil containing a high percentage of mineral salts, located especially in arid regions. (Source: MHD / RHW)
alkalische bodem alkali soil Soil that contains sufficient exchangeable sodium to interfere with water penetration and crop growth, either with or without appreciable quantities of soluble salts. (Source: LANDY)
alkeen alkane Paraffins. A homologous series of saturated hydrocarbons having the general formula CnH2n+2. Their systematic names end in -ane. They are chemically inert, stable, and flammable. The first four members of the series (methane, ethane, propane, butane) are gases at ordinary temperatures; the next eleven are liquids, and form the main constituents of paraffin oil; the higher members are solids. Paraffin waxs consists mainly of higher alkanes. (Source: UVAROV)
alkyl-verbinding alkyl compound Compound containing one or more alkyl radicals. (Source: MGH)
allergeen allergen Any antigen, such as pollen, a drug, or food, that induces an allergic state in humans or animals. (Source: MGH)
allergie allergy A condition of abnormal sensitivity in certain individuals to contact with substances such as proteins, pollens, bacteria, and certain foods. This contact may result in exaggerated physiologic responses such as hay fever, asthma, and in severe enough situations, anaphylactic shock. (Source: KOREN)
allernieuwst state of the art Everything made available to the public by means of a written or oral description, by use or in any other way before the date of the patent application, or an application filed in a foreign country the priority of which is validly claimed. (Source: ECHO1)
alluviale vlakte alluvial plain A level or gently sloping tract or a slightly undulating land surface produced by extensive deposition of alluvium, usually adjacent to a river that periodically overflows its banks; it may be situated on a flood plain, a delta, or an alluvial fan. (Source: BJGEO)
alluvium alluvion An overflowing; an inundation or flood, especially when the water is charged with much suspended material. (Source: BJGEO)
alternatief materiaal alternative material Materials employed in the place of others which are more dangerous for the environment, such as phosphate substitutes in detergents. (Source: RRDA)
alternatieve technologie alternative technology Technology that, as an alternative to resource-intensive and wasteful industry, aims to utilize resources sparingly, with minimum damage to the environment, at affordable cost and with a possible degree of control over the processes. (Source: GUNN)
aluminium aluminium A light white metal, ductile and malleable, and a good conductor of electricity. It occurs widely in nature in clays and is the third most abundant element in the Earth's crust. It is extracted mainly from bauxite by electrolysis of a molten mixture of purified bauxite and cryolite. The metal and its alloys are used for aircraft, cooking utensils, electrical apparatus, and for many other purposes where its light weight is an advantage. Aluminium became implicated as an environmental health hazard in the 1980s on two counts. Biomedical scientists looking for possible causes of Alzheimer's disease, the premature senility indicated by loss of memory and confusion, found a circumstantial link with aluminium. The theory is a controversial one. (Source: UVAROV / WRIGHT)
aluminiumgehalte aluminium content Amount of aluminium contained in a solution. (Source: MGH)
aluminiumnijverheid aluminium industry A sector of the economy in which an aggregate of commercial enterprises is engaged in the mining and processing of aluminum. (Source: ENC)
aluminiumtrioxide alumina A natural or synthetic oxide of aluminum widely distributed in nature, often found as a constituent part of clays, feldspars, micas and other minerals, and as a major component of bauxite. (Source: RHW / INP)
alveole [longblaasje] alveolus A tiny, thin-walled, capillary-rich sac in the lungs where the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide takes place. Also called air sac. (Source: AMHER)
amalgaam amalgam A solution of a metal in mercury. (Source: ALL)
ambacht craft An occupation or trade requiring manual dexterity or skilled artistry. (Source: AMHER)
ambachtelijke nijverheid handicraft business The profession, commercial firm or trade involving the production and distribution of articles that are made through the skilled use of one's hands. (Source: RHW)
ambtsbezigheid official duty
Ames-test Ames test A bioassay developed by Bruce N. Ames in 1974, performed on bacteria to assess the capability of environmental chemicals to cause mutations. (Source: BIOTGL / KORENa)
amfibieën amphibian A class of vertebrate animals characterized by a moist, glandular skin, gills at some stage of development, and no amnion during the embryonic stage. (Source: MGH)
amine amine One of a class of organic compounds which can be considered to be derived from ammonia by replacement of one or more hydrogens by organic radicals. (Source: MGH)
aminozuur amino acid Organic compounds containing a carboxyl group (-COOH) and an amino group (-NH2). About 30 amino acids are known. They are fundamental constituents of living matter because protein molecules are made up of many amino acid molecules combined together. Amino acids are synthesized by green plants and some bacteria, but some (arginine, histidine, lysine. threonine, methionine, isoleucine, leucine, valine, phenylalanine, tryptophane) cannot be synthesized by animals and therefore are essential constituents of their diet. Proteins from specific plants may lack certain amino acids, so a vegetarian diet must include a wide range of plant products. (Source: ALL)
ammoniak ammonia A colorless gaseous alkaline compound that is very soluble in water, has a characteristic pungent odour, is lighter than air, and is formed as a result of the decomposition of most nitrogenous organic material. (Source: MGH)
ammonificatie ammonification Addition of ammonia or ammonia compounds, especially to the soil. (Source: MGH)
ammonium ammonium The radical NH4+. (Source: MGH)
anaërobe behandeling anaerobic treatment Breakdown of organic material without the presence of oxygen, a treatment which permanently removes the unpleasant odour of many organic wastes so that they can be used on agricultural land. (Source: PHC)
anaërobe proces anaerobic process A process from which air or oxygen not in chemical combination is excluded. (Source: MGH)
anaërobe voorwaarden anaerobic condition A mode of life carried on in the absence of molecular oxygen. (Source: MGH)
analyse analysis Examination or determination. (Source: RRDA)
analyse van de natuurlijke risico's natural risk analysis Analysis of the probability of occurrence, within a specific period of time in a given area, of a potentially damaging phenomenon of nature. (Source: GUNN)
analyse verontreinigende stoffen pollutant analysis The determination of the composition of any substance that causes pollution, using classical laboratory techniques and other methods involving analytical chemistry. (Source: APD)
analysemethode analytical method
analyseprogramma analysis programme
analyseren assay Qualitative or quantitative determination of the components of a material, such as an ore or a drug. (Source: MGH)
analytische apparatuur analytical equipment Equipment employed in analytical techniques. (Source: RRDA)
analytische scheikunde analytical chemistry The branch of chemistry dealing with techniques which yield any type of information about chemical systems. (Source: MGH)
Anatidae swans, geese and ducks A family of waterfowl, including ducks, gees, mergansers, pochards and swans, in the order Anseriformes. (Source: MGH)
anatomie anatomy The science concerned with the physical structure of animals and plants. (Source: CED)
anion anion An ion that is negatively charged. (Source: MGH)
anorganisch afval mineral waste Waste material resulting from ore extraction that is usually left on the soil surface. (Source: GREMES)
anorganische chemie inorganic chemistry A branch of chemistry dealing with the chemical reactions and properties of all inorganic matter. (Source: LEE)
anorganische conditioneerder mineral conditioner Any naturally occurring inorganic substances with a definite chemical composition and usually of crystalline structure, such as rocks, which are used to stabilize soil, improving its resistance to erosion, texture and permeability. (Source: RHW / SOI)
anorganische meststof inorganic fertiliser Inorganic chemical which promotes plant growth by enhancing the supply of essential nutrients such as ammonium sulphate or lime. (Source: PORT)
anorganische stof mineral matter Inorganic materials having a distinct chemical composition, characteristic crystalline structure, colour, and hardness. (Source: DUNSTE)
anorganische stoffen inorganic substance Chemical compounds that do not contain carbon as the principal element (excepting carbonates, cyanides, and cyanates), that is, matter other than plant or animal. (Source: MGH)
anorganische vervuiler inorganic pollutant A pollutant of mineral origin and not of basically carbon structure. (Source: ERG)
anorganische vervuiling mineral pollution Pollution deriving from all classes of mining operations and having an adverse effect on aquatic life, water supplies and the recreational use of waters. (Source: GILP96a)
antagonisme antagonism The situation in which two chemicals upon interaction interfere in such a way that the action of one partially or completely inhibits the effects of the other. (Source: KOREN)
antagonistisch effect van giftige stoffen antagonistic effect of toxic substances
Antarctica Antarctica A continent lying chiefly within the Antarctic Circle and asymmetrically centered on the South Pole: it consists of an ice-covered plateau (some 95 percent of Antarctica is covered by an icecap averaging 1,6 km in thickness), 1800-3000 m above sea level, and mountains ranges rising to 4500 m with some volcanic peaks; average temperatures all below freezing and human settlement is confined to research station. (Source: CED / AMHER)
Antarctisch ecosysteem Antarctic ecosystem
Antarctisch gebied Antarctic region An area within the Antarctic Circle that includes the fifth largest continent and its surrounding waters, consisting mostly of thick ice shelves. (Source: INP / CIA)
Antarctische Oceaan Antarctic Ocean The waters, including ice shelves, that surround the continent of Antarctica, which comprise the southernmost parts of the Pacific, Atlantic and Indian oceans, and also the Ross, Amundsen, Bellingshausen and Weddell seas. (Source: RHW / CIA)
anthropologisch reservaat anthropologic reserve Area of protection of the life style of societies where traditional human activities are still maintained and the exploitation of natural resources is still carried out without compromising the future availability. (Source: RRDA)
antibiotica antibiotic A chemical substance, produced by microorganisms and synthetically, that has the capacity to inhibit the growth of, and even to destroy, bacteria and other microorganisms. (Source: MGH)
anti-blokkeringsmiddel antifouling agent Agent that inhibits the growth of barnacles and other marine organisms on a ship's bottom (an antifouling paint or other coating). Organo-tin compounds have been the most often used agents in this application since they are effective against both soft and hard fouling organisms. However, in spite of their performance, they have a negative impact on the marine environment and their long half life in the environment, has prompted marine paint manufacturers to look for a nonpersistent alternative. (Source: CED / OLIN)
anticorrosiemiddel corrosion inhibitor A chemical agent which slows down or prohibits a corrosion reaction. (Source: LEE)
antilichaam antibody A complex protein that is produced in response to the introduction of a specific antigen into an animal. Antibodies belong to a class of proteins called immunoglobins, which are formed by plasma cells in the blood as a defence mechanism against invasion by parasites, notably bacteria and viruses, either by killing them or rendering them harmless. (Source: ALL2)
antiseismische regelgeving antiseismic regulation Rules for minimizing or containing the risks deriving from earthquakes. (Source: MANCOS)
anti-vervuilingsaanmoediging antipollution incentive Financial reward or penalty used to incite action towards greater responsibility in reducing the presence of pollution or substances in the environment deemed harmful to human health or natural resources. (Source: ODE / TOE)
anti-vervuilingsvergoeding antipollution premium A prize or bonus given as an inducement or reward for efforts to reduce the presence of pollution or substances in the environment deemed harmful to human health or natural resources. (Source: ISEP / OED / TOE)
antropische activiteit anthropic activity Action resulting from or influenced by human activity or intervention. (Source: GRAHAW)
antropogene factor anthropogenic factor
apotheekafval pharmaceutical waste Discarded medicinal drugs and related products from pharmacies, hospitals, clinics, pharmaceutical manufacturers, etc. (Source: APD / EPW)
aquaduct aqueduct A channel for supplying water; often underground, but treated architecturally on high arches when crossing valleys or low ground. (Source: HARRIS)
arbeid labour One of the factors of production. It includes all the exertions - manual, physical or mental - by individuals, directed towards the production of wealth. (Source: GOOD)
arbeidsmarkt labour market
arbeidsomstandigheden working condition All existing circumstances affecting labor in the workplace, including job hours, physical aspects, legal rights and responsibilities. (Source: CIV)
arbeidsrecht labour law The branch of the legal system which lays down the rules governing employment relationships, trade union relations, and state intervention to provide protection against particular situations of need for citizens who are workers. (Source: NECTAR)
arbeidsveiligheid plant health care
arbeidsverhouding labour relations The dynamics or general state of the association between management and non-management employees in an enterprise, industry or nation, with special attention to the maintenance of agreements, collective bargaining and the status of unions. (Source: RHW)
arboretum arboretum Collection of trees from different parts of the world, grown for scientific study. (Source: PHC)
archeologie archaeology The scientific study of the material remains of the cultures of historical or prehistorical peoples. (Source: MGH)
archeologische vindplaats archaeological site Any location containing significant relics and artifacts of past culture. (Source: LANDY)
architectuur architecture The art and science of designing and building structures, or large groups of structures, in keeping with aesthetic and functional criteria. (Source: HARRIS)
Arctisch ecosysteem Arctic ecosystem
Arctisch gebied Arctic region The northernmost area of the earth, centered on the North Pole, that includes the Arctic Ocean, the northern reaches of Canada, Alaska, Russia, Norway and most of Greenland, Iceland and Svalbard. (Source: INP)
Arctische Oceaan Arctic Ocean The smallest and most poorly studied of the oceans on earth. It covers an area of 14 million square km that is divided by three submarine ridges, i.e. the Alpha Ridge, the Lomonosov Ridge, and an extension of the mid-Atlantic ridge. It is also nearly landlocked, coveredyear-round by pack ice, and the third of its area is continental shelf. (Source: OCEAN)
armoede poverty State in which the individual lacks the resources necessary for subsistence.
aromatische koolwaterstoffen aromatic hydrocarbon Hydrocarbons having an unsaturated ring containing alternating double and single bonds, especially containing a benzene ring. (Source: CED)
aromatische verbindingen aromatic compound Compounds characterized by the presence of at least one benzene ring. (Source: MGH)
arseen arsenic A toxic metalloid element, existing in several allotropic forms, that occurs principally in realgar and orpiment and as the free element. It is used in transistors, lead-based alloys, and high temperature brasses. (Source: CED)
Articulata Articulata Animals characterized by the repetition of similar segments (metameres), exhibited especially by arthropods, annelids, and vertebrates in early embryonic stages and in certain specialized adult structures. (Source: MGH)
arts doctor A person licensed to practise medicine. (Source: CED)
as ash The incombustible matter remaining after a substance has been incinerated. (Source: MGH)
asbest asbestos Generic name for a group of fibrous mineral silicates. It includes blue asbestos (crocidolite), white asbestos (chrysotile) and brown asbestos (amosite). After they are mined the asbestos fibres are separated from the rock and are spun into a cloth. When inhaled the fibres penetrate the lungs and the tissues of the bronchial tubes, resulting in asbestosis, a crippling lung disease. Asbestos also causes cancer of the lung and the gastro-intestinal tract, and mesothelioma, a malignant cancer of the inner lining of the chest. However, because it is a poor conductor of electricity and highly resistant to heat it has been widely used over the years in fire-fighting suits, and building and insulating materials. The fibrous form of several silicate minerals, at one time widely used for electrical and thermal insulation; the use of all forms of asbestos is now either banned or strictly controlled in many countries since it causes cancer. (Source: WRIGHT / ALL)
asbestcement asbestos cement A hardened mixture of asbestos fibers, Portland cement and water used in relatively thin slabs for shingles, wallboard and siding. (Source: WEBSTE)
asbestose asbestosis A non-malignant progressive, irreversible, lung disease, characterized by diffuse fibrosis, resulting from the inhalation of asbestos fibers. (Source: CONFER)
ASEAN ASEAN Association of Southeast Asian Nations. (Source: MIIS)
assimilatie assimilation Conversion of nutritive material to living tissue. (Source: KOREN)
associatie association A body of persons associated for the regulation of a common economic activity by means of a special organization. (Source: SHOOX / ZINZAN)
astronomie astronomy The science concerned with celestial bodies and the observation and interpretation of the radiation received in the vicinity of the earth from the component parts of the universe. (Source: MGH)
atlas atlas A bound collection of maps or charts, plates, engravings or tables illustrating any subject. (Source: CCL / RHW)
atmosfeer atmosphere The gaseous envelope surrounding the Earth in a several kilometers-thick layer. (Source: UVAROVa)
atmosfeer (lucht,klimaat) atmosphere (air, climate)
atmosferisch model atmospheric model A simulation, pattern or plan designed to demonstrate the structure or workings of the atmosphere surrounding any object, including the Earth. (Source: APD)
atmosferische aërosol atmospheric aerosol Particulate matter suspended in the air. The particulate matter may be in the form of dusts, fumes, or mist. Aerosols in the atmosphere are the form in which pollutants such as smoke are dispersed. (Source: LANDY / PHC)
atmosferische correctie atmospheric correction The removal from the remotely sensed data of the atmospheric effects caused by the scattering and absorption of sunlight by particles; the removal of these effects improves not only the quality of the observed earth surface imaging but also the accuracy of classification of the ground objects. (Source: YOUNG)
atmosferische deeltje atmospheric particulate A concentration of fine liquid or solid particles, such as dust, smoke, mist, fumes or smog, found in the atmosphere. (Source: TOE)
atmosferische inversie atmospheric inversion A temperature inversion in the atmosphere in which the temperature, instead of falling, increases with height above the ground. With the colder and heavier air below, there is no tendency to form upward currents and turbulence is suppressed. Inversions are often formed in the late afternoon when the radiation emitted from the ground exceeds that received from the sinking sun. Inversions are also caused by katabatic winds, that is cold winds flowing down the hillside into a valley, and by anticyclones. In inversion layers, both vertical and horizontal diffusion is inhibited and pollutants become trapped, sometimes for long periods. Low-level discharges of pollutants are more readily trapped by inversions than high level dischargers, hence the case for high stacks. Furthermore, high level discharges into an inversion tend to remain at a high level because of the absence of vertical mixing. (Source: GILP96)
atmosferische metingen atmospheric monitoring A practice of continuous atmospheric sampling by various levels of government or particular industries. (Source: MGH)
atmosferische natuurkunde atmospheric physics The study of the physical phenomena of the atmosphere. (Source: MGH)
atmosferische ozon atmospheric ozone A triatomic molecule of oxygen; a natural constituent of the atmosphere, with the highest concentrations in the ozone layer or stratosphere; it is found at a level between 15 and 30 km above the Earth, which prevents harmful ultraviolet B radiation, which causes skin cancer and threatens plant life, from reaching the ground. The fragile shield is being damaged by chemicals released on Earth. The main chemicals that are depleting stratospheric ozone are chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), which are used in refrigerators, aerosols and as cleaners in many industries and halons, which are used in fire extinguishers. The damage is caused when these chemicals release highly reactive forms of chlorine and bromine. (Source: GILP96 / WRIGHT)
atmosferische radioactieve neerslag atmospheric fallout The sedimentation of dust or fine particles from the atmosphere. (Source: LEE)
atmosferische scheikunde atmospheric chemistry The study of the production, transport, modification, and removal of atmospheric constituents in the troposphere and stratosphere. (Source: MGH)
atmosferische uitstoot atmospheric emission Suspended pollutants – solid particles, liquid aerosols, etc. – or toxic gases released into the atmosphere from a polluting source, or type of source. (Source: ISEP)
atmosferische vochtigheid atmospheric humidity A measurable quantity of the moisture content found in the earth's atmosphere. (Source: RHW)
atmosferische wetenschappen atmospheric science The atmospheric sciences study the dynamics, physics and chemistry of atmospheric phenomena and processes, including the interactions of the atmosphere with soil physics, hydrology and oceanic circulation. The research focuses on the following areas: turbulence and convection, atmospheric radiation and remote sensing, aerosol and cloud physics and chemistry, planetary atmospheres, air-sea interactions, climate, and statistical meteorology. (Source: ATS)
atrazine atrazine Herbicide belonging to the triazine group, widely employed and particularly in maize crops. It is highly toxic for phytoplancton and freshwater algae and, being highly soluble in water, it easily contaminates aquifers. (Source: RAMADE)
audiovisueel materiaal audiovisual equipment Equipment designed to aid in learning and teaching by making use of both hearing and sight. (Source: WEBSTE)
audiovisuele media audiovisual media Any means of communication transmitted to both the sense of hearing and the sense of sight, especially technologies directed to large audiences. (Source: RHW)
audiovisuele voordracht audio-visual presentation An exhibition, performance, demonstration or lecture utilizing communication media directed at both the sense of sight and the sense of hearing. (Source: RHW)
autoband car tyre A rubber ring placed over the rim of a wheel of a road vehicle to provide traction and reduce road shocks, especially a hollow inflated ring consisting of a reinforced outer casing enclosing an inner tube. (Source: CED)
autobus bus A large, long-bodied motor vehicle equipped with seating for passengers, usually operating as part of a scheduled service.
autoclaaf digester Machine which takes refuse and produces gas such as methane from it. (Source: PHC)
auto-ecologie autoecology That part of ecology which deals with individual species and their reactions to environmental factors. (Source: UNUN)
autoindustrie vehicle manufacturing industry A sector of the economy in which an aggregate of commercial enterprises is engaged in the manufacture and sale of equipment that conveys people, goods or materials by land, air or water. (Source: SIC)
auto-industrie automobile industry
automatische herkenning automatic detection The processing, discovery and identification of data elements by automated means. (Source: RHW)
autoweg motorway A wide road built for fast moving traffic travelling long distances, with a limited number of points at which drivers can enter and leave it. (Source: CAMB)
autowrak scrap vehicle Car which is delivered for breaking up or otherwise discarded.
avicultuur aviculture The raising, keeping, and care of birds. (Source: AMHER)
avifauna avifauna All the birds in a particular region. (Source: CED)
Azië Asia The world's largest continent. It occupies the eastern part of the Eurasian landmass and its adjacent islands and is separated from Europe by the Ural Mountains. Asia borders on the Arctic Ocean, the Pacific Ocean, the Indian Ocean, and the Mediterranean and Red Seas in the west. It includes the largest peninsulas of Asia Minor, India, Arabia, and Indochina and the island groups of Japan, Indonesia, the Philippines, and Ceylon; contains the mountain ranges of the Hindu Kush, Himalayas, Pamirs, Tian Shan, Urals, and Caucasus, the great plateaus of India, Iran and Tibet, vast plains and deserts, and the valleys of many large rivers including the Mekong, Irrawaddy, Indus, Ganges, Tigris and Euphrates. (Source: AMHER / CED)
baai bay An open, curving indentation made by the sea or a lake into a coastline. (Source: WHIT)
baai gulf An inlet of the sea of large areal proportions, more indented than a bay and generally more enclosed. (Source: WHIT)
bactericide bactericide An agent that destroys bacteria. (Source: LBC)
bacteriën bacterium Group of single-cell micro-organisms, the smallest of the living organisms. Some are vital to sustain life, while others are responsible for causing highly dangerous human diseases, such as anthrax, tetanus and tuberculosis. Bacteria are found everywhere, in the soil, water and air. (Source: MGH / WRIGHT)
bacteriologie bacteriology The science and study of bacteria. (Source: MGH)
bacteriologische verontreiniging bacteriological pollution Contamination of water, soil and air with pathogen bacteria. (Source: RRDA)
badplaats (aan zee) seaside resort A place near the sea where people spend their holidays and enjoy themselves. (Source: CAMB)
baggeren dredging Removing solid matter from the bottom of a water area. (Source: MGH)
baggermateriaal dredged material Unconsolidated material removed from rivers, streams, and shallow seas with machines such as the bucket-ladder dredge, dragline dredge, or suction dredge.
bakoven oven An enclosed heated compartment usually lined with a refractory material used for drying substances, firing ceramics, heat-treating, etc. (Source: CED)
baksteen brick A building material usually made from clay, molded as a rectangular block, and baked or burned in a kiln. (Source: MGH)
balans [economisch] balance (economic) An equality between the sums total of the two sides of an account, or the excess on either side. (Source: WESTS)
band tyre A rubber ring placed over the rim of a wheel of a road vehicle to provide traction and reduce road shocks. (Source: CED)
bank bank (land) The sloping side of any hollow in the ground, especially when bordering a river. (Source: CED)
bankbescherming bank protection Engineering work which aims at the protection of banks of a river, or slopes of embankments along it, from erosion by the current of flow, from floods, etc. (Source: ECHO1a)
bankwezen [geld] banking Transactional business between any bank, an institution for safeguarding, exchanging, receiving and lending money, and that bank's clients or customers. (Source: OED / RHW)
barium barium A soft silvery-white metallic element of the alkaline earth group. It is used in bearing alloys and compounds are used as pigments. (Source: CED)
barrièrerif barrier reef An elongated accumulation of coral lying at low-tide level parallel to the coast but separated from it by a wide and deep lagoon or strait. The coral is thought to have formed initially on a flat surface: then as the sea-level rose in post-glacial times, thereby submerging the irregular wave-cut platform, the coral growth kept pace with the rising ocean level, so creating the great thickness witnessed today in such places as the Great Barrier Reef off the East coast of Queensland, Australia. This stretches for more than 1900 km and varies in width from about 30 km to 150 km. (Source: WHIT)
base [chemische stof] base (chemical) Any chemical species, ionic or molecular, capable of accepting or receiving a proton (hydrogen ion) from another substance; the other substance acts as an acid in giving of the proton; the other ion is a base. (Source: MGH)
basiciteit basicity The state of a solution of containing an excess of hydroxyl ions. (Source: RRDA)
basidiomycete basidiomycete
basisbeginsel subsidiary principle The fundamental doctrine or tenet that policy making decisions should be made at the most decentralized level, in which a centralized governing body would not take action unless it it is more effective than action taken at a lower government level. (Source: ODE)
basisbehoefte aan voedsel basic food requirement The minimum nutriments deemed necessary for a person of a particular age, gender, physiological condition and activity level to sustain life, health and growth. (Source: PAJ)
basisvoeding staple food The most commonly or regularly eaten food in a country or community and which forms the mainstay of the total calorie supply, especially in the poorer populations and at times of food shortage. (Source: GUNN)
batterij battery A series of cells, each containing the essentials for producing voltaic electricity, connected together. (Source: CEDa)
batterijverwerking battery disposal
bebouwde kom built-up area Area which is full of houses, shops, offices and other buildings, with very little open space. (Source: PHC)
bebouwde omgeving built environment That part of the physical surroundings which are people-made or people-organized, such as buildings and other major structures, roads, bridges and the like, down to lesser objects such as traffic lights, telephone and pillar boxes. (Source: GOOD)
bedektbloemige planten cryptogam A large group of plants, comprising the Thallophyta, Bryophyta and Pteridophyta, the last of which are cryptogams. (Source: ALL)
bedektzadigen angiosperm The class of seed plants that includes all the flowering plants, characterized by the possession of flowers. The ovules, which become seeds after fertilization, are enclosed in ovaries. The xylem contains true vessels. The angiospermae are divided into two subclasses: Monocotyledoneae and Dycotiledoneae. (Source: ALL)
bederfwerend middel preservative A chemical added to foodstuffs to prevent oxidation, fermentation or other deterioration, usually by inhibiting the growth of bacteria. (Source: MGH)
bedreigde diersoorten endangered animal species Animals, birds, fish or other living organisms threatened with extinction by natural or human-induced changes in their environment. (Source: TOE)
bedreigde plantensoorten endangered plant species The plants threatened with extinction by human or natural changes in the environment. (Source: KOREN)
bedreigde soorten category of endangered species Those of the planet's flora and fauna which are threatened with extinction. Hunting and poaching to fuel the trade in ivory, horn, skins, fur and feathers have long been a threat to already endangered species. Pollution, agricultural expansion, loss of wetlands, deforestation and other erosion of habitats have been added to the hazards. Human activity was responsible for most of the animals and plants known to have been lost in the past two centuries. (Source: WRIGHT)
bedreigde soorten endangered species (IUCN) One of the three degrees of 'rarity' drawn up by the International Union for the Conservation of Natural Resources. All plants and animals in these categories need special protection. Endangered species are those species in danger of extinction unless steps are taken to change the cause of threat and decline. (Source: BRACK)
bedreiging van water water endangering Can be caused by a variety of means, e.g. farm pollution from animal wastes and silage liquor (liquors from green leaf cattle food which has had molasses added to promote fermentation and preservation; they are highly polluting and can be a seasonal cause of fish deaths in small streams), leachate from landfill sites, and spoil heaps, solvent discharge to sewers or to land and inadequate sewage treatment works. (Source: PORT)
bedrijfsclassificatie business classification The categorization of enterprises or organizations involved in an economy. (Source: ISEP)
bedrijfseconomie business economics The art of purchasing and selling goods from an economics perspective or a perspective involving the scientific study of the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services. (Source: RHW)
bedrijfsgeneeskunde occupational medicine The branch of medicine which deals with the relationship of humans to their occupations, for the purpose of the prevention of disease and injury and the promotion of optimal health, productivity, and social adjustment. (Source: MGH)
bedrijfsgezondheid occupational health An area of statutory duty imposed on employers and employees in most countries, for the protection of the workforce from occupational diseases and stresses and physical hazards through adequate planning, ventilation, lighting, safeguards, safety and emergency procedures, routine inspections, monitoring, personal protection, etc. (Source: GILP96)
bedrijfsgezondheidszorg occupational health care
bedrijfsgrootte size of business
bedrijfslawaai commercial noise Noise emitted from commercial activities.
bedrijfsongeluk work accident Accident occurring in the course of the employment and caused by inherent or related factors arising from the operation of materials of one's occupation. (Source: KOREN)
bedrijfsorganisatie business organisation A particular legal arrangement for owning a firm, the principal forms are sale trades, partnerships and companies/corporations; collective term for the system, function, process of planning, providing, coordinating, directing all efforts and resources in a business in order to achieve its goals.
bedrijfstak branch of activity A specialized division of a business or other organization. (Source: RRDA)
bedrijfstak craft industry
bedrijfsveiligheid occupational safety An area of statutory duty imposed on employers and employees in most countries, for the protection of the workforce from occupational disease and stresses and physical hazards through appropriate measures. (Source: GILP96)
bedrijfsveiligheidsvoorschrift occupational safety regulation Law enacted to reduce the incidence among workers of personal injuries, illnesses, and deaths resulting from employment. (Source: BLACKa)
bedrijfsvoertuig commercial vehicle Vehicle designed and equipped for the transportation of goods. (Source: RRDA)
bedwinging (kernindustrie) containment (nuclear industry) The reinforced steel or concrete vessel that encloses a nuclear reactor. It is designed to withstand minor explosions in the core, to keep radionuclides from escaping into the environment, and to be safe against terrorist attack. (Source: WRIGHT)
beëindiging van een dienstverband termination of employment The act or instrument by which the binding force of a contract is terminated, irrespective of whether the contract is carried out to the full extent contemplated or is broken off before complete execution. (Source: WESTS)
beek brook A small stream or rivulet, commonly swiftly flowing in rugged terrain, of lesser length and volume than a creek; especially a stream that issues directly from the ground, as from a spring or seep, or that is produced by heavy rainfall or melting snow. (Source: BJGEO)
beeldclassificatie image classification Processing techniques which apply quantitative methods to the values in a digital yield or remotely sensed scene to group pixels with similar digital number values into feature classes or categories. (Source: DYNAMO)
beeldclassificatie onder toezicht supervised image classification A graphical representation processing technique by which an analyst selects groups of pixels, determines their spectral response signature and trains a computer system to recognize pixels based on this spectral response pattern. (Source: TWS)
beeldclassificatie zonder toezicht unsupervised image classification Unsupervised classification is a kind of classification which takes place with minimum input from the operator; no training sample is available and subdivision of the feature space is achieved by identifying natural groupings of the measurement vectors. (Source: GEOG / YOUNG)
beeldopslag image registration The process of linking map coordinates to control points with known earth-surface coordinates. Related term: coordinate systems. (Source: FORUMT)
beeldpunt pixel A contraction of the words 'picture element'. The smallest unit of information in an image or raster map. Referred to as a resolution cell in an image or grid. (Source: JEFF)
beeldversterking image enhancement In remote sensing, the filtering of data and other processes to manipulate pixels to produce an image that accentuates features of interest or visual interpretation. (Source: DUNSTE)
beeldverwerking image processing The process of converting 'raw' remotely sensed data into a usable form through the application of various transformations such as supervised and unsupervised classification schemes. (Source: FORUMT)
beglazen glaze A coating of ice, generally clear and smooth but usually containing some air pockets, formed on exposed objects by the freezing of a film of supercooled water deposited by rain, drizzle, or fog, or possibly condensed from supercooled water vapour. (Source: MGH)
begrazing grazing The vegetation on pastures that is available for livestock to feed upon. (Source: CED)
begroting budget A balance sheet or statement of estimated receipts and expenditures. A plan for the coordination of resource and expenditures. The amount of money that is available for, required for, or assigned to a particular purpose. (Source: WESTS)
begrotingsbeleid budget policy The programmatic use of a government's spending and revenue-generating activities to influence the economy and achieve specific objectives. (Source: MGHME)
behandeling van gassen treatment of gases Gas is treated before it can be supplied to the marketplace. The extent to which gas needs to be processed will depend on its quality, the amount of associated impurities such as water, carbon dioxide and sulphur compounds, and the ultimate end-use for the gas. Common gaseous impurities found in natural gas are carbon dioxide and sulphur compounds. Both have an acidic reaction and are given the generic name 'acid gases'. These gases can be removed by a number of commercial processes, using either a physical or a chemical solvent. Physical solvent processes tend to be used where gas pressures are high and for gases with lower levels of propane and heavier hydrocarbons. (Source: SHELL)
beheer management Government, control, superintendence, physical or manual handling or guidance; act of managing by direction or regulation, or administration, as management of family, or of household, etc. (Source: BLACK)
beheer van (menselijke) vestigingen human settlement management
beheer van (natuurlijke) hulpbronnen resources management A conscious process of decision-making whereby natural and cultural resources are allocated over time and space to optimize the attainment of stated objectives of a society, within the framework of its technology, political and social institutions, and legal and administrative arrangements. An important objective is the conservation of resources, implying a close and integrated relationship between the ecological basis and the socio-economic system. (Source: GOOD)
beheer van aandelenkapitaal stock management The handling or controlling of accumulated materials or stored goods. (Source: ISEP / RHW)
beheer van de waterbronnen water resources management Measures and activities concerning the supply of water, the improvement of efficiency in its use, the reduction of losses and waste, water-saving practices to reduce costs and to slow the depletion of the water supply to ensure future water availability. (Source: EARTH1a)
beheer van de waterhoeveelheid water quantity management The administration or handling of the amount of available potable water. (Source: RHW)
beheer van een afwateringsgebied watershed management Use, regulation and treatment of water and land resources of a watershed to accomplish stated objectives. (Source: LANDY)
beheer van toeristische activiteiten touristic activity management The administration, promotion, organization and planning for the business or industry of providing information, transportation, entertainment, accommodations and other services to travelers or visitors. (Source: RHW)
beheersing van de woestijnvorming desertification control Remedial and preventive actions adopted against desertification include irrigation, planting of trees and grasses, the erection of fences to secure sand dunes, and a careful management of water resources. (Source: WRIGHT)
beheersing van het verkeerslawaai traffic noise control Traffic noise can be controlled by reduction at source, by fitting motor vehicles with silencers, by installing barriers which interrupt the direct path of sound or by insulating dwellings exposed to high noise levels, such as those related to motorways or airports. (Source: GRAHAWa)
beheersing van milieuverontreiniging pollution control Chemical and physical methods to lessen discharges of most pollutants; for carbon dioxide there is, at present, no economic or practical way to reduce the quantities discharged except by reduced fossil fuel usage. Most specific means for removing pollutants from emissions include flue-gas desulphurisation, fluidised combustion, catalytic converters and the redesign of equipment, such as furnace burners and car engines, to lessen the production of pollutants. (Source: BRACK)
beheersingsmaatregel control measure
beheersplan management plan A program of action designed to reach a given set of objectives. (Source: LANDY)
beheerste verbranding controlled burning The planned use of carefully controlled fire to accomplish predetermined management goals. The burn is set under a combination of weather, fuel moisture, soil moisture, and fuel arrangement conditions that allow the management objectives to be attained, and yet confine the fire to the planned area. (Source: DUNSTE)
beheerstechniek management technique systematic approach or method of performance for the accomplishment of administrative goals or tasks. (Source: RHW)
behoefte need The fact or an instance of feeling the lack of something. (Source: CED)
behoorlijk bestuur good management The competent, skillful and successful process of planning, leading and working toward the accomplishment or completion of goals, objectives and mission of an organization or institution. (Source: DAM)
behoud conservation
behoud van (natuurlijke) hulpbronnen resource conservation Reduction of overall resource consumption and utilization of recovered resources in order to avoid waste. (Source: KOREN)
behoud van in het wild levende planten en dieren wildlife conservation A series of measures required to maintain or restore the natural habitats and the populations of species of wild fauna and flora at a favourable status. (Source: ECHO1)
behoud van natuurlijke hulpbronnen natural resource conservation The management of living and non-living resources in such a way as to sustain the maximum benefit for present and future generations. (Source: GILP96)
bejaarde elderly person Someone who has reached the later stage of life or who has attained a specified age within that stage. (Source: RHW)
bekendmaking notice Factual information, advice or a written warning communicated to a person by an authorized source, often conveyed because of a legal or administrative rule requiring transmission of such information to all concerned parties. (Source: BLD)
bekendmaking van algemeen nut declaration of public utility Administrative Act giving the right to take private property for public use. (Source: BLACKa)
bekledingsmateriaal liner material A layer of synthetic or natural materials, on the sides of or beneath a landfill, landfill cell or surface impoundment, that restricts the downward or lateral escape of liquids carrying leachate into the surrounding environment. (Source: ERG / ISEP)
bekrachtiging homologation The approval given by the judge of certain acts and agreements for the purpose of rendering them more binding and executory. (Source: WESTS)
belang interest A sum paid or charged for the use of money or for borrowing money over a given time period. (Source: RHW)
belangenafweging balancing of interests Considering, weighing or counterbalancing the competing political or financial concerns of different parts of society, including industries, consumers, trade unions and other groups or organizations. (Source: OED / ISEP)
belangenconflict conflict of interests Clash between public interest and the private pecuniary interest of the individual concerned. A situation in which regard for one duty tends to lead to disregard of another. (Source: BLACK)
belangengroep interest group A group of people who share common traits, attitudes, beliefs or objectives and who have formed a formal organization to serve specific concerns of the membership. (Source: AUB)
belangengroep pressure group Any politically active group with a common set of values about resource use allocation. Pressure groups seek to influence decisions on resource use allocation in excess of their proportional representation in the planned-for populace by seeking preferential consideration for their resource use choices. (Source: LANDY)
belangrijk bestanddeel van het ecosysteem valued ecosystem component An appraised, evaluated or estimated element or ingredient of a biological community and its non-living environmental surroundings. (Source: TOE)
belasting tax An amount of money demanded by a government for its support or for specific facilities or services, most frequently levied upon income, property or sales. (Source: RHW)
belasting (heffen op) taxation The act or result of a government requiring money for its support or for specific facilities or services. (Source: RHW)
belastingbeleid taxation policy The use of government tax and spendingpolicies to achieve desired macroeconomic goals. Accordingly, they involve discretionary efforts to adjust governmental tax and spending to induce changes in economic incentives and, hence, to stabilize fluctuations in aggregate demand. (Source: INDEDU)
belastingstelsel tax system A co-ordinated body of methods or plan of procedures for levying compulsory charges for the purpose of raising revenue. (Source: ISEP / EFP)
belastingwet tax law A binding rule or body of rules prescribed by a government stipulating the sum of money and manner of collection it demands for governmental support, facilities and services, usually levied upon income, property, sales or other financial resources. (Source: RHW / BLD)
beleid policy
beleid inzake natuurbehoud nature conservation policy
beleid van de plaatselijke overheid local government policy Any course of action adopted and pursued by a ruling political authority or system, which determines the affairs for a city, town, county or regional area. (Source: RHW)
beleid voor radio-actief afval radioactive waste management The total supervision of the production, handling, processing, storage and transport of materials that contain radioactive nuclides and for which use, reuse or recovery are impractical. (Source: EIS / HMH)
beleid waarbij men wordt verplicht overschrijdingen van uitstootmaxima elders te compenseren offset policy (emissions trading) Policy whereby emissions from a proposed new or modified stationary source are balanced by reductions from existing sources to stabilise total emissions. (Source: EPAGLO)
beleidsinstrumenten policy instrument The method or mechanism used by government, political parties, business or individuals to achieve a desired effect, through legal or economic means. (Source: RHW)
beleidsintegratie policy integration The process of coordinating, harmonizing and unifying the goals and procedures of various offices or units of an organization. (Source: RHW)
beleidsplanning policy planning The process of making arrangements or preparations to facilitate any course of action that may be adopted and pursued by government, business or some other organization. (Source: RHW)
beleidsregel policy guideline
beluchting aeration Exposition to the action of air. (Source: MGH)
bemonstering milieuverontreiniging pollution monitoring The quantitative or qualitative measure of the presence, effect or level of any polluting substance in air, water or soil. (Source: GILP96)
benadering approach The way or means of entry or access. (Source: CEDa)
benzeen benzene A colorless, liquid, flammable, aromatic hydrocarbon used to manufacture styrene and phenol. Also known as benzol. (Source: MGH)
benzine petrol A fuel for internal combustion engines consisting essentially of volatile flammable liquid hydrocarbons; derived from crude petroleum by processes such as distillation reforming, polymerization, catalytic cracking, and alkilation. (Source: MGH)
benzinemotor gasoline engine An internal combustion engine that uses a mixture of air and gasoline vapour as a fuel. (Source: MGH)
benzopyreen benzopyrene A five-ring aromatic hydrocarbon found in coal tar, in cigarette smoke, and as a product of incomplete combustion. (Source: MGH)
beoordeling per sector sectoral assessment
bepaling van natuurlijk erfgoed natural heritage assessment Evaluation of the natural structures, resources and landscapes to ensure their careful management and preservation. (Source: GILP96a)
bepaling van vervuilende stoffen identification of pollutants The determination of the specific substance or substances that are causing pollution. (Source: RHW)
bepalingsmethode determination method Method employed in the assessment or in the evaluation of a quantity, a quality, a fact, an event, etc. (Source: ZINZANa)
bereidheid tot betalen willingness-to-pay
berekening calculation The act, process or result of calculating. (Source: CED)
berekeningsmethode calculation method
berg mountain A feature of the earth's surface that rises high above the base and has generally steep slopes and a relatively small summit area. Mountains are an important source of water, energy, minerals, forest and agricultural products, and recreation. They are storehouses of biological diversity and endangered species and an essential part of the global ecosystem. About 10% of the world's population depend on mountain resources and nearly half of these people are affected by the degradation of mountain watershed areas. (Source: MGH / WRIGHT)
bergbeheer mountain management
bergbescherming mountain protection
bergbos mountain forest An extensive area of woodland that is found at natural elevations usually higher than 2000 feet. (Source: RHW)
berggebied mountainous area Area characterized by conspicuous peaks, ridges, or mountain ranges. (Source: BJGEO)
berghut mountain refuge Any shelter or protection from distress or danger located in a predominantly mountainous area. (Source: RHW)
berging salvage The act, process, or business of rescuing vessels or their cargoes from loss at sea. (Source: CED)
bergketen mountain range A single, large mass consisting of a succession of mountains or narrowly spaced mountain ridges, with or without peaks, closely related in position, direction, formation, and age. (Source: BJGEO)
bergklimaat mountain climate Very generally, the climate of relatively high elevations; mountain climates are distinguished by the departure of their characteristics from those of surrounding lowlands, and the one common basis for this distinction is that of atmospheric rarefaction; aside from this, great variety is introduced by differences in latitude, elevation, and exposure to the sun; thus, there exists no single, clearly defined, mountain climate. Also known as highland climate. (Source: MGH)
bergsport mountaineering
beroep appeal Resort to a superior court to review the decision of an inferior court or administrative agency. (Source: BLACK)
beroep occupation
beroep in de gezondheidszorg health care profession
beroepsbevolking labour force
beroepsgroenteteelt market gardening The business of growing fruit and vegetables on a commercial scale. (Source: CED)
beroepsgroep occupational group A collection of people who earn their living by similar or identical means of work. (Source: RHW)
beroepsleven professional society A group of persons engaged in the same profession, business, trade or craft that is organized or formally structured to attain common ends. (Source: RHW)
beroepsopleiding vocational training A special training for a regular occupation or profession, especially, one for which one is specially suited or qualified.
beroepsprocedure appeal procedure Procedure through which it is possible to resort to a superior court to review the decision of an inferior court. (Source: BLACKa)
beroepsstatus occupational status
beroepsvisserij commercial fishery Such fisheries belong to one of two groups: one catching demersal (bottom-living) fish, e.g. cod, haddock, plaice, sole; the other catching pelagic (surface-living) fish, e.g. anchovy, tuna, herring. (Source: GOOD)
beroepsziekte occupational disease A functional or organic disease caused by factors arising from the operations or materials of an individual's industry, trade, or occupation. (Source: MGH)
beryllium beryllium A corrosion-resistant, toxic silvery-white metallic element that occurs chiefly in beryl and is used mainly in x-ray windows and in the manufacture of alloys. (Source: CED)
beschaving culture (society) The body of customary beliefs, social forms, and material traits constituting a distinct complex of tradition of a racial or social group. (Source: WEBSTE)
beschermd estuarium estuarine conservation area Estuarine area which has been reserved by legislation to protect part or all of the enclosed environment for conservation, scientific, educational and/or recreational purposes. (Source: ENVAUa)
beschermd gebied protected area Portions of land protected by special restrictions and laws for the conservation of the natural environment. They include large tracts of land set aside for the protection of wildlife and its habitat; areas of great natural beauty or unique interest; areas containing rare forms of plant and animal life; areas representing unusual geologic formation; places of historic and prehistoric interest; areas containing ecosystems of special importance for scientific investigation and study; and areas which safeguard the needs of the biosphere. (Source: DODERO / WPR)
beschermd landschap landscape protection area Area where landscape is protected for its particular features in order to maintain its role in contributing to the wider enjoyment of the countryside. (Source: RRDA)
beschermd landschap protected landscape Natural or man-made areas which have been reserved for conservation, scientific, educational and/or recreational purposes. (Source: RRDA)
beschermd marien gebied protected marine zone Sea area where marine wildlife is protected. (Source: PHC)
beschermd stroomgebied water protection area Area surrounding a water recovery plant in which certain forms of soil utilization are restricted or prohibited in order to protect the groundwater. (Source: AZENP)
beschermd zeegebied marine conservation area Any section of a sea or ocean designated for special protection, often to prevent or reduce harm to its wildlife and ecosystems. (Source: RHW)
beschermde soorten protected species Threatened, vulnerable or endangered species which are protected from extinction by preventive measures. (Source: RAMADE)
bescherming protection The act of defending from trouble, harm, attack, etc. (Source: CED)
bescherming genetisch materiaal conservation of genetic resources Controlled utilization, protection and development of the gene pool of natural and cultivated organisms to ensure variety and variability and for current and potential value to human welfare. (Source: TOE / ISEP)
bescherming soorten conservation of species Controlled utilization, protection or development of selected classes of plants or animals for their richness, biodiversity and benefits to humanity. (Source: TOE / EEN)
bescherming tegen buren protection from neighbours
bescherming tegen lawaaihinder noise protection Adoption of measures for controlling noise pollution, such as restriction of the emission of noise from industrial, commercial and domestic premises, from motor vehicles and aircrafts, the provision of noise barriers and buffer zones, the fitting of sound attenuation equipment, etc. (Source: CONFERa / GILP96a)
bescherming tegen lawines avalanche protection The total of measures and devices implemented to protect people, property or natural resources from avalanche conditions, including avalanche forecasting and warning, avalanche zoning, ski testing and the use of explosives and other equipment to stabilize an avalanche area. (Source: ALL / AVA)
bescherming tegen overstroming flood protection Precautionary measures, equipment or structures implemented to guard or defend people, property and lands from an unusual accumulation of water above the ground. (Source: ALL / WWC)
bescherming van de aardoliebronnen conservation of petroleum resources Controlled utilization, protection and development of exploited and potentially exploitable sources of crude oil to meet current demand and ensure future requirements. (Source: MHE)
bescherming van de milieuhygiëne environmental health protection Measures or devices designed to reduce the risk of harm to human health posed by pollutants or other threatening conditions in the ecosystem. (Source: TOE)
bescherming van de zeerijkdommen marine resources conservation
bescherming van een stroomgebied water catchment protection Precautionary actions, procedures or installations undertaken to prevent or reduce harm to the environmental integrity of drainage areas used to catch water, such as reservoirs or basins. (Source: RHW)
bescherming van in het wild levende planten en dieren wildlife protection Precautionary actions, procedures or installations undertaken to prevent or reduce harm to animals, plants and other organisms living in their natural state. (Source: RHW)
bescherming van natuurgebieden natural areas protection Active management of nature areas in order to ensure that wildlife is protected and the quality of its environment is maintained. (Source: PHCa)
bescherming van zeewater sea water protection
beschermingsmaatregel protective measure Any precautionary action, procedure or installation conceived or undertaken to guard or defend from harm persons, property or the environment. (Source: RHW)
beschermingssysteem protection system A series of procedures and devices designed to preserve people, property or the environment from injury or harm. (Source: RHW)
beschikking decree A declaration of the court announcing the legal consequences of the facts found. (Source: BLACK)
beslaglegging sequestration 1) A legal term referring generally to the act of valuable property being taken into custody by an agent of the court and locked away for safekeeping, usually to prevent the property from being disposed of or abused before a dispute over its ownership can be resolved.2) The taking of someone's property, voluntarily (by deposit) or involuntarily (by seizure), by court officers or into the possession of a third party, awaiting the outcome of a trial in which ownership of that property is at issue. (Source: DUC / EMBMO)
beslaglegging op de winst seizure of profits The official or legally authorized act of taking away monetary gain or surplus resulting from investments or property or from returns, proceeds or revenue in a business or business transaction. (Source: RHW)
beslissing decision Means the exercise of agency authority at any stage of an undertaking where alterations might be made in the undertaking to modify its impact upon historic and cultural properties. (Source: LANDY)
beslissingsondersteunend systeem decision-support system A coordinated assemblage of people, devices or other resources that analyzes, typically, business data and presents it so that users can make business decisions more easily. (Source: WIC)
besluit resolution (act) A formal expression of the opinion of an official body or a public assembly, adopted by vote, as a legislative resolution. (Source: BLACK)
besluitvormingsondersteuning decision making support
besluitvormingsproces decision process
besmettelijke ziekte infectious disease Pathogenic condition resulting from invasion of an host by a pathogen that propagates causing infection. (Source: KOREN)
besmetting van gewassen infestation of crops Invasion of crop by parasites. Among vertebrate animals, many crop pests are mammals, especially in the order of rodents and birds. Among invertebrates, certain species of gastropods and a large number of roundworms from the class of nematodes harm crops. The most varied and numerous species of crop pests are arthropods-insects, arachnids and some species of millipedes and crustaceans. Diseases vary from viral, bacterial, and nutritional to fungal, environmental and non-specific. The FAO has estimated that annual worldwide losses done by plant pests and diseases amount to approximately 20-25% of the potential worldwide yield of food crops. (Source: RRDA / WPR)
besparing saving The amount of current income which is not spent for survival or enjoyment. (Source: MGHME)
bestaande chemicalieën existing chemical Chemical products existing before 18-09-1981. (Source: RRDA)
besteding expenditure Spending by consumers, investors, or government for goods or services. (Source: ISEP / ODE)
bestemming allocation The assignment or allotment of resources to various uses in accord with a stated goal or policy. (Source: ODE)
bestemmingsplan allocation plan The formulation and application of such measures as laws, economic plans, urbanism, etc., to ensure a balance between the population's needs and the country's resources. (Source: ECHO2)
bestraling irradiation To subject to or treat with light or other electromagnetic radiation or with beams of particles. (Source: CED)
bestrijding (van plagen) pest control Keeping down the number of pests by killing them or preventing them from attacking. (Source: PHC)
bestrijding van (milieu)verontreiniging pollution abatement The reduction in degree or intensity of pollution in soil, rivers, lakes, seas, atmosphere, etc. (Source: PHC / LANDY)
bestrijdingsmiddel pesticide A general term for chemical agents that are used in order to kill unwanted plants, animals pests or disease-causing fungi, and embracing insecticides, herbicides, fungicides, nematicides, etc. Some pesticides have had widespread disruptive effects among non-target species. (Source: ALL)
besturingsgegevens operating data Data referring to the practical carrying-out of a process. (Source: ZINZANa)
bestuur administration The management or direction of the affairs of a public or private office, business or organization. (Source: RHW)
bestuurlijke administratie management accounting The collection and processing of financial information to assist with the handling, direction, or control of an organization. (Source: ODE / RHW)
bestuurlijke goedkeuring administrative fiat An authoritative decree, sanction or order issued from an office with executive or managerial authority, without necessarily having the force of law or its equivalent. (Source: RHW / BLD)
bestuurlijke grens administrative boundary A limit or border of a geographic area under the jurisdiction of some governmental or managerial entity. (Source: RHW)
bestuursbevoegdheid administrative competence The skill, knowledge, qualification, capacity or authority to manage or direct the affairs of a public or private office, business or organization. (Source: RHW)
bestuurslichaam administrative body Any governmental agency or organization charged with managing and implementing regulations, laws and government policies. (Source: BLD)
bestuursovereenkomst management contract A legal agreement between two or more parties of employers and workers that outlines the administrative or supervisory work that is expected in exchange for certain payments and working conditions. (Source: ODE)
betaalbare huisvesting low-cost housing Residences built at minimal expense and designed to keep the rental rate or price of purchase affordable for persons with limited means, usually determined by an annual income level set below the local median. (Source: NAH)
bèta-straling beta radiation Name given to the ionizing radiation which is produced as a stream of high speed electrons emitted by certain types of radioactive substance when they decay. The intensity of radiation energy produced in human tissue by a beta particle is a hundred times less than that produced by an alpha radiation particle, but it travels slightly deeper into tissue. (Source: WRIGHT)
beton concrete A mixture of aggregate, water, and a binder, usually Portland cement; it hardens to stonelike condition when dry. (Source: MGH)
betonnijverheid concrete products industry
betrouwbaarheid reliability The likelihood that an instrument, device or process will function properly under defined conditions for a specified period of time. (Source: QAG)
beveiliging van gebouwen tegen seismische activiteit seismic engineering The study of the behavior of foundations and structures relative to seismic ground motion, and the attempt to mitigate the effect of earthquakes on structures. (Source: BJGEO)
beveiligingsstelsel safety system A unified, coordinated assemblage or plan of procedures and devices intended to lower the occurrence or risk of injury, loss and danger to persons, property or the environment. (Source: OED / RHW)
bevloeiing irrigation 1) To supply land with water so that crops and plants will grow or grow stronger. (Source: CAMB / WRIGHT)
bevloeiingskanaal irrigation canal A permanent irrigation conduit constructed to convey water from the source of supply to one or more farms. (Source: NALMS)
bevloeiingslandbouw irrigation farming Farming based on the artificial distribution and application of water to arable land to initiate and maintain plant growth. (Source: GOODa)
bevloeiingssysteem irrigation system A system of man-made channels for supplying water to land to allow plants to grow. (Source: PHC)
bevoegdheidsverklaring certification The formal assertion in writing of some fact. (Source: BLACK)
bevolking human population Group of individuals having common characteristics. (Source: ZINZAN)
bevolkingsdemografie population dynamics The process of numerical and structural change within populations resulting from births, deaths, and movements. (Source: LANDY)
bevolkingsdichtheid population density The number of people relative to the space occupied by them. (Source: GOOD)
bevolkingsgroei population growth An increase in the total number of inhabitants of a country, city, district or area. (Source: RHW)
bevolkingsontwikkeling population movement Any shift or migration of a statistically significant number of persons inhabiting a country, district or area. (Source: RHW)
bevolkingsspreiding population distribution The density, dispersal pattern and apportionment of the total number of persons in any area. (Source: RHW / EEN)
bevolkingsstructuur population structure The organization of, and inter-relationships among, inhabitants of a given region, country or city. (Source: RHW)
bevolkingstrend population trend The direction of change in the total number of persons inhabiting a country, city, district or area. (Source: RHW / WMA)
bevordering van de (volks)gezondheid sanitation The study and use of practical measures for the preservation of public health. (Source: CED)
bevordering van het zakenleven promotion of trade and industry Any activity that encourages or supports the buying, selling or exchanging of goods or services with other countries, which could include marketing, diplomatic pressure or the provision of export incentives such as credits and guarantees, government subsidies, training and consultation or advice. (Source: ODE)
beweeglijkheid door de ruimte spatial mobility The rate of moves or migrations made by a given population within a given time frame. (Source: CEN)
bewoner inhabitant A person occupying a region, town, house, country, etc.
bewustmakingscampagne public awareness campaign An organized, systematic effort through various communications media to alert the general population of a given area to anything of significant interest or concern. (Source: RHW)
bezinking sedimentation (industrial process) The separation of an insoluble solid from a liquid in which it is suspended by settling under the influence of gravity or centrifugation. (Source: MGH)
bezinking van afvalwater in een bekken lagooning The process in which sunlight, bacterial action and oxygen cause self-purification in waste water, Usually taking place in a shallow pond, or system of such ponds. (Source: TOEa)
bezinkingstank settling tank A tank into which a two-phase mixture is fed and the entrained solids settle by gravity during storage. (Source: MGH)
bezinkingsvijver stabilisation lagoon Ponds in which wastes are allowed to decompose over long periods of time and aeration is provided only by wind action. Sunlight is allowed to fall on sewage to purify it. (Source: PARCOR / PHC)
bezwaar objection The act of a party who objects to some matter or proceeding in the course of a trial or an argument or reason urged by him in support of his contention that the matter or proceeding objected to is improper or illegal. (Source: BLACK)
bibliografie bibliography A complete or selective listing of documents by a given subject, author or publisher, often including the description and identification of the editions, dates of issue, titles, authorship, publishers or other written materials. (Source: RHW / ISEP)
bibliografische informatie bibliographic information Data pertaining to the history, physical description, comparison, and classification of books and other works. (Source: RHW)
bibliografische informatiesysteem bibliographic information system A coordinated assemblage of people, devices or other resources organized for the exchange of data pertaining to the history, physical description, comparison, and classification of books and other works. (Source: RHW)
bibliotheek library Place where books and other literary materials are kept. (Source: CED)
bibliotheekdienst library service The duties of an establishment, or a public institution, charged with the care and organizing of a collection of printed and other materials, and the duty of interpreting such materials to meet the informational, cultural, educational, recreational or research needs of its clients. (Source: OED / LFS)
bijen bee Any of the membranous-winged insects which compose the superfamily Apoidea in the order Hymenoptera characterized by a hairy body and by sucking and chewing mouthparts. (Source: MGH)
bijenbescherming bee conservation The care, preservation and husbandry of hymenopterous insects valued for their ability to pollinate crops and other flora or for their production of honey. (Source: TOE / RHW)
bijenteelt apiculture Large-scale commercial beekeeping. (Source: MGH)
bijkomende lijsten accessory lists
bijvangst by-catch Incidental taking of non-commercial species in drift nets, trawling operations and long line fishing; it is responsible for the death of large marine animals and one factor in the threatened extinction of some species. (Source: WPR)
bijwerking side effect Any secondary effect, especially an undesirable one. (Source: CED)
bijwerkingen van geneesmiddelen side effects of pharmaceutical drugs
bijzonder afval special waste Waste which must be handled in a particular manner and for which particular rules apply.
bijzonder industrieel afval special industrial waste Discarded material produced in any industrial process for which there is no specified mode of disposal. (Source: INW)
bijzondere heffing exceptional tax Compulsory charges levied by a government unit in special or unique instances for the purpose of raising revenue to pay for services or improvements for the general public benefit. (Source: EFP / RHW)
bijzondere wet special law One relating to particular persons or things; one made for individual cases or for particular places or districts; one operating upon a selected class, rather than upon the public generally. A law is special when it is different from others of the same general kind or designed for a particular purpose, or limited in range or confined to a prescribed field of action or operation.
bilaterale overeenkomst bilateral convention An international agreement, especially one dealing with a specific matter, involving two or both sides, factions, or the like. (Source: RRDA)
binding van verontreinigende stoffen pollutant immobilisation The treatment process used to reduce the solubility of pollutants in order to minimize possible migration or leaching or to prepare for their disposal. (Source: FFD)
binnengrens sub-national boundary The line demarcating a territory located within the limits of a State. (Source: GOODa)
binnenlands beheersprogramma national conservation programme
binnenlandse handel domestic trade Trade wholly carried on at home; as distinguished from foreign commerce. (Source: WESTS)
binnenlandse migratie internal migration A population shift occurring within national or territorial boundaries, often characterized by persons seeking labor opportunities in more advantageous areas. (Source: ISEP)
binnenmilieu indoor environment Environment situated in the inside of a house or other building. (Source: CED)
binnenstad city centre The central part of a city. (Source: CAMB)
binnenstad inner city 1) Part of a city at or near the centre, especially a slum area where poor people live in bad housing.2) City centres of many industrialized countries which exhibit environmental degradation. The numerous and highly competitive activities entailing land use overwhelm the limited space and create a situation of overcrowding, functional incompatibility and cultural degradation. Inner city areas have a high level of commercial specialization, a large number of offices and a sizeable daytime population. At the same time, city centres generally remain a sort of ghetto for a permanent, low-income population living in run-down housing and enjoying little in the way of public services and civic amenities. The concentration of service industries inevitably entails the replacement of traditional housing and shops by office blocks, the provision of basic utilities at the expense of civic amenities and the provision of major access roads which eat up urban space. Structures of historic origin are often unable to meet modern requirements and, notwithstanding their value, frequently face demolition. (Source: PHC / WPR)
binnenvaart inland navigation The navigation of inland waterways, i.e. navigable rivers, canals, sounds, lakes, inlets, etc.
binnenvisserij inland fishery Fishing grounds located in lakes, streams, etc. (Source: RRDA)
binnenwater inland water A lake, river, or other body of water wholly within the boundaries of a state. (Source: MGH)
binnenwatervervoer inland waterways transport Transportation of persons and goods by boats travelling on rivers, channels or lakes. (Source: RRDA)
bio-accumulatie bioaccumulation 1) The accumulation of pollutants in living organisms by direct adsorption or through food chains. 2) Accumulation by an organism of materials that are not an essential component or nutrient of that organism. Usually it refers to the accumulation of metals, but it can apply to bioaccumulation of persistent synthetic substances such as organochlorine compounds. Many organisms, such as plants, fungi and bacteria, will accumulate metals when grown in solutions containing them. The process can be employed usefully as a purification process to remove toxic heavy metals from waste water and contaminated land. (Source: WRIGHT)
bio-accumulatieve verontreinigende stof bioaccumulative pollutant Pollutants that become concentrated in living organisms through the consumption of food or water. (Source: KORENa)
biobeschikbaarheid bio-availability The extent to which a drug or other substance is taken up by a specific tissue or organ after administration. (Source: ZINZAN / CEDa)
bioc(o)enose biocoenosis A community or natural assemblage of organisms; often used as an alternative to ecosystem but strictly is the fauna/flora association excluding physical aspects of the environment. (Source: LBC)
biochemie biochemistry The study of chemical substances occurring in living organisms and the reactions and methods for identifying these substances. (Source: MGH)
biochemische methode biochemical method Method based on the utilisation of a biochemical mechanism, e.g. any chemical reaction or series of reactions, usually enzyme catalysed, which produces a given physiological effect in a living organism. (Source: BIOHW)
biochemische processen biochemical process Chemical processes occurring in living organisms. (Source: PHCa)
biochemische stoffen biochemical substance Chemical substances that occur in animals, microorganisms, and plants. (Source: GILP96a)
biochemische zuurstofverbruik biochemical oxygen demand The amount of oxygen used for biochemical oxidation by a unit volume of water at a given temperature and for a given time. BOD is an index of the degree of organic pollution in water. (Source: LBC)
biocide biocide A diverse group of poisonous substance including preservatives, insecticides, disinfectants and pesticides used for the control of organisms that are harmful to human or animal health or that cause damage to natural or manufactured products. (Source: GRAHAW)
bioclimatologie bioclimatology The study of climate in relation to fauna and flora. (Source: LBC)
bioconcentratie factor bioconcentration factor The quotient of the concentration of a chemical in aquatic organisms at a specific time or during a discrete time period of exposure, divided by the concentration in the surrounding water at the same time or during the same period. (Source: KOREN)
biodiversiteit biodiversity 1) Genetic diversity: the variation between individuals and between populations within a species; species diversity: the different types of plants, animals and other life forms within a region; community or ecosystem diversity: the variety of habitats found within an area (grassland, marsh, and woodland for instance.2) An umbrella term to describe collectively the variety and variability of nature. It encompasses three basic levels of organisation in living systems: the genetic, species, and ecosystem levels. Plant and animal species are the most commonly recognized units of biological diversity, thus public concern has been mainly devoted to conserving species diversity. (Source: WRES / GILP96)
bio-ethiek bioethics The study of ethical problems arising from biological research and its applications in such fields as organ transplantation, genetic engineering, or artificial insemination. (Source: CED)
biofilter trickling filter A system of secondary sewage treatment which is similar to self-purification action of streams; it is more accurately a biological oxidizing bed; the effluent is placed on the stones in the bed and microorganisms present consume the solids as a food supply. (Source: KOREN)
biofiltratie biofiltration The distribution of settled sewage on a bed of inert granular material through which it is allowed to percolate. In doing so, the effluent is aerated thus allowing aerobic bacteria and fungi to reduce its biochemical oxygen demand. (Source: PORT)
biofysica biophysics The hybrid science involving the application of physical principles and methods to study and explain the structures of living organisms and the mechanics of life processes. (Source: MGH)
biogas biogas Gas, rich in methane, which is produced by the fermentation of animal dung, human sewage or crop residues in an air-tight container. It is used as a fuel, to heat stoves, lamps, run small machines and to generate electricity. The residues of biogas production are used as a low-grade organic fertilizer. Biogas fuels do not usually cause any pollution to the atmosphere, and because they come from renewable energy resources they have great potential for future use. (Source: WRIGHT)
biogeochemie biogeochemistry
biogeochemische cyclus biogeochemical cycle Movement of chemical elements in a circular pathway, from organisms to physical environment, back to organisms. The process is termed a nutrient cycle if the elements concerned are trace elements, which are essential to life. A biogeochemical cycle occurs when vegetation decomposes and minerals are incorporated naturally in the humus for future plant growth. (Source: WRIGHT)
biogeografie biogeography The science concerned with the geographical distribution of animal and plant life. (Source: MGH)
biogeografische gebieden biogeographical region Area of the Earth's surface defined by the species of fauna and flora it contains. (Source: ALL)
bio-indicator biological indicator A species or organism that is used to grade environmental quality or change. (Source: ALL)
biologie biology A division of the natural sciences concerned with the study of life and living organisms. (Source: MGH)
biologie biology
biologie in riviermonding estuarine biology The scientific study or the characteristic life processes of living organisms found in a semi-enclosed coastal body of water which has a free connection with the open sea and within which sea water is measurably diluted with freshwater. (Source: WOR / MHE / APD)
biologisch bosreservaat forest biological reserve Forest areas which are protected and guarded from deforestation because of the fragility of its ecosystems, and because they provide habitats for hundreds of species of plants and animals. (Source: TOURISa)
biologisch effect biological effect Biological effects include allergic reactions, respiratory disorders, hypersensitivity diseases and infectious diseases and can be caused by a variety of contaminants and pollutants. (Source: RRDA)
biologisch effect van vervuiling biological effect of pollution Effects of pollution on living systems. (Source: RRDA)
biologisch erfgoed biological heritage The inheritance and preservation of the earth's or a particular region's balanced, integrated functionality as a natural habitat, with special concern for the water resources necessary to maintain the ecosystem. (Source: TOE)
biologisch reserve biological reserve An area of land and/or of water designated as having protected status for purposes of preserving certain biological features. Reserves are managed primarily to safeguard these features and provide opportunities for research into the problems underlying the management of natural sites and of vegetation and animal populations. Regulations are normally imposed controlling public access and disturbance. (Source: GOOD)
biologische (hulp)bronnen biological resource Wild organisms harvested for subsistence, commerce, or recreation (such as fish, game, timber or furbearers); domesticated organisms raised by agriculture, aquaculture, and silviculture; and ecosystems cropped by livestock. (Source: WPR)
biologische activiteit biological activity
biologische afvalverwerking biological waste treatment A generic term applied to processes that use microorganisms to decompose organic wastes either into water, carbon dioxide, and simple inorganic substances, such as aldehydes and acids. The purpose of biological waste treatment is to control either the environment for microorganisms so that their growth and activity are enhanced, and to provide a means for maintaining high concentrations of the microorganisms in contact with the wastes.
biologische afvalwaterverwerking biological wastewater treatment Types of wastewater treatment in which biochemical or bacterial action is intensified to oxidize and stabilize the unstable organic matter present. Examples of this type of treatment use intermittent sand filters, trickling filters, and activated sludge processes and sludge digestion. (Source: WWC)
biologische analyse biological analysis The analysis of a substance in order to ascertain its influence on living organisms. (Source: PHCa)
biologische bestrijding biological pest control Any living organism applied to or introduced into the environment that is intended to function as a pesticide against another organism declared to be a pest. (Source: LEE)
biologische bodem(hulp)bronnen terrestrial biological resource Any source of supply derived from plants, animals or other wildlife inhabiting land or ground, which may be used by humans for food, clothes and other necessities. (Source: RHW)
biologische brandstof biofuel A gaseous, liquid, or solid fuel that contains an energy content derived from a biological source. The organic matter that makes up living organisms provides a potential source of trapped energy that is beginning to be exploited to supply the ever-increasing energy demand around the world. An example of a biofuel is rapeseed oil, which can be used in place of diesel fuel in modified engines. The methyl ester of this oil, rapeseed methyl ester (RME), can be used in unmodified diesel engines and is sometimes known as biodiesel. Other biofuels include biogas and gasohol. (Source: DICCHE)
biologische cyclus biological cycle A series of transformations or biological events which follow one after the other one, reaching at the end of the cycle the initial conditions, as in the life cycle of many animal and plant organisms. (Source: DELFIN)
biologische eigenschap biological attribute Properties or features belonging to living organisms. (Source: CEDa)
biologische landbouw organic farming Farming without the use of industrially made fertilizers or pesticides. (Source: ALL)
biologische ontwikkeling biological development The action of growing of living organisms. (Source: RRDA)
biologische processen biological process Processes concerning living organisms. (Source: CEDa)
biologische productie biological production 1) The amount and rate of production which occur in a given ecosystem over a given time period. It may apply to a single organism, a population, or entire communities and ecosystems.2) The quantity of organic matter or its equivalent in dry matter, carbon, or energy content which is accumulated during a given period of time. (Source: PARCOR / MGH)
biologische proef biological test The laboratory determination of the effects of substances upon specific living organisms. (Source: GILP96)
biologische stikstoffixatie biological nitrogen fixation
biologische verontreiniger biological pollutant Viruses, bacteria, fungi, and mammal and bird antigens that may be present in the environment and cause many health effects. (Source: KORENa)
biologische verontreiniging biological pollution Disturbance of the ecological balance by the accidental or deliberate introduction of a foreign organism, animal or plant species into an environment. (Source: WRIGHT)
biologische vervuiling biological contamination The presence in the environment of living organisms or agents derived by viruses, bacteria, fungi, and mammal and bird antigens that can cause many health effects. (Source: KORENa)
biologische verwerking biological treatment Process that uses microorganisms to decompose organic wastes either into water, carbon dioxide, and simple inorganic substances, or into simpler organic substances, such as aldehydes and acids. The purpose of a biological treatment system is to control the environment for microorganisms so that their growth and activity are enhanced, and provide a means for maintaining high concentration of the microorganisms in contact with the wastes. (Source: PARCOR)
biologische wapen biological weapon Living organisms (or infective material derived from them) which are intended to cause disease or death in animals, plants, or man, and which depend for their effects on their ability to multiply in the person, animal or plant attacked. Various living organisms (for example, rickettsiae, viruses and fungi), as well as bacteria, can be used as weapons. (Source: WPR)
biologische waterbalans biological water balance The amount of ingoing and outgoing water in a system, which are assumed to be equal in the long term so that the water budget will balance. (Source: ALL)
biologische zuivering van overtollig gas biological waste gas purification Processes for removing impurities from waste gas based on the employing of microorganisms. (Source: BIOTGLa)
bioluminiscentie bioluminescence The production of light of various colors by living organisms (e.g. some bacteria and fungi, glow-worms and many marine animals). Luminescence is produced by a biochemical reaction, which is catalyzed by an enzyme. In some animals the light is used as a mating signal; in others it may be a protective device. In deep-sea forms luminous organs may serve as lanterns. (Source: MGH)
biomarker biomarker A normal metabolite that, when present in abnormal concentrations in certain body fluids, can indicate the presence of a particular disease or toxicological condition. (Source: DICCHE)
biomassa biomass Biomass refers strictly speaking to the total weight of all the living things in an ecosystem. However, it has come to refer to the amount of plant and crop material that could be produced in an ecosystem for making biofuels and other raw materials used in industry, for example. (Source: WRIGHT)
biomassa-energie biomass energy A renewable energy source that makes use of such biofuels as methane (biogas) generated by sewage, farm, industrial, or household organic waste materials. Other biofuels include trees grown in so-called 'energy forests' or other plants, such as sugar cane, grown for their energy potential. Biomass energy relies on combustion and therefore produces carbon dioxide; its use would not, therefore, alleviate the greenhouse effect. (Source: UVAROV)
bio-monitoring biological monitoring The direct measurement of changes in the biological status of a habitat, based on evaluations of the number and distribution of individuals or species before and after a change. (Source: ALL)
bioreactor bioreactor A container, such as a large fermentation chamber, for growing living organisms that are used in the industrial production of substances such as pharmaceuticals, antibodies, or vaccines. (Source: PORT)
bioritme biorhythm A cyclically recurring pattern of physiological states in an organism or organ, such as alpha rhythm or circadian rhythm; believed by some to affect physical and mental states and behaviour. (Source: CED)
biosfeer biosphere That part of the Earth and atmosphere capable of supporting living organisms. (Source: LBC)
biosfeer(organismen,ecosystemen) biosphere (organisms, ecosystems)
biosynthese biosynthesis Production, by synthesis or degradation, of a chemical compound by a living organism. (Source: MGH)
biotechnologie biological engineering The application of engineering principles and techniques to living organisms. It is largely concerned with the design of replacement body parts, such as limbs, heart valves, etc. (Source: UVAROV)
biotechnologie biotechnology A combination of biology and technology. It is used to describe developments in the application of biological organisms for commercial and scientific purposes. So 'bio' stands for biology and the science of life, and 'tech' stands for technology, or the tools and techniques that the biotechnologists have in their workbox. Those tools and techniques include microorganisms and a range of methods for manipulating them, such as genetic engineering. (Source: WRIGHT)
biotechnologie in de landbouw agricultural biotechnology
biotechnologie met betrekking tot de gezondheid health-related biotechnology Health-related biotechnologies are concerned with large-molecule protein pharmaceuticals, genetic engineering, etc. (Source: BIOTAZ / DELFINa)
biotechnologisch gevaar biotechnological hazard A danger to humans, animals or the environment posed by the application of advanced biological techniques in the manufacture of industrial products, such as the risk or harm that results from exposure to infectious bacteria, viruses or fungi. (Source: APD / FFD)
biotische factor biotic factor The influence upon the environment of organisms owing to the presence and activities of other organisms, as distinct from a physical, abiotic, environmental factor. (Source: ALL2)
biotische index biotic index Scale for showing the quality of an environment by indicating the types of organisms present in it (e.g. how clean a river is). (Source: PHC)
biotoop biotope A region of relatively uniform environmental conditions, occupied by a given plant community and its associated animal community. (Source: PAENS)
biotoopbescherming biotope protection Measures taken to ensure that the biological and physical components of a biotope are in equilibrium by maintaining constant their relative numbers and features. (Source: GILP96a)
biotoopnetwerk biotope network Intersection of corridors connecting patchy ecological communities. Species survival tends to be higher in patches that have higher connectivity. (Source: PARCORa)
biotooporde biotope order An ordinance or decree regarding an area of ecological habitat that is characterized by a high degree of uniformity in its environmental conditions and in its distribution of plants and animals. (Source: DOE / OED)
bioveiligheid biosafety The combination of knowledge, techniques and equipment used to manage or contain potentially infectious materials or biohazards in the laboratory environment, to reduce or prevent harm to laboratory workers, other persons and the environment. (Source: BIOSAF / OHS)
bitumen bitumen A generic term applied to natural inflammable substances of variable colour, hardness, and volatility, composed principally of a mixture of hydrocarbons substantially free from oxygenated bodies. Bitumens are sometimes associated with mineral matter, the nonmineral constituents being fusible and largely soluble in carbon disulfide, yielding water-insoluble sulfonation products. Petroleum, asphalts, natural mineral waxes, and asphaltites are all considered bitumens. (Source: BJGEO)
blaasoven blast furnace A tall, cylindrical smelting furnace for reducing iron ore to pig iron; the blast of air blown through solid fuel increases the combustion rate. (Source: MGH)
blad leaf The main organ of photosynthesis and transpiration in higher plants, usually consisting of a flat green blade attached to the stem directly or by a stalk. (Source: CED)
bladverlies defoliation 1) The drop of foliage from plants caused by herbicides such as Agent Orange, diuron, triazines, all of which interfere with photosynthesis. The use of defoliants, as in Vietnam or in jungle clearance for agriculture, can permanently destroy tropical forests. Once the tree cover is removed, the soil is subjected to erosion and precious nutrients are rapidly leached away.2) Destroying (an area of jungle, forest, etc.) as by chemical sprays or incendiary bombs, in order to give enemy troops or guerilla forces no place of concealment. (Source: PORT / WEBSTE)
blauwwieren blue-green alga Microorganisms, formerly classified as algae but now regarded as bacteria, including nostoc, which contain a blue pigment in addition to chlorophyll. (Source: CED)
bleekaarde bleaching clay Clay capable of chemically adsorbing oils, insecticides, alkaloids, vitamins, carbohydrates and other materials; it is used for refining and decolorizing mineral and vegetable oils. (Source: WRES)
bleekmiddel bleaching agent 1) A chemical, such as an aromatic acyl peroxide or monoperoxiphthalic acid, used to bleach flour, fats, oils and other edibles. 2) An oxidizing or reducing chemical such as sodium hypochlorite, sulfur dioxide, sodium acid sulfite, or hydrogen peroxide. (Source: MGH)
bleekproces bleaching process 1) Removing colored components from a textile. Common bleaches are hydrogen peroxide, sodium hypochloride, and sodium chlorite. 2) The brightening and delignification of pulp by the addition of oxidizing chemicals such as chlorine or reducing chemicals such as sodium hypochloride. (Source: LEE)
bleekzucht chlorosis A disease condition of green plants seen as yellowing of green parts of the plants. (Source: MGH)
bloed blood (tissue) A fluid connective tissue consisting of the plasma and cells that circulate in the blood vessels. (Source: MGH)
bloem flower The reproductive structure of angiosperm plants, consisting of stamens and carpels surrounded by petals and sepals all borne on the receptacle. (Source: CED)
bloembollenteelt bulb cultivation The cultivation of flower bulb is divided into two sectors: for forcing (flower bulbs used by professional growers for the production of cut flowers and potted plants) and for dry sales (flower bulbs for garden planting, flower pots, landscaping and parks). (Source: BULB)
blootstelling exposure The time for which a material is illuminated or irradiated. (Source: PITT)
blootstelling aan een risico risk exposure The situation or set of circumstances where the probability of harm to an area or its population increases beyond a normal level. (Source: ISEP / HMD)
blootstelling aan straling radiation exposure The act or state of being subjected to electromagnetic energy strong enough to ionize atoms thereby posing a threat to human health or the environment. (Source: APD / MHD)
blootstelling aan verontreinigende stoffen pollutant exposure The act or state of being subjected to a substance that adversely affects human health, property or the environment. (Source: RHW / TOE)
bodem soil The top layer of the land surface of the earth that is composed of disintegrated rock particles, humus, water and air. (Source: CED)
bodem soil
bodemanalyse soil analysis The use of rapid chemical analyses to determine the fertility status of a soil. It is used to identify those nutrients or substances that are present in either insufficient or excessive quantities for optimum plant growth. Analyses are also used to monitor increases or decreases in soil fertility over time. (Source: PARCOR)
bodembehoud soil conservation Management of soil to prevent or reduce soil erosion and depletion by wind and water. Preservation of soil against deterioration and loss by using it within its capabilities; application of conservation practices needed for its protection and improvement. (Source: MGH / LANDY)
bodembehoudswetgeving soil conservation legislation A binding rule or body of rules prescribed by a government to protect and prevent the loss of an area's surface layer of decomposed rock and organic material, valued for its nutrients and ability to support life. (Source: DES)
bodembemesting soil fertilisation The application of any organic or inorganic material of natural or synthetic origins to a soil to supply one or more elements essential to the growth of plants. (Source: DUNSTE)
bodembewerking working the soil Ploughing the soil for agricultural purposes. (Source: PHCa)
bodembiologie soil biology The study of the living organisms, mainly microorganisms and microinvertebrates which live within the soil, and which are largely responsible for the decomposition processes vital to soil fertility. (Source: GILP96a)
bodemcapaciteit soil capability The suitability of soils for various uses, e.g. sustained production of cultivated crops, pasture plants, etc., depending on depth, texture, kinds of minerals, salinity, kinds of salts, acidity, etc. (Source: NHQa / PARCOR)
bodemchemie soil chemistry The study of the inorganic and organic components of the soil and its life cycles. (Source: MGH)
bodemdaling soil subsidence A sinking down of a part of the earth's crust, generally due to underground excavations. (Source: MGH)
bodemdegradatie soil degradation Soil may deteriorate either by physical movement of soil particles from a given site or by depletion of the water-soluble elements in the soil which contribute to the nourishment of crop, plants, grasses, trees, and other economically usable vegetation. The physical movement generally is referred to as erosion. Wind, water, glacial ice, animals and tools in use may be agents of erosion. (Source: GILP96)
bodemerosie soil erosion Detachment and movement of topsoil or soil material from the upper part of the profile, by the action of wind or running water, especially as a result of changes brought about by human activity, such as unsuitable or mismanaged agriculture. (Source: BJGEO)
bodemfunctie soil function The main soil function is participation in the material transformation and migrating processes occurring in the natural environment on which the functioning of ecosystems depends. The most active participants in the occurring processes are microorganisms and invertebrates, whose activity, different variety, complex structure, and abundance accurately reflect the soil type and its characteristics: so they are important indicators of ecological stability. The variety of soil organisms determine its self-regulatory and self-cleaning capacity. (Source: NERIS)
bodemgebruik soil use Functional utilization of soil for agriculture, industry, or residential building purposes. (Source: GREMES)
bodemgesteldheid soil condition Description of the character of the surface of the ground at the time of observation, especially in relation to the influence of rain and snow. (Source: ECHO2)
bodemkaart soil map A two-dimensional representation that shows the areal extent or the distribution of soils in relation to other features of the land surface. (Source: ALL)
bodemkunde edaphology The study of the relationships between soil and organisms, including the use made of land by mankind. (Source: WHIT)
bodemkunde soil science The study of the properties, occurrence, and management of soil as a natural resource. Generally it includes the chemistry, microbiology, physics, morphology, and mineralogy of soils, as well as their genesis and classification. (Source: MGH)
bodemkwaliteit soil quality All current positive or negative properties with regard to soil utilization and soil functions. (Source: ECHO1)
bodemlaag soil layer Distinctive successive layers of soil produced by internal redistribution processes. Conventionally the layers have been divided into A, B and C horizons. The A horizon is the upper layer, containing humus and is leached and/or eluviated of many minerals. The B horizon forms a zone of deposition and is enriched with clay minerals and iron/aluminium oxides from the A layer. The C layer is the parent material for the present soil and may be partially weathered rock, transported glacial or alluvial material or an earlier soil. (Source: ALL)
bodemlucht soil air The air and other gases in spaces in the soil; specifically that which is found within the zone of aeration. Also known as soil atmosphere. (Source: MGH)
bodemmechanica soil mechanics The study of the physical properties of soil, especially those properties that affect its ability to bear weight such as water content, density, strength, etc. (Source: CED)
bodemmineralogie soil mineralogy Study of the formation, occurrence, properties, composition, and classification of the minerals present in the soil. (Source: BJGEOa)
bodemorganisme soil organism Organisms which live in the soil. (Source: PHC)
bodemproces soil process The major processes in soils are gains, losses, transfers, and transformations of organic matter, soluble salts, carbonates, silicate clay minerals, sesquioxides, and silica. Gains consist normally of additions of organic matter, and of oxygen and water through oxidation and hydration, but in some sites slow continuous additions of new mineral materials take place at the surface or soluble materials are deposited from groundwater. Losses are chiefly of materials dissolved or suspended in water percolating through the profile or running off the surface. (Source: PARCOR)
bodemprofiel soil profile A vertical section of a soil, showing horizons and parent material. (Source: MGH)
bodemsanering soil decontamination Technologies employed in the removal of PCBs, PAH, pesticides and, more generally, of organic compounds by physical, chemical or biological treatments. (Source: EUROPAa)
bodemschatten soil resource
bodemschommelingen; trage bodemschommelingen bradyseism A long-continued, extremely slow vertical instability of the crust, as in the volcanic district west of Naples, Italy, where the Phlegraean bradyseism has involved up-and-down movements between 6 m below sea level and 6 m above over a period of more than 2.000 years. (Source: BJGEO)
bodemstabiliteit soil stability Soil stability depends on its shear strength, its compressibility and its tendency to absorb water. Stabilization methods include physical compaction and treatment with cement, lime, and bitumen. (Source: BJGEO)
bodemstructuur soil structure The combination or aggregation of primary soil particles into aggregates or clusters, which are separated from adjoining peds by surfaces of weakness. Soil structure is classified on the basis of size, shape, and distinctness into classes, types, and grades. (Source: BJGEO)
bodemtextuur soil texture 1) Refers to the relative proportions of the various size groups (sand, silt and clay) of the individual soil grains in a mass of soil. 2) Classification of soil by the proportion and graduations of the three size groups of soil grains, i.e., sand, silt and clay, present in the soil. (Source: LANDY)
bodemuitloging soil leaching The removal of water or any soluble constituents from the soil. Leaching often occurs with soil constituents such as nitrate fertilizers with the result that nitrates end up in potable waters. (Source: PORT)
bodemverdichting soil compaction An increase in bulk density (mass per unit volume) and a decrease in soil porosity resulting from applied loads, vibration, or pressure. More compacted soils (or other materials) can support greater loads (load-bearing capacity). Bulk density can be increased by controlling the moisture content, compaction forces and treatment procedures, as well as by manipulating the type of material being compacted. (Source: DUNSTE)
bodemverontreiniging soil pollution Modifications of soil features or, more generally, of its chemical and biological balance, caused by the discharge of polluting substances. (Source: FLGISA)
bodemvervuiler soil pollutant Solid, liquid and gaseous substances that detrimentally alter the natural condition of the soil.
bodemverzilting soil salination The accumulation of soluble mineral salts near the surface of soil, usually caused by the capillary flow of water from saline ground water. Where the rate of surface evaporation is high, irrigation can exacerbate the problem by moistening the soil and causing water to be drawn from deeper levels as water evaporates from the surface. The evaporation of pure water leaves the salts behind, allowing them to accumulate, and they can reach concentrations that are toxic to plants, thus sterilizing the land. (Source: ALL)
bodemverzuring soil acidification A naturally occurring process in humid climates that has long been the subject of research, whose findings suggest acid precipitation effects. The generally accepted impact of soil acidification on the productivity of terrestrial plants is summarised as follows: as soil becomes more acidic the basic cations (Ca, Mg) on the soil exchange are replaced by hydrogen ions or solubilized metals. The basic cation, now in solution, can be leached through the soil. As time progresses the soil becomes less fertile and more acidic. Resultant decreases in soil pH cause reduced, less-active population of soil microorganisms, which in turn slow decomposition of plant residues and cycling of essential plant nutrients. (Source: PARCOR)
bodemvocht soil moisture 1) Water stored in soils.2) One of the most important elements involved in pedological processes and plant growth. There are three basic forms: a) water adhering in thin films by molecular attraction to the surface of soil particles and not available for plants is termed hygroscopic water. b) Water forming thicker films and occupying the smaller pore spaces is termed capillary water. Since it is held against the force of gravity it is permanently available for plant growth and it is this type of soil water which contains plant nutrients in solution. c) Water in excess of hygroscopic and capillary water is termed gravitational water, which is of a transitory nature because it flows away under the influence of gravity. When the excess has drained away the amount of water retained in the soil is termed its field capacity, when some of its pore spaces are still free of water. (Source: LANDY / DUNSTE)
bodemvochthuishouding soil moisture regime The water regime of the soil is determined by the physical properties and arrangement of the soil particles. The pores in a soil determine its water-retention characteristics. When all the pores are full of water, the soil is said to be saturated. (Source: DUNSTE)
bodemvorming soil formation The combination of natural processes by which soils are formed. It is also known as pedogenesis. The most important soil-forming factors are parent material, terrain, climate, aspect, vegetation cover, microorganisms in the soil and the age of the land surface. Some pedologists would add to this list the influence of human activities. All the factors exhibit varying degrees of interrelationship and some are more important than others, with climate often being singled out as the most important. (Source: WHIT)
bodemvruchtbaarheid soil fertility The status of a soil with respect to the amount and availability to plants of elements necessary for plant growth. (Source: BJGEO)
boek book A collection of leaves of paper, parchment or other material, usually bound or fastened together within covers, containing writing of any type or blank pages for future inscription. (Source: CCL / RHW)
boekhouding bookkeeping The art or science of recording business accounts and transactions. (Source: WESTS)
boekhouding accounting Method of recording all the transactions affecting the financial condition of a business or organization.
boekhoudsysteem accounting system The system of setting up, maintaining, and auditing the books of a firm and of analyzing its financial status and operating results.
boerderij farm building The dwelling on a farm as distinguished from utility buildings as a barn, corncrib, milk house. (Source: WEBSTE)
boete fine A pecuniary punishment or penalty imposed by lawful tribunal upon person convicted of crime or misdemeanor. (Source: BLACK)
boete voor schade aan het milieu penalty for environmental damage Punishment, varying from fines to withdrawal of government funds to economic sanctions, which is imposed for the harm or injury done to natural resources. (Source: RHW)
bont fur The hair-covered, dressed pelt of such a mammal, used in the making of garments and as trimming or decoration. (Source: AMHER)
bonthandel furriery The business or trade of dressed furs and garments made from the coats of certain animals. (Source: OED)
boom tree Any large woody perennial plant with a distinct trunk giving rise to branches or leaves at some distance from the ground. (Source: CED)
boomkwekerij arboriculture The planting and care of woody plants, especially trees. (Source: AMHER)
boomkwekerij tree nursery An area where trees, shrubs, or plants are grown for transplanting, for use as stocks for budding and grafting. (Source: ECHO2)
boorinstallatie drilling installation The structural base upon which the drill rig and associated equipment is mounted during the drilling operation. (Source: MGH)
boren drilling The act of boring holes in the earth for finding water or oil, for geologic surveys, etc. (Source: ZINZAN)
borium boron A very hard almost colourless crystalline metalloid element that in impure form exists as a brown amorphous powder. It occurs principally in borax and is used in hardening steel. (Source: CED)
bos forest A vegetation community dominated by trees and other woody shrubs, growing close enough together that the tree tops touch or overlap, creating various degrees of shade on the forest floor. It may produce benefits such as timber, recreation, wildlife habitat, etc. (Source: DUNSTE)
bos wood A dense growth of trees more extensive than a grove and smaller than a forest. (Source: MGH)
bos in de gematigde klimaatzone temperate forest Mixed forest of conifers and broad-leaf deciduous trees, or mixed conifer and broad-leaf evergreen trees, or entirely broad-leaf deciduous, or entirely broad-leaf evergreen trees, found in temperate regions across the world; characterized by high rainfall, warm summers, cold winters occasionally subzero, seasonality; typically with dense canopies, understorey saplings and tall shrubs, large animals, carnivores dominant, very rich in bird species. (Source: LBC)
bosaanplanting afforestation 1) Establishment of a new forest by seeding or planting of nonforested land.2) The planting of trees on land which was previously used for other uses than forestry.3) The planting of trees in an area, or the management of an area to allow trees to regenerate or colonize naturally, in order to produce a forest. (Source: MGH / WRIGHT / ALL)
bosbeheer forest management Planning of forest utilization for wood production, conservation purposes, fauna and flora protection, recreation and water supply. (Source: RFA)
bosbeleid forest policy A course of action adopted and pursued by government or some other organization, which seeks to preserve or protect an extensive area of woodland, often to produce products and benefits such as timber, wildlife habitat, clean water, biodiversity and recreation. (Source: NCF)
bosbescherming forest conservation
bosbescherming forest protection Branch of forestry concerned with the prevention and control of damage to forests arising from the action of people or livestock, of pests and abiotic agents. (Source: DUNSTE)
bosbestand forest resource Forest resources consist of two separate but closely related parts: the forest land and the trees (timber) on that land. (Source: PARCOR)
bosbestandsonderzoek forest resource assessment
bosbouw forest industry A sector of the economy in which an aggregate of establishments is engaged in the management of an extensive area of woodland, often to produce products and benefits such as timber, wildlife habitat, clean water, biodiversity and recreation. (Source: NCF)
bosbouw forestry The management of forest lands for wood, forages, water, wildlife, and recreation. (Source: MGH)
bosbouw forestry
bosbouweconomie forestry economics The production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services from the industry involved with the process of establishing and managing forests. (Source: RHW)
bosbouweenheid forestry unit Any entity or group of individuals involved with the creation, management and conservation of an extensive area of woodland, often to produce products and benefits such as timber, clean water, biodiversity and recreation. (Source: NCF)
bosbouwkundige praktijk forestry practice The farming of trees to ensure a continuing supply of timber and other forest products. Foresters care for existing trees, protecting them from fire, pests and diseases, and felling where trees are overcrowded or dying and when ready for cropping. They also plant new areas (afforestation) and replant felled areas (reafforestation). (Source: GOOD)
bosbouwwet forestry law A binding rule or body of rules prescribed by a government to regulate any extensive area of woodland, for the protection and preservation of game, timber and other forest resources. (Source: MHE)
bosbouwwetgeving forestry legislation A binding rule or body of rules prescribed by a government to regulate the use and conservation of wooded areas, most often those owned by the government itself. (Source: BLD)
bosbrand forest fire A conflagration in or destroying large wooded areas having a thick growth of trees and plants. (Source: ISEP)
bosecologie forest ecology The science that deals with the relationship of forest trees to their environment, to one another, and to other plants and to animals in the forest. (Source: MGH)
bosecosysteem forest ecosystem Any forest environment, in which plants and animals interact with the chemical and physical features of the environment, in which they live. (Source: GILP96a)
bosexploitatie forest exploitation Forests have been exploited over the centuries as a source of wood and for obtaining land for agricultural use. The mismanagement of forest lands and forest resources has led to a situation where the forest is now in rapid retreat. The main aspects of the situation are: serious shortages in the supply of industrial wood; the catastrophic erosion and floods accompanying the stripping of forests from mountainous land; the acute shortages of fuel wood in much of the developing world; the spread of desert conditions at an alarming rate in the arid and semi-arid regions of the world; and the many environmental effects of the destruction of tropical rainforests. (Source: WPR)
bosproduct forest product Any material afforded by a forest for commercial use, such as tree products and forage. (Source: MGH)
bosproductie forest production Forests produce a range of products including firewood and charcoal, lumber, paper, and crops such as coffee, oil palm, and rubber. With careful planning of growth and harvesting, wood and other forest products are, in principle, renewable resources. But achieving renewability takes time - often decades, sometimes centuries. Without careful management, pressure for short-term exploitation can lead to tree removal, soil degradation, and conversion of woodland to other uses. Consumption of forest resources can lead to environmental problems as well as loss of critical habitat and species. (Source: WRES)
bosreservaat forest reserve Forest area set aside for the purpose of protecting certain fauna and flora, or both. (Source: GILP96)
botanische kas botanical conservatory Gardens for the conservation of rare species of plants. (Source: RAMADE)
botanische tuin botanical garden A place in which plants are grown, studied and exhibited. (Source: CED)
bouw building industry The art and technique of building houses. (Source: ZINZAN)
bouw building
bouw met hergebruik-materiaal construction with recycled material Construction with waste product used as raw material. (Source: LANDYa)
bouwafval building waste Masonry and rubble wastes arising from the demolition or reconstruction of buildings or other civil engineering structures.
bouwbeleid construction policy A course of action adopted and pursued by government, business or some other organization, which plans or organizes for the maintenance, development and erection of houses, offices, bridges or other building structures. (Source: OED)
bouwgrond building land Area of land suitable for building on. (Source: PHC)
bouwmateriaal building material Any material used in construction, such as steel, concrete, brick, masonry, glass, wood, etc. (Source: HARRIS)
bouwmaterialenindustrie building materials industry
bouwnorm standard for building industry A norm or measure applicable in legal cases for any enterprise involved in the construction, remodeling or finishing of enclosed structures for habitation. (Source: BLD)
bouwonderdeel; gebouwonderdeel building component A building element which uses industrial products that are manufactured as independent until capable of being joined with other elements. (Source: HARRIS)
bouwplaats building site A piece of land on which a house or other building is being built. (Source: CAMB)
bouwplanning building planning The activity of designing, organizing or preparing for future construction or reconstruction of edifices and facilities. (Source: RHW)
bouwstructuur built structure Any structure made of stone, bricks, wood, concrete, or steel, built with a roof and walls, such as a house or factory. (Source: CEDa / ZINZAN)
bouwtechnologie building technology
bouwtechnologie construction technology
bouwterrein building area Land and other places on, under, in or through which the temporary and permanent works are to be executed and any other lands or places needed for the purposes of construction. (Source: ECHO1)
bouwtoezicht supervision of building works The oversight or direction in the construction and maintenance of houses, facilities, offices and other structures. (Source: RHW)
bouwuitrusting construction equipment Heavy power machines which perform specific construction or demolition functions. (Source: MGH)
bouwvergunning planning permission An authorization, license or equivalent control document issued by a government agency that approves a step by step method and process of defining, developing and outlining various possible courses of action to meet existing or future needs, goals and objectives. (Source: TOE / ISEP)
bouwvergunning building permit Authorization required by local governmental bodies for the erection of an enclosed structure or for the major alteration or expansion of an existing edifice. (Source: BLD)
bouwvoorschrift building regulation
bovenafdichting soil surface sealing Any activity or process in which ground surface areas are packed or plugged to prevent percolation or the passage of fluids. (Source: SIS / ERG)
bovengrondse elektriciteitsleiding overhead power line Suspended cables by which electrical power is distributed throughout a country. (Source: UVAROVa)
braakliggend gebied fallow area Land area normally used for crop production but left unsown for one or more growing seasons. (Source: MGH)
braakliggend terrein fallow land Arable land not under rotation that is set at rest for a period of time ranging from one to five years before it is cultivated again, or land usually under permanent crops, meadows or pastures, which is not being used for that purpose for a period of at least one year. Arable land which is normally used for the cultivation of temporary crops but which is temporarily used for grazing is included. (Source: ECEST)
brakwater brackish water Water, salty between the concentrations of fresh water and sea water; usually 5-10 parts x thousand. (Source: LANDY)
brand fire The state of combustion in which inflammable material burns, producing heat, flames and often smoke. (Source: CED)
brandbaarheid combustibility The property of a substance of being capable of igniting and burning. (Source: CEDa)
brandbare stof flammable product Material having the ability to generate a sufficient concentration of combustible vapors to produce a flame, if ignited. (Source: LEE)
brandbescherming fire protection All necessary precautions to see that fire is not initiated, by ensuring that all necessary fire fighting apparatus is in good order and available for use if fire should break out, and by ensuring that personnel are properly trained and drilled in fighting fire. (Source: ECHO1)
brandgevaarlijke stof inflammable substance Substance liable to catch fire. (Source: CED)
brandstof fuel Solid, liquid, or gaseous material such as gas, gasoline, oil, coal or wood, used to produce heat or power by burning. (Source: LANDY)
brandstofadditief fuel additive Substance (such as tetraethyl lead) which is added to petrol to prevent knocking. (Source: PHC)
brandstofsamenstelling fuel composition
brandstoftank fuel tank installation The operating, fuel-storage component of a fuel system. (Source: MGH)
brandstofverbruik fuel consumption The amount of fuel utilized. (Source: PHCa)
brandveiligheidsvoorschrift fire safety requirement Rules to be followed and safety systems to be adopted for preventing or fighting fire. (Source: RRDA)
brandweer fire service Technical organisation with trained personnel for dealing with fires and other incidents and for co-operating in their prevention. (Source: ECHO1)
brandwerend middel fireproofing agent A chemical used as a coating for or a component of a combustible material to reduce or eliminate a tendency to burn; used with textiles, plastics, rubbers, paints, and other materials. (Source: MGH)
breedtegraad (geografisch) latitude An angular distance in degrees north or south of the equator (latitude 0°), equal to the angle subtended at the centre of the globe by the meridian between the equator and the point in question. (Source: CED)
breuk fault A fracture or a zone of fractures along which there has been displacement of the sides relative to one another parallel to the fracture. (Source: BJGEO)
broeden brooding To incubate eggs or cover the young for warmth. (Source: MGH)
broedvogel breeding bird The individuals in a bird population that are involved in reproduction during a particular period in a given place. (Source: ALL2a)
broeikaseffect greenhouse effect The warming of the Earth's atmosphere caused by the increasing concentration of atmospheric gases, such as water vapour and carbon dioxide. These gases absorb radiation emitted by the Earth, thus slowing down the loss of radiant energy from the Earth back to space. (Source: DUNSTE)
broeikasgas greenhouse gas A collective expression for those components of the atmosphere that influence the greenhouse effect, namely carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxides, ozone, CFCs and water vapour. (Source: GILP96)
bron spring (hydrology, land) A place where ground water flows naturally from a rock or the soil onto the land surface or into a body of surface water. (Source: BJGEO)
bron well A hole dug into the earth to reach a supply of water, oil, brine or gas. (Source: MGH)
bron van (milieu)verontreiniging source of pollution The place, places or areas from where a pollutant is released into the atmosphere or water, or where noise is generated. A source can be classified as point source, i.e. a large individual generator of pollution, an area source, or a line source, e.g. vehicle emissions and noise. (Source: PORT)
bronwater spring water Water obtained from an underground formation from which water flows naturally to the surface, or would flow naturally to the surface if it were not collected underground. (Source: WQA)
broom bromine A pungent dark red volatile liquid element of the halogen series that occurs in brine and is used in the production of chemicals. (Source: CED)
brouwerijnijverheid brewing industry A sector of the economy in which an aggregate of commercial enterprises is engaged in the manufacture and marketing of beverages made from malt and hops by steeping, boiling and fermentation, such as beer, ale and other related beverages. (Source: RHW)
brug bridge A structure that spans and provides a passage over a road, railway, river, or some other obstacle. (Source: CED)
bruinkool lignite Coal of relatively recent origin consisting of accumulated layers of partially decomposed vegetation, intermediate between peat and bituminous coal; often contains patterns from the wood from which it formed. (Source: MGH / CED / WRIGHT)
bruinkoolwinning lignite mining Extraction of brown coal from natural deposits; lignite is a brownish-black solid fuel in the second stage in the development of coal. It has a little over half the heating value of bituminous or anthracite coal. (Source: KORENa)
bruto binnenlands product gross domestic product The total output of goods and services produced by a national economy in a given period, usually a year, valued at market prices. It is gross, since no allowance is made, for the value of replacement capital goods. (Source: GOOD)
bruto nationaal product gross national product Gross domestic product adjusted for foreign transactions, i.e. to the figure for Gross Domestic Product must be added any income accruing to residents of the country arising from investment and other factor earnings abroad and from it must be deducted any income earned in the domestic market by factors owned by foreigners abroad. (Source: GOOD)
buideldieren marsupial Type of Australian mammal with a pouch in which the young are carried. Marsupials give birth to young at a much earlier stage of development than other mammals so that the young need to be protected in the mother's pouch for some months until they become able to look after themselves. (Source: PHC)
buikvoetigen gastropod Any mollusc of the class Gastropoda, typically having a flattened muscular foot for locomotion and a head that bears stalked eyes. (Source: CED)
buis stack The portion of a chimney rising above the roof. (Source: MGH)
buitenlands beleid foreign policy The diplomatic policy of a nation in its interactions with other nations. (Source: WEBSTE)
buitenlandse economische betrekkingen foreign economic relations Dealing in economic or monetary matters with foreign countries. (Source: OEDa)
buitenlandse handel foreign trade Trade between countries and firms belonging to different countries.
buitenwijk suburb A residential district situated on the outskirts of a city or town. (Source: CAMB)
bulkvervoer mass transport (physics) The movement of matter in a medium. (Source: MGH)
burgemeester (B) mayor A governmental figure who is generally the principal administrative officer of a city or other municipal area. (Source: WESTS)
burger citizen A native or naturalized member of a state or nation who owes allegiance, bears responsibilities and obtains rights, including protection, from the government. (Source: RHW)
burgerbescherming civilian protection The organization and measures, usually under governmental or other authority depending on the country, aimed at preventing, abating or fighting major emergencies for the protection of the civilian population and property, particularly in wartime. (Source: ECHO1)
burgerinitiatief citizen initiative
burgerlijk recht civil law Law inspired by old Roman Law, the primary feature of which was that laws were written into a collection; codified, and not determined, as is common law, by judges. The principle of civil law is to provide all citizens with an accessible and written collection of the laws which apply to them and which judges must follow. (Source: DUHA)
burgerluchtvaart civil air traffic Air traffic pertaining to or serving the general public, as distinguished from military air traffic.
burgerrechten citizen rights Rights recognized and protected by law, pertaining to the members of a state. (Source: ZINZANa)
burgerveiligheid civil safety Actions and measures undertaken, often at a local level, to ensure that citizens of a community are secure from harm, injury, danger or risk. (Source: RHW / OEC)
busstation bus station A place along a route or line at which a bus stops for fuel or to pick up or let off passengers or goods, especially with ancillary buildings and services. (Source: CED)
buurtverbeteringsplan neighbourhood improvement scheme
buurtwet neighbourhood law A binding rule or body of rules prescribed by a government to protect human health and the environment, manage growth and development or enhance the quality of life in small geographical and social areas within cities where residents share values and concerns and interact with one another on a daily basis. (Source: HUM)
cadmium cadmium One of the toxic heavy metal which has caused deaths and permanent illnesses in a series of major pollution incidents around the world. Cadmium has no useful biological purpose. However, it has wide industrial applications. It has been used for decades in metal plating to prevent corrosion, in rechargeable batteries and as a pigment in certain plastics and paints. Special care is taken in the industrial smelting of ores and subsequent handling of cadmium, because occupational exposure is known to have caused heart, chest and kidney disorders. Environmental health problems have come from exposure to various sources of pollution. (Source: WRIGHT)
cadmiumvervuiling cadmium contamination The release and presence in the air, water and soil of cadmium, a toxic, metallic element, from sources such as the burning of coal and tobacco and improper disposal of cadmium-containing waste. (Source: FFD / EEN)
calcium calcium A malleable silvery-white metallic element of the alkaline hearth group; the fifth most abundant element in the earth crust, occurring especially as forms of calcium carbonate. It is an essential constituent of bones and teeth and is used as a deoxidizer in steel. (Source: CED)
Caraïbische Zee Caribbean Area A geographical region bordered on the south by South America and Panama, and on the west by Central America, and consisting of the West Indian, and nearby, islands and the Caribbean Sea, a part of the western Atlantic Ocean. (Source: RHW)
carbonaat carbonate A salt or ester of carbonic acid. (Source: CED)
Cd-rom CD-ROM A compact disc on which a large amount of digitalised read-only data can be stored.
Cd-rom zoekdienst CD-ROM search service The provision of special aid by library staff trained to query bibliographic or other information contained on an electronic storage medium, usually to meet the research needs of the library's clients. (Source: RHW / LFS)
cel [biologie] cell (biology) The microscopic functional and structural unit of all living organisms, consisting of a nucleus, cytoplasm, and a limiting membrane. (Source: MGH)
cel [energie] cell (energy) The basic building block of a battery. It is an electrochemical device consisting of an anode and a cathode in a common electrolyte kept apart with a separator. This assembly may be used in its own container as a single cell battery or be combined and interconnected with other cells in a container to form a multicelled battery. (Source: LEE)
cellulose cellulose The main polysaccharide in living plants, forming the skeletal structure of the plant cell wall; a polymer of beta-D-glucose linked together with the elimination of water to form chains of 2000-4000 units. (Source: MGH)
cellulose-industrie cellulose industry
cement cement A dry powder made from silica, alumina, lime, iron oxide, and magnesia which hardens when mixed with water; used as an ingredient in concrete. (Source: MGH)
cementindustrie cement industry Industry for the production of cement. The emissions of most relevance from this sector are atmospheric: dust, carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxides are the most important. Cement is essential for the construction sector, either directly or mixed with sand or gravel to form concrete. (Source: DOBRIS)
cementvervaardiging cement manufacture Cement is produced by heating a mixture of clay or shale plus chalk or lime in a rotary kiln up to 250 m long per 8 m diameter rotating at 1 rpm. The process can be wet, semi-dry or dry and the fuel can be pulverized coal, oil or gas. As the coal ash is similar in composition to the clay or shale, it can stay in the cement clinker. As one of the kiln operator's major costs is fuel and even a modest sized kiln can consume 8-10 tons of coal per hour, the cement kiln could, therefore, solve a disposal problem and also benefit the cement manufacturer by reducing fuel costs. (Source: PORT)
Centraal-Afrika Central Africa A geographic region of the African continent close to the equator that includes Cameroon, Chad, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, the Central African Republic and the Democratic Republic of Congo. (Source: OMD / CIA)
Centraal-Amerika Central America A narrow continental region of the Western hemisphere, existing as a bridge between North and South America, often considered to be the southern portion of North America, and including countries such as Guatemala, Belize, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Panama. (Source: RHW)
Centraal-Azië Central Asia A geographic region of the Asian continent between the Caspian Sea on the west and China on the east, extending northward into the central region of Russia and southward to the northern borders of Iran and Afghanistan, and comprised of independent former republics of the Soviet Union, including Kazakstan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan. (Source: INP / CIA)
centrale regering central government A system in which a governing or administrative body has a certain degree of power or authority to prevail in the management of local, national and international matters. (Source: WAP / BLD)
centrale voor gecombineerde electriciteits-en warmteproductie combined cycle-power station This type of plant is flexible in response and can be built in the 100-600 MW capacity range. It produces electrical power from both a gas turbine (ca. 1300°C gas inlet temperature), fuelled by natural gas or oil plus a steam turbine supplied with the steam generated by the 500°C exhaust gases from the gas turbine. The thermal efficiency of these stations is ca. 50 per cent compared with a maximum of 40 per cent from steam turbine coal fired power stations. This type of plant can be built in two years compared with six years for a coal-fired station and 10-15 years for nuclear. (Source: PORT)
centralisatie centralisation
centrifugering centrifugation Separation of particles from a suspension in a centrifuge: balanced tubes containing the suspension are attached to the opposite ends of arms rotating rapidly about a central point; the suspended particles are forced outwards, and collect at the bottoms of the tubes. (Source: UVAROV)
cesium caesium A soft silvery-white and highly reactive metal belonging to the alkali group of metals. It is a radiation hazard, because it can occur in two radioactive forms. Caesium-134 is produced in nuclear reactors, not directly by fission, but by the reaction. It emits beta- and gamma-radiation and has a half-life of 2.06 years. Caesium-137 is a fission product of uranium and occurs in the fallout from nuclear weapons. It emits beta- and gamma-rays and has a half-life of 30 years. Caesium-137 was the principal product released into the atmosphere, and hence the food chain, from atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons and from the Windscale fire and Chernobyl nuclear accidents. After the Chernobyl accident, which spread a radiation cloud across Europe, the European Commission proposed new and more restrictive limits on levels of caesium in food and drinking water. (Source: WRIGHT)
Chelicerata chelicerate A subphylum of the phylum Artrophoda; chelicerae are characteristically modified as pincers. (Source: MGH)
chemicalie chemical Any substance used in or resulting from a reaction involving changes to atoms or molecules. (Source: CED)
chemicaliën in het milieu chemical in the environment The presence in the environment of any solid, liquid or gaseous material discharged from a process and that may pose substantial hazard to human health and the environment.
chemie chemistry The scientific study of the properties, composition, and structure of matter, the changes in structure and composition of matter, and accompanying energy changes. (Source: MGH)
chemisch afval chemical waste Any by-product of a chemical process, including manufacturing processes. Often this by-product is considered a toxic or polluting substance. (Source: APD / ERG)
chemisch beleid chemical policy
chemisch product chemical product A substance characterized by definite molecular composition. (Source: MGH)
chemisch reinigen dry cleaning To clean fabrics etc. with a solvent other than water. (Source: CED)
chemisch risico chemical risk Probability of harm to human health, property or the environment posed by contact with any substance of a defined molecular composition. (Source: APD)
chemisch wapen chemical weapon Chemical agents of warfare include all gaseous, liquid or solid chemical substances which might be employed because of their direct toxic effects on man and animals. Chemical weapons also include the chemical's precursors, the munitions and devices designed to deliver them, and any equipment specifically designed for their use in warfare. Nerve agents (chemicals of the same family as organophosphorous insecticides) are the most lethal of the classical chemical warfare agents, killing by poisoning the nervous system and disrupting bodily functions. Other chemical weapons include blister agents, vesicants, choking agents, etc. (Source: WPR)
chemische adsorptie chemisorption The process of chemical adsorption. (Source: MGH)
chemische analyse chemical analysis The complex of operations aiming to determine the kinds of constituents of a given substance. (Source: ZINZAN)
chemische behandeling chemical treatment Processes that alter the chemical structure of the constituents of the waste to produce either an innocuous or a less hazardous material. Chemical processes are attractive because they produce minimal air emissions, they can often be carried out on the site of the waste generator, and some processes can be designed and constructed as mobile units. (Source: PARCOR)
chemische behandeling van afval chemical treatment of waste
chemische bestrijding chemical pest control Control of plants and animals classified as pests by means of chemical compounds. (Source: WPR)
chemische corrosiekracht chemical corrosivity The tendency of a metal to wear away another by chemical attack. (Source: MGH)
chemische eigenschappen chemical property Properties of a substance depending on the arrangement of the atoms in the molecule, e.g. bio-availability, degradability, persistence, etc. (Source: RRDA)
chemische elementen (en hun verbindingen) chemical element A substance made up of atoms with the same atomic number; common examples are hydrogen, gold, and iron. (Source: MGH)
chemische fabriek chemical plant Plants where basic raw materials are chemically converted into a variety of products. (Source: MGH)
chemische fall-out chemical fallout The sedimentation of chemical substances accumulated in the atmosphere as a result of industrial emissions. (Source: ZINZANa)
chemische industrie chemical industry Industry related with the production of chemical compounds. The chemical processing industry has a variety of special pollution problems due to the vast number of products manufactured. The treatment processes combine processing, concentration, separation, extraction, by-product recovery, destruction, and reduction in concentration. The wastes may originate from solvent extraction, acid and caustic wastes, overflows, spills, mechanical loss, etc. (Source: PZ)
chemische installatie chemical installation Building where chemicals are manufactured. (Source: PHC)
chemische meststof chemical fertiliser Fertilizer manufactured from chemicals; excessive use of them can cause pollution, when all the chemicals are not taken up by the plants and the excess is leached out of the soil into rivers and may cause algal bloom. (Source: PHC)
chemische oceanografie chemical oceanography
chemische ontbinding chemical degradation The act or process of simplifying or breaking down a molecule into smaller parts, either naturally or artificially. (Source: OED)
chemische ontsmetting chemical decontamination Removal of chemical substances from a building, a watercourse, a person's clothes, etc. (Source: PHC)
chemische processen chemical process The particular method of manufacturing or making a chemical usually involving a number of steps or operations. (Source: KOREN)
chemische reacties chemical reaction A change in which a substance is transformed into one or more new substances. (Source: MGH)
chemische reductie chemical reduction Chemical reaction in which an element gains an electron. (Source: MGH)
chemische samenstelling chemical composition The nature and proportions of the elements comprising a chemical compound. (Source: CED)
chemische structuur chemical structure The arrangement of atoms in a molecule of a chemical compound. (Source: CED)
chemische technologie chemical engineering The branch of engineering concerned with industrial manufacture of chemical products. It is a discipline in which the principles of mathematical, physical and natural sciences are used to solve problems in applied chemistry. Chemical engineers design, develop, and optimise processes and plants, operate them, manage personnel and capital, and conduct research necessary for new developments. Through their efforts, new petroleum products, plastics, agricultural chemicals, house-hold products, pharmaceuticals, electronic and advanced materials, photographic materials, chemical and biological compounds, various food and other products evolve. (Source: USTa)
chemische toevoeging chemical addition Chemical reaction in which one or more of the double bonds or triple bonds in an unsaturated compound is converted to a single bond by the addition of other atoms or groups. (Source: UVAROV)
chemische verontreinigende stof chemical pollutant
chemische vervuiling chemical pollution Pollution caused by substances of chemical nature, including chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, metals as mercury, lead, cadmium, arsenic, etc. (Source: GILP96)
chemische vervuiling chemical contamination The addition or presence of chemicals to, or in, another substance to such a degree as to render it unfit for its intended purpose. Also refers to the result(s) of such an addition or presence. (Source: ISEP)
chemische zuurstofverbruik chemical oxygen demand The quantity of oxygen used in biological and non-biological oxidation of materials in water; a measure of water quality. (Source: LANDY)
chirurgisch (operatie-)afval surgical waste Any tissue, blood or mucus removed during surgery or autopsy, soiled surgical dressings, or other materials requiring special disposal procedures. (Source: UMT)
chloor chlorine A very reactive and highly toxic green, gaseous element, belonging to the halogen family of substances. It is one of the most widespread elements, as it occurs naturally in sea-water, salt lakes and underground deposits, but usually occurs in a safe form as common salt (NaCl). Commercially it is used in large quantities by the chemical industry both as an element to produce chlorinated organic solvents, like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and for the manufacture of polyvinyl chloride plastics, thermoplastic and hypochlorite bleaches. Chlorine was the basis for the organochlorine pesticides, like DDT and other agricultural chemicals that have killed wildlife. The reactivity of chlorine has proved disastrous for the ozone layer and has been the cause of the creation of the ozone hole, which was first detected in the Southern Hemisphere over Antarctica and then over the Northern Hemisphere. (Source: WRIGHT)
chloorethenen chloroethylene A flammable, explosive gas with an ethereal aroma; soluble in alcohol and ether, slightly soluble in water; boils at -14° C; an important monomer for polyvinyl chloride and its copolymers; used in organic synthesis and in adhesives. (Source: MGH)
chloorfenol chlorophenol Major group of chlorinated hydrocarbons, pesticides and biocides which account for a very high percentage of the non-agricultural pesticide use, such as anti-rotting agents in non-woollen textiles and wood preservatives. The chlorophenols act as biocides by inhibiting the respiration and energy-conversion processes of the microorganisms. They are toxic to man above 40 parts per million, to fish above 1 ppm, whilst concentrations as low as one part per thousand million can taint water. (Source: PORT)
chloorfluorkoolstof chlorofluorocarbon Gases formed of chlorine, fluorine, and carbon whose molecules normally do not react with other substances; they are therefore used as spray can propellants because they do not alter the material being sprayed. (Source: LANDY)
chloorkoolwaterstoffen chlorinated hydrocarbon A class of persistent, broad-spectrum insecticides that linger in the environment and accumulate in the food chain. Among them are DDT, aldrin, dieldrin, heptachlor, chlordane, lindane, endrin, mirex, hexachloride, and toxaphene. In insects and other animals these compounds act primarily on the central nervous system. They also become concentrated in the fats of organisms and thus tend to produce fatty infiltration of the heart and fatty degeneration of the liver in vertebrates. In fishes they have the effect of preventing oxygen uptake, causing suffocation. They are also known to slow the rate of photosynthesis in plants. Their danger to the ecosystem resides in their rate stability and the fact that they are broad-spectrum poisons which are very mobile because of their propensity to stick to dust particles and evaporate with water into the atmosphere. (Source: EPAGLO / PORT)
chlor(er)en chlorination The application of chlorine to water, sewage or industrial wastes for disinfection or other biological or chemical purposes. (Source: ALL)
chloride chloride A compound which is derived from hydrochloric acid and contains the chlorine atom in the -1 oxidation state. (Source: MGH)
chlorofyl chlorophyll A green pigment, present in algae and higher plants, that absorbs light energy and thus plays a vital role in photosynthesis. Except in Cyanophyta (blue-green algae), chlorophyll is confined to chloroplasts. There are several types of chlorophyll, but all contain magnesium and iron. Some plants (e.g., brown algae, red algae, copper beech trees) contain additional pigments that masks the green of their chlorophyll. (Source: ALL)
Chordata chordate The highest phylum in the animal kingdom, characterized by a notochord, nerve cord, and gill slits; includes the urochordate, lancelets and vertebrates. (Source: MGH)
chorologie chorology The study of the causal relations between geographical phenomena occurring within a particular region. (Source: CED)
chromatografie chromatography A method of separating and analyzing mixtures of chemical substances by selective adsorption in a column of powder or on a strip of paper. (Source: MGH)
chromatografische analyse chromatographic analysis The analysis of chemical substances that are poured into a vertical glass tube containing an adsorbent where the various components of the substance move through the adsorbent at different rates of speed according to their degree of attraction to it, thereby producing bands of color at different levels of the adsorption column. (Source: KOREN)
chroom chromium A hard grey metallic element that takes a high polish, occurring principally in chromite: used in steel alloys and electroplating to increase hardness and corrosion-resistance. (Source: CED)
cinematografische film cinematographic film Any motion picture of a story, drama, episode or event, often considered as an art form or used as a medium for entertainment. (Source: OED)
classificatie classification An arrangement or organization of persons, items or data elements into groups by reason of common attributes, characteristics, qualities or traits. (Source: RHW)
classificatie op basis van het grondgebruik land use classification The arrangement of land units into a variety of categories based on the properties of the land or its suitability for a particular purpose. It has become an important tool in rural land-resource planning. (Source: WHIT)
climax climax A botanical term referring to the terminal community said to be achieved when a sere (a sequential development of a plant community or group of plant communities on the same site over a period of time) achieves dynamic equilibrium with its environment and in particular with its prevailing climate. Each of the world's major vegetation climaxes is equivalent to a biome. Many botanists believe that climate is the master factor in a plant environment and that even if several types of plant succession occur in an area they will all tend to converge towards a climax form of vegetation. (Source: WHIT)
code code A systematic collection, compendium or revision of laws, rules, or regulations. A private or official compilation of all permanent laws in force consolidated and classified according to subject matter. Many states have published official codes of all laws in force, including the common law and statutes as judicially interpreted, which have been compiled by code commissions and enacted by the legislatures. (Source: WESTS)
codificatie codification The process of collecting and arranging systematically, usually by subject, the laws of a state or country, or the rules and regulations covering a particular area or subject of law or practice. (Source: WESTS)
cokes coke A coherent, cellular, solid residue remaining from the dry distillation of a coking coal or of pitch, petroleum, petroleum residue, or other carbonaceous materials; contains carbon as its principal constituent. (Source: MGH)
colibacteriën coliform bacterium A group of bacteria that are normally abundant in the intestinal tracts of human and other warm-blooded animals and are used as indicators (being measured as the number of individuals found per millilitre of water) when testing the sanitary quality of water. (Source: ALL)
colloïdale toestand colloidal state A system of particles in a dispersion medium, with properties distinct from those of a true solution because of the larger size of the particles. The presence of these particles can often be detected by means of the ultramicroscope. (Source: UVAROV)
colloïde colloid An intimate mixture of two substances, one of which, called the dispersed phase, is uniformly distributed in a finely divided state through the second substance, called the dispersion medium. (Source: MGH)
colorimetrie colourimetry Any technique by which an unknown colour is evaluated in terms of standard colours; the technique may be visual, photoelectric or indirect by means of spectrophotometry. (Source: MGH)
Colubriden colubrid Any snakes of the family of Colubridae, including many harmless snakes, such as the grass snake and whip belonging to the Colubridae. (Source: CED)
combinatie land- en bosbouw agroforestry The interplanting of farm crops and trees, especially leguminous species. In semiarid regions and on denuded hillsides, agroforestry helps control erosion and restores soil fertility, as well as supplying valuable food and commodities at the same time. (Source: ALL)
commercialisatie commercialisation Holding or displaying for sale, offering for sale, selling, delivering or placing on the market in any other form. (Source: ECHO1)
commerciële verspreiding distributive trade Distribution of material goods to consumers, through retailing and wholesaling. (Source: GOODa)
communicatie communications The concept, science, technique and process of transmitting, receiving or otherwise exchanging information and data.
communicatiebeleid communications policy Measures and practices adopted by governments relating to the management of communication media. (Source: RRDA)
communicatie-industrie communications industry
communicatiemiddelen means of communication The agents, instruments, methods or resources used to impart or interchange thoughts, opinions or information. (Source: RHW)
communicatiesysteem communications system A coordinated assemblage of people, devices or other resources designed to exchange information and data by means of mutually understood symbols. (Source: ISEP / RHW)
compenserende belasting compensatory tax Compulsory charge levied by a government for the purpose of redressing or countervailing economic disparity. (Source: ISEP / RHW)
compenserende maatregel compensatory measure Any administrative or legislative action, procedure or enactment designed to redress disruptions of ecological integrity or damage to the supply of natural resources. (Source: BLD / RHW)
complexering complex formation Formation of a complex compound. Also known as complexing or complexation. (Source: MGH)
complexvormer complexing agent A substance capable of forming a complex compound with another material in solution. (Source: MGH)
compost compost A mixture of decaying organic matter used to fertilize and condition the soil. (Source: MGH)
compost uit afval en (riool)slib refuse-sludge compost Compost derived by the biodegradation of the organic constituents of solid wastes and wastewater sludges. The major public health issues associated with composting using solid wastes mixed with sewage sludge are pathogens, heavy metal, and odors. The heat generated during composting, as a result of the activities of thermophilic organisms, is capable of killing bacteria, viruses, protozoa and helminths present in sewage sludge. The metallic elements in sludge of greatest concern to human health are cadmium, lead, arsenic, selenium, and mercury. Only cadmium is normally found in sewage sludge at levels which, when applied to soils, can be absorbed by plants, and accumulate in edible parts, thereby entering the food chain. (Source: CORBIT)
composteerbaar afval compostable waste Waste consisting largely of biodegradable organic matter.
composteren composting The natural biological decomposition of organic material in the presence of air to form a humus-like material. Controlled methods of composting include mechanical mixing and aerating, ventilating the materials by dropping them through a vertical series of aerated chambers, or placing the compost in piles out in the open air and mixing it or turning it periodically. (Source: LEE)
compostering door de producent composting by producer
concentratie [proces] concentration (process) The process of increasing the quantity of a component in a solution. The opposite of dilution. (Source: CED)
concentratie [waarde] concentration (value) In solutions, the mass, volume, or number of moles of solute present in proportion to the amount of solvent or total solution. (Source: MGH)
concentratie van nederzettingen settlement concentration The distribution or total amount of communities, villages and houses within a specified geographic area. (Source: RHW)
concurrentie (economisch) economic competition The market condition where an individual or firm that wants to buy or sell a commodity or service has a choice of possible suppliers or customers. (Source: ODE)
concurrentie [biologisch] competition (biological) The simultaneous demand by two or more organisms or species for an essential common resource that is actually or potentially in limited supply. (Source: LBC)
concurrentiebeperking restriction on competition Article 85(1) of the EEC Treaty prohibits all agreements between undertakings, decisions by associations of undertakings and concerted practices which may affect trade between member states and which have as their object or effect the prevention, restriction or distortion of competition within the common market. All such arrangements are automatically nulland void under Article 85(2), unless exempted by the Commission pursuant to Article 85(3). The text of Article 85 is as follows: '1. The following shall be prohibited as incompatible with the common market: all agreements between undertakings, decisions by associations of undertakings and concerted practices which may affect trade between member states and which have as their object or effect the prevention, restriction or distortion of competition within the common market, and in particular those which: (a) directly or indirectly fix purchase or selling prices or any other trading conditions; (b) limit or control production, markets, technical development, or investment; © share markets or sources of supply; (d) apply dissimilar conditions to equivalent transactions with other trading parties, thereby placing them at a competitive disadvantage; (e) make the conclusion of contracts subject to acceptance by the other parties of supplementary obligations which, by their nature or according to commercial usage, have no connection with the subject of such contracts. (Source: CLAORG)
concurrentierecht competition law That part of the law dealing with matters such as those arising from monopolies and mergers, restrictive trading agreements, resale price maintenance and agreements involving distortion of competition affected by EU rules. (Source: CURZON)
concurrentievermogen competitiveness The ability of a firm to strive in the market with rivals in the production and sale of commodities or services and, analogously, the ability of a country to maintain a relatively high standard of living for its citizens through trade in international markets. (Source: / OED)
concurrentievervalsing distortion of competition Article 85(1) of the EEC Treaty prohibits all agreements between undertakings, decisions by associations of undertakings and concerted practices which may affect trade between member states and which have as their object or effect the prevention, restriction or distortion of competition within the common market. All such arrangements are automatically nulland void under Article 85(2), unless exempted by the Commission pursuant to Article 85(3). The text of Article 85 is as follows: '1. The following shall be prohibited as incompatible with the common market: all agreements between undertakings, decisions by associations of undertakings and concerted practices which may affect trade between member states and which have as their object or effect the prevention, restriction or distortion of competition within the common market, and in particular those which: (a) directly or indirectly fix purchase or selling prices or any other trading conditions; (b) limit or control production, markets, technical development, or investment; © share markets or sources of supply; (d) apply dissimilar conditions to equivalent transactions with other trading parties, thereby placing them at a competitive disadvantage; (e) make the conclusion of contracts subject to acceptance by the other parties of supplementary obligations which, by their nature or according to commercial usage, have no connection with the subject of such contracts. (Source: CLAORG)
condensatie condensation (process) Transformation from a gas to a liquid. (Source: MGH)
Conferentie van Rio Rio Conference Earth Summit held in Rio de Janeiro in June 1992, during which the Rio Declaration, a 27-page document, was approved, laying down broad principles of environmentally-sound development. The principal outcomes of the Summit were a declaration, conventions on controlling climate change and preserving biological diversity, and a lengthy agenda outlining the extent of global environmental problems and the measures needed to tackle them in order to achieve the agreed goal of 'sustainable development'. Opinion was divided as to how far the conference could be termed a success. Many environmentalists stressed its failure to set binding targets for resolving environmental problems, and to address adequately the links between third world poverty and environmental degradation. Others, such as many of the world leaders who attended the conference stressed that it should be seen as a first step towards sustainable development, and an important acknowledgment of the seriousness of the problem and of the fact that global co-operation is needed to overcome it. (Source: PHC)
Conferentie van Stockholm Stockholm Conference The UN Conference on the Human Environment, held in Stockholm in 1972 attended by representatives of nations. Declarations were made aimed at protection of the environment, and the concept of the UN body the United Nations Environment Programme, UNEP, was agreed. An anniversary conference was held in Stockholm in 1982 on 'acidity in the environment'. (Source: BRACK)
congres congress A formal meeting, often consisting of representatives of various organizations, that is assembled to promote, discuss or make arrangements regarding a particular subject or some matter of common interest. (Source: RHW)
contactgeluid structure-borne noise Sound that travels over at least part of its path by means of the vibration of a solid structure. (Source: CONFER)
container container A large case that can be transported by truck and than easily loaded on a ship. (Source: PHC)
continent continent A protuberance of the earth's crustal shell, with an area of several million square miles and sufficient elevation so that much of it above sea level. (Source: MGH)
continentaal plat continental shelf The gently sloping seabed of the shallow water nearest to a continent, covering about 45 miles from the shore and deepening over the sloping sea floor to an average depth of 400 ft. It continues until it reaches the continental slope. The continental shelf contains most of the important fishing grounds and a range of resources, including gas and oil, sand and gravel. However, the shelf is, in general, a structural extension of the continent, and so may also be a source of minerals found in that region, such as tin, gold and platinum. (Source: WRIGHT)
continue belasting continuous load The amount or quantity of polluting material found in a transporting agent that flows at a steady rate, in contrast to a sudden or dramatic influx. (Source: APD)
contourbouw contour farming The performing of cultivations along lines connecting points of equal elevation so reducing the loss of top soil by erosion, increasing the capacity of the soil to retain water and reducing the pollution of water by soil. (Source: ALLa)
controle op seismische activiteit seismic monitoring The gathering of seismic data from an area. (Source: BJGEO)
controle op teratogenese teratogenesis screening
controle van de zee marine monitoring The assessment of marine pollution by an integrated chemical, ecological and toxicological survey. (Source: ENVAR)
controle-apparatuur monitoring equipment Specific equipment used in remote sensing. (Source: RRDA)
controlenorm voor bestrijdingsmiddelen pesticide control standard A norm or measure applicable in legal cases pertaining to the production, dissemination or use of substances designed to mitigate or eliminate insects or small animals that harm vegetation. (Source: BLD / TOE)
controlerende instantie controlling authority The power of a person or an organized assemblage of persons to manage, direct, superintend, restrict, regulate, govern, administer or oversee. (Source: BLD)
Conventie inzake de internationale handel in bedreigde in het wild levende dier-en plantesoorten Washington species protection convention A Convention adopted in 1973, providing for the regulation of trade in whole plants and animals, dead or alive, and their readily recognizable parts and derivatives. Excessive international trade has contributed directly to the decline of many wild population of rare and endangered species. The Convention states that a protected species may not be the subject of international trade without a permit granted under the CITES procedures. (Source: GILP96)
Conventie van Bazel Basel Convention The Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary movements on hazardous wastes and their disposal was an agreement drawn up under the auspices of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). It came into effect in May 1992 and was adopted by 116 governments and the European Community. Its main aim was to impose strict controls on the trans-border transport of hazardous wastes, and on their disposal. It gives developing countries the right to turn away shipments of hazardous waste from their shores. It means that a country exporting substances that it considers hazardous has to get permission for their delivery from the proposed importer, who then has 60 days to issue a 'prior informed consent'. The ultimate goal of the convention is to cut the generation of hazardous wastes to a minimum. (Source: WRIGHT)
Conventie van Bern Bern Convention Name given to the Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats. It aims to protect all forms of endangered wildlife in specified parts of Europe. (Source: WRIGHT)
Conventie van Geneve Geneva Convention A Convention initiated by the UN ECE for the purpose of curbing the incidence of acid rain arising from the long range transportation of pollutants, most notably sulphur dioxide. The Convention was signed in 1979 and came into effect in 1983. Basically, it was a statement of desirable objectives without numerical limits. In 1983 the Nordic Countries proposed a 30% reduction in sulphur dioxide emissions in all member countries to be achieved by 1993. The move was welcomed by most member countries. Regulations began to be introduced requiring power plants to be equipped with high-performance gas scrubbers, unless being retired by 1993. (Source: GILP96)
Conventie van Lomé Lomé Convention The Lomé Conventions are multilateral trade and development agreements between the EU and the 70 ACP countries. They give the ACP countries associated status with the EU, offering them not only financial assistance but also substantial trading advantages on exports to the EU. The Conventions are the heart of the EU's development policy. Lomé I was concluded in 1975, running for five years; it was followed by Lomé II (1980), Lomé III (1985) and finally Lomé IV in 1990, which will run for 10 years, with a budget of ECU 13.2 billion over the first five years. The main focus of the Convention is the long-term development of the countries involved. Lomé IV also incorporates agreements for the protection of human rights and the development of democracy. (Source: INFREG)
Conventie van Ramsar Ramsar Convention The Convention's broad aims are to halt the worldwide loss of wetlands and to conserve, through wise use and management, those that remain. There are currently over 80 countries which are Contracting Parties to the Ramsar Convention covering 75% of the world's lands. The Ramsar Convention Bureau, based at Gland in Switzerland, provides secretariat support for the implementation of the treaty. The Bureau is funded by annual contributions from each of the contracting countries. Every three years a Conference of Contracting Parties is held where the activities of the Convention are reviewed andnew policies and initiatives are set. (Source: ANBG)
conventionele [niet-nucleaire] energie conventional energy Power provided by traditional means such as coal, wood, gas, etc., as opposed to alternative energy sources such as solar power, tidal power, wind power, etc. (Source: PHC)
coordinatenstelsel co-ordinate system A reference system used to measure horizontal and vertical distances on a planimetric map. A coordinate system is usually defined by a mapprojection, a spheroid of reference, a datum, one or more standard parallels, a central meridian, and possible shifts in the x- and y-directions to locate x, y positions of point, line, and area features. A common coordinate system is used to spatially register geographic data for the same area. (Source: ESRI)
coördinatie co-ordination
corrosie corrosion A process in which a solid, especially a metal, is eaten away and changed by a chemical action. (Source: CED)
corrosiegraad van water water corrosivity Complex series of reactions between the water and metal surfaces and materials in which the water is stored or transported. Thecorrosion process is an oxidation/reduction reaction that returns refined or processed metal to their more stable ore state. With respect to thecorrosion potential of drinking water, the primary concerns include the potential presence of toxic metals , such as lead and copper. (Source: WILKES)
cosmetica-industrie cosmetic industry Industry for the production of substances for improving the appearance of the body. (Source: CEDa)
coulisselandschap bocage The wooded countryside characteristic of northern France, with small irregular-shaped fields and many hedges and copses. In the French language the word bocage refers both to the hedge itself and to a landscape consisting of hedges. Bocage landscapes usually have a slightly rolling landform, and are found mainly in maritime climates. Being a small-scale, enclosed landscape, the bocage offers much variations in biotopes, with habitats for birds, small mammals, amphibians, reptiles and butterflies. (Source: CED / DOBRIS)
criminaliteit criminality A violation of the law, punishable by the State in criminal proceedings. (Source: WEBSTEa)
crisisbeheer crisis management The technique, practice or science of handling or controlling situations of acute difficulty, danger or instability; or the total of measures taken to provide a solution for political, economic, environmental or other similar dangers and conflicts. (Source: ISEP)
cultureel erfgoed cultural heritage The inherited body of beliefs, customs, artistic activity and knowledge that has been transmitted by ancestors. (Source: RHW)
culturele ontwikkeling cultural development The process whereby the capabilities or possibilities inherent in a people's beliefs, customs, artistic activity and knowledge are brought out or made more effective. (Source: PPP / RHW)
culturele voorziening cultural facility Any building or structure used for programs or activities involving the arts or other endeavors that encourage refinement or development of the mind. (Source: WCD / OED)
culturelel goederen cultural goods
cultuurbeleid cultural policy
cultuurindicator cultural indicator Cultural indicators give information about societies, which may be interesting even when one is not trying to evaluate the cultures of thesesocieties from any normative point of view. Cultural indicators may also have an evaluative purpose involving explicit or implicit normative criteria. (Source: UNESCO)
cultuurplant cultivated plant Plants specially bred or improved by cultivation. (Source: CED)
cyanaat cyanate A salt or ester of cyanic acid containing the radical OCN. (Source: MGH)
cyanide cyanide Any of a group of compounds containing the CN group and derived from hydrogen cyanide, HCN. (Source: MGH)
cycloalifatische koolwaterstof alicyclic hydrocarbon A class of organic compounds containing only carbon and hydrogen atoms joined to form one or more rings and having the properties of both aliphatic and cyclic substances. (Source: MGH / RRDA)
cytologie cytology A branch of the biological sciences which deals with the structure, behaviour, growth, and reproduction of cells and the functions and chemistry of cell components. (Source: MGH)
cytotoxiciteit cytotoxicity The degree to which an agent possesses a specific destructive action on certain cells or the possession of such action; used particularly in referring to the lysis of cells by immune phenomena and to antineoplastic drugs that selectively kill dividing cells.
dagbouw opencast mining Extracting metal ores and minerals that lie near the surface by removing the overlying material and breaking and loading the ore. (Source: MGH)
dagbouw strip mining Superficial mining, in which the valuable rock is exposed by removal of overburden. Coal, numerous nonmetals and metalliferous ores (iron and copper) are worked in this way. Sinonym: strip mining, opencast mining, openpit mining. (Source: BJGEO)
dal valley Any low-lying land bordered by higher ground; especially an elongate, relatively large, gently sloping depression of the Earth's surface, commonly situated between two mountains or between ranges of hills or mountains, and often containing a stream with an outlet. It is usually developed by stream erosion, but may be formed by faulting. (Source: BJGEO)
dam dam Structure constructed across a watercourse or stream channel. (Source: LANDY)
damp fume Solids in the air that have been generated by the condensation of vapors, chemical reactions or sublimation (a direct change from solid to gas). Often metallic oxides or metals, these particles are less than 1 micrometer in diameter and may be toxic. (Source: ALL)
dampspanning vapour pressure The partial pressure of water vapour in the atmosphere. For a liquid or solid, the pressure of the vapour in equilibrium with the liquid or solid. (Source: MGH)
DDT DDT A persistent organochlorine insecticide, also known as dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, that was introduced in the 1940s and used widely because of its persistence (meaning repeated applications were unnecessary), its low toxicity to mammals and its simplicity and cheapness of manufacture. It became dispersed all over the world and, with other organochlorines, had a disruptive effect on species high in food chains, especially on the breeding success of certain predatory birds. DDT is very stable, relatively insoluble in water, but highly soluble in fats. Health effects on humans are not clear, but it is less toxic than related compounds. It is poisonous to other vertebrates, especially fish, and is stored in the fatty tissue of animals as sublethal amounts of the less toxic DDE. Because of its effects on wildlife its use in most countries is now forbidden or strictly limited. (Source: MGH / ALL)
de drie principes van milieubeleid trinity of principles Three fundamental principles of environmental policy: precautionary principle, polluter pays-principle and cooperation principle. (Source: RRDA)
de gezamenlijke genen (van een soort) genetic pool The total number of genes or the amount of genetic information possessed by all the reproductive members of a population of sexually reproducing organisms. (Source: ALL2)
de invloed van veranderingen in het klimaat climatic effect Climate has a central influence on many human needs and activities, such as agriculture, housing, human health, water resources, and energy use. The influence of climate on vegetation and soil type is so strong that the earliest climate classification schemes where often based more on these factors than on the meteorological variables. While technology can be used to mitigate the effects of unfavorable climatic conditions, climate fluctuations that result in significant departures from normal cause serious problems for modern industrialized societies as much as for primitive ones. The goals of climatology are to provide a comprehensive description of the Earth's climate, to understand its features in terms of fundamental physical principles, and to develop models of the Earth's climate that will allow the prediction of future changes that may result from natural and human causes. (Source: PARCOR)
de kosten van het opwekken van elektriciteit electricity generation cost The value or amount of money exchanged for the production and sustained supply of charged ion current used as a power source. (Source: EFP / OED)
de toestand van het milieu state of the environment Condition and trends of different environmental compartments and systems, as regards the influence of human populations, the consumption of non-renewable resources and sustainable development. (Source: RRDA)
de verhoging van de efficiëntie improvement of efficiency The beneficial development or progress in the volume of output that is achieved in terms of productivity and input, or in getting the maximum possible output from given or allocated resources. (Source: ODE)
decentralisatie decentralisation Basic organizational leadership concept and process of shifting and delegating power and authority from a higher level to subordinate levels within the administrative/managerial hierarchy in order to promote independence, responsibility, and quicker decision-making in applying or interpreting policies and procedures to the needs of these levels.
decibel decibel A unit used to express relative difference on power, usually between acoustic or electric signals, equal to ten times the common logarithm of the ratio of the two level. (Source: AMHER)
deelname participation The act of sharing or taking part in a civic, community or public action. (Source: RHW)
deelname van het publiek public participation The involvement, as an enfranchised citizen, in public matters, with the purpose of exerting influence. (Source: NRW)
deeltje particle 1) Any very small part of matter, such as a molecule, atom, or electron. 2) Any relatively small subdivision of matter, ranging in diameter from a few angstroms to a few millimeters. (Source: MGH)
deeltjesscheider particle separator A device for segregation of solid particles by size range, as a screening. (Source: MGH)
degeneratie (biologisch) devolution The act of assigning or entrusting authority, powers or functions to another as deputy or agent, typically to a subordinate in the administrative structure of an organization or institution. (Source: RHW)
dekking (door een verzekering) insurance coverage The protection provided against risks or a risk, often as specified by the type of protection or the item being protected. (Source: RHW)
deklaag coating A material applied onto or impregnated into a substrate for protective, decorative, or functional purposes. Such materials include, but are not limited to, paints, varnishes, sealers, adhesives, thinners, diluents, and inks. (Source: LEE)
delfstof mineral A naturally occurring substance with a characteristic chemical composition expressed by a chemical formula; may occur as individual crystals or may be disseminated in some other material or rock. (Source: MGH)
delfstofafzetting mineral deposit A mass of naturally occurring mineral material, e.g. metal ores or nonmetallic mineral, usually of economic value, without regard to mode of origin. (Source: BJGEO)
delfstoffen mineral resource Valuable mineral deposits of an area that are presently recoverable and may be so in the future; includes known ore bodies and potential ore. (Source: MGH)
delfstoffenindustrie mineral industry Industry for the exploitation of minerals from soil deposits by underground excavations or open workings, employing adequate plants and equipment. (Source: FLGISA)
delfstoffenwinning mineral extraction The process of extracting metallic or nonmetallic mineral deposits from the Earth. (Source: BJGEO)
delta delta A delta is a vast, fan-shaped creation of land, or low-lying plain, formed from successive layers of sediment washed from uplands to the mouth of some rivers, such as the Nile, the Mississippi and the Ganges. The nutrient-rich sediment is deposited by rivers at the point where, or before which, the river flows into the sea. Deltas are formed when rivers supply and deposit sediments more quickly that they can be removed by waves of ocean currents. The importance of deltas was first discovered by prehistoric man, who was attracted to them because of their abundant animal and plant life. Connecting waterways through the deltas later provided natural routes for navigation and trade, and opened up access to the interior. Deltas are highly fertile and often highly populated areas. They would be under serious threat of flooding from any sea-level rise. (Source: WRIGHT)
demineralisatie van water water demineralisation The removal of minerals from water by chemical, ion-exchange, or distillation procedures. (Source: MGH)
democratie democracy A system of governance in which ultimate authority power is vested in the people and exercised directly by them or by their freely elected agents. (Source: APS)
demografie demography The statistical study of human vital statistics and population dynamics. (Source: LANDY)
demografische evolutie demographic evolution The gradual pattern of change in the growth of human populations in a particular region or country, from a rapid increase in the birth and death rates to a leveling off in the growth rate due to reduced fertility and other factors. (Source: DOE / ANT)
demografische ontwikkeling demographic development Growth in the number of individuals of a population. (Source: ZINZANa)
dendrochronologie dendrochronology The science of dating the age of a tree by studying annual growth rings. It is also employed to interpret previous environments and climatic variations by examining certain kinds of trees. It is based on the theory that the width of the growth ring reflects the amount of rainfall and the temperature of the year in which it was formed. (Source: WRIGHT)
dendrometrie dendrometry The measuring of the diameter of standing trees from the ground with a dendrometer that can also be used to measure tree heights. (Source: DUNSTE)
denitrificatie denitrification 1) The loss of nitrogen from soil by biological or chemical means. It is a gaseous loss, unrelated to loss by physical processes such as through leachates. 2) The breakdown of nitrates by soil bacteria, resulting in the release of free nitrogen. This process takes place under anaerobic conditions, such as are found in water-logged soil, and it reduces soil fertility. (Source: WRIGHT / ALL)
denitrificatie van afvalgas denitrification of waste gas Current methods for controlling NOx emissions in motor vehicles include retardation of spark timing, increasing the air/fuel ratio, injecting water into the cylinders, decreasing the compression ratio, and recirculating exhaust gas. For stationary sources, one abatement method is to use a lower NOx producing fuel or to modify the combustion process by injecting steam into the combustion chamber. (Source: PZ)
deregulering deregulation The removal or relaxation of government control over the economic activities of some commercial entity, industry or economic sector. (Source: ODE)
dermapterans dermapteran
desorptie desorption The process of removing a sorbed substance by the reverse of adsorption or absorption. (Source: MGH)
detailhandel retail trade The sale of goods to ultimate consumers, usually in small quantities.
deviezenbeleid exchange policy Course of action or procedure by government, business, or an individual concerning trade activities. (Source: ISEP / RHW)
dialyse dialysis A process of selective diffusion through a membrane; usually used to separate low-molecular-weight solutes which diffuse through the membrane from the colloidal and high-molecular-weight solutes which do not. (Source: MGH)
diatomeeën diatom Unicellular algae, some of which are colonial, green or brownish in colour (but all contain chlorophyll) and with siliceous and often highly sculptured cell walls. Diatoms make up much of the producer level in marine and freshwater food chains, and they have contributed to the formation of oil reserves. Deposits of diatomaceous earths were formed by the accumulation of diatom cell walls. (Source: ALL)
dichtheid density The mass of unit volume of a substance. (Source: UVAROV)
dichting seal (technical) Any device or system that creates a nonleaking union between two mechanical or process-system elements. (Source: MGH)
didactiek didactics The art or science of teaching. (Source: CED)
dienstverlenende bedrijvigheid services providing company
dienstverleningsgebied service area The area served by a particular public facility such as school, library, police station, park, etc. (Source: LANDY)
diepzee deep sea Region of open ocean beyond the continental shelf. (Source: ECHO1)
diepzee-afzetting deep sea deposit
diepzeemijnbouw deep sea mining The most valuable of the marine mineral resources is petroleum. About 15% of the world's oil is produced offshore, and extraction capabilities are advancing. One of the largest environmental impacts of deep sea mining are discharged sediment plumes which disperse with ocean currents and thus may negatively influence the marine ecosystem. Coal deposits known as extensions of land deposits , are mined under the sea floor in Japan and England. (Source: PARCOR / ERIB)
diepzeestorting deep-sea disposal The disposal of solid waste or sludge by carrying the wastes out to sea, usually in a barge, and dumping into deep water. (Source: WWC)
diepzeevisserij; zeevisserij deep sea fishing Fishing in the deepest parts of the sea. (Source: PHC)
dieren [algemeen, niet systematisch] animal Any living organism characterized by voluntary movement, the possession of cells with noncellulose cell walls and specialized sense organs enabling rapid response to stimuli, and the ingestion of complex organic substances such as plants and other animals. (Source: CED)
dieren(door)gang animal corridor Line corridors (roads, paths, and hedgerows) which lack interior habitat but may serve as movement groups for organisms. Corridors may also provide an efficient migratory pathway for animals. The presence or absence of breaks in a corridor may be a very important factor in determining the effectiveness of its conduit and barrier functions. (Source: PARCOR)
dierenasiel animal shelter A protection providing housing for animals in bad weather. (Source: RRDA)
dierenbescherming animal protection Precautionary actions or procedures taken to prevent or reduce the harm to sentient, non-human species, posed, in most cases, by humans. (Source: ONE / RHW)
dierenbescherming protection of animals
dierenbiologie animal biology The scientific study of the natural processes of animals. (Source: CAMBa)
dierenecologie animal ecology A study of the relationships of animals to their environment. (Source: MGH)
dierenfysiologie animal physiology Study of the normal processes and metabolic functions of animal organisms. (Source: LBC)
dierengedrag animal behaviour Behaviour of animals in their normal environment, including all the processes, both internal and external, by which they respond to changes in their environment. (Source: ALL2)
dierengeluid animal noise Noise caused by animals such as dogs kept in kennels or in private homes as pets. (Source: RRDA)
dierenhabitat animal habitat The locality in which an animal naturally grows or lives. It can be either the geographical area over which it extends, or the particular station in which an animal is found. (Source: WRIGHT)
dierenhandel animal trade The process or act of exchanging, buying or selling animals, especially livestock. (Source: RHW)
dierenhuisvesting animal housing Any kind of shelter, refuge affording protection to animals. (Source: CEDa)
dierenleven animal life
dierenoversteekplaats crossing place for animals Bridges and tunnels provided for animals for crossing roads and railways. Railway and road infrastructures represent an hindrance to wildlife migration. (Source: DOBRIS)
dierenpopulatie animal population A group of animals inhabiting a given area. (Source: CED)
dierenproef animal experiment Investigation carried out in animals for research purposes. (Source: LEEa)
dierenrechten animal rights Just claims, legal guarantees or moral principles accorded to sentient, non-human species, including freedom from abuse, consumption, experimentation, use as clothing or performing for human entertainment. (Source: ONE / RHW)
dierenreservaat animal conservatory Areas for the conservation of rare or endangered animal species. (Source: RAMADE)
dierenstand animal resource
dierentuin zoological garden Area in which animals, especially wild animals, are kept so that people can go and look at them, or study them. (Source: CAMB)
dierenvoeder animal foodstuff Any crops or other food substances for animal consumption. (Source: MGHa)
dierenvoeding animal nutrition Ingestion, digestion and/or assimilation of food by animals. (Source: LBC)
dierenziekte animal disease
diergeneeskunde veterinary medicine The branch of medical practice which treats of the diseases and injuries of animals. (Source: MGH)
dierlijk afval animal waste Discarded material from industries directly associated with the raising of animals, such as those wastes produced by livestock farming (manure, milk, etc.), meat production and animal testing (animal bodies, animal parts, feathers, etc.) and fur breeding (fur, blood, etc.). (Source: AWM)
dierlijk erfgoed animal heritage The sum of the earth's or a particular region's non-human, non-vegetable, multicellular organisms viewed as the inheritance of the present generation, especially animal species deemed worthy of preservation and protection from extinction. (Source: OED)
dierlijk product animal product
dierlijke erfelijkheidsleer animal genetics The scientific study of the hereditary material of animals for theoretical and practical applications such as increased population, conservation and disease research. (Source: EEN)
dierlijke mest animal manure Animal excreta collected from stables and barnyards with or without litter; used to enrich the soil. (Source: MGH)
dierlijke productie animal production
dierlijke resten animal remain Any substances or components left over from animal life, including body parts and, later, decomposed materials. (Source: RHW)
dierlijke uitwerpselen animal excrement Waste matter discharged from the body of an animal. (Source: CED)
dierlijke uitwerpselen als brandstof animal dung as fuel Excrement from animals that may be dried and burned to generate energy or converted to liquid or gaseous fuels, such as methane, through chemical processes. (Source: GET)
dierlijke voortplanting animal reproduction Any of various processes, either sexual or asexual, by which an animal produces one or more individuals similar to itself. (Source: CED)
diersoorten animal species Species belonging to the animal kingdom. (Source: RRDA)
dieselmotor diesel engine An internal combustion engine operating on a thermodynamic cycle in which the ratio of compression of the air charge is sufficiently high to ignite the fuel subsequently injected into the combustion chamber. (Source: MGH)
dieselolie diesel fuel Heavy oil residue used as fuel for certain types of diesel engines. (Source: MGH)
differentiatie differentiation The development of cells so that they are capable of performing specialized functions in the organs and tissues of the organisms to which they belong. (Source: UVAROV)
diffuse bron diffuse source Pollution which arises from various activities with no discrete source. (Source: GRAHAW)
diffuse verontreiniging diffuse pollution Pollution from widespread activities with no one discrete source, e.g. acid rain, pesticides, urban run-off etc. (Source: HGD)
diffusie diffusion The spontaneous movement and scattering of particles (atoms and molecules), of liquid, gases, and solids. (Source: MGH)
digitaal beeldverwerkingssysteem image processing digital system A coordinated assemblage of computer devices designed to capture and manipulate pictures stored as data in discrete, quantized units or digits. (Source: GIS)
digitaal terreinmodel digital land model A representation of a surface's topography stored in a numerical format. Each pixel has been assigned coordinates and an altitude. (Source: CCRS)
digitale beeldverwerkingstechniek digital image processing technique Techniques employed in the calibration of image data, the correction or reduction of errors occurring during capture or transmission of the data and in various types of image enhancement-operations which increase the ability of the analyst to recognize features of interest. (Source: YOUNG)
digitaliseren digitising The process of converting data to a form used in computers, transmitted or stored with digital technology and expressed as a string of 0's and 1's. (Source: WIC)
dijk dyke An artificial wall, embankment, ridge, or mound, usually of earth or rock fill, built around a relatively flat, low-lying area to protect it from flooding; a levee. A dyke may be also be constructed on the shore or border of a lake to prevent inflow of undesirable water. (Source: BJGEO)
dijkverzwaring dyke reinforcement The addition of material to strengthen the structure of the dykes. (Source: HARRIS)
dioxine dioxin A by-product formed during the preparation of the herbicide 2, 4, 5-T, and sometimes produced by the incineration of chlorinated organic compounds. It may also occur naturally and is distributed widely in the environment, except locally in extremely low concentrations. Substantial amounts were released by the industrial accident of Seveso in 1976. (Source: ALL)
dispersie [chem. en fys.] dispersion A distribution of finely divided particles in a medium. (Source: MGH)
dispersieberekening dispersion calculation The calculation of pollutant dispersion is based on the use of air dispersion models that mathematically simulate atmospheric conditions and behaviour. Dispersion models can provide concentration or deposition estimates and can be used to evaluate both existing and hypothetical emissions scenarios. (Source: ENVAR)
distillatie distillation The process of producing a gas or vapour from a liquid by heating the liquid in a vessel and collecting and condensing the vapours into liquids. (Source: MGH)
distilleerderijen distilling industry A sector of the economy in which an aggregate of commercial enterprises is engaged in the manufacture and marketing of alcoholic beverages made by a distillation process of vaporization and condensation, such as vodka, rum, whiskey and other related beverages. (Source: RHW / SIC)
divers product miscellaneous product
DNA DNA The principal material of inheritance. It is found in chromosomes and consists of molecules that are long unbranched chains made up of many nucleotides. Each nucleotide is a combination of phosphoric acid, the monosaccharide deoxyribose and one of four nitrogenous bases: thymine, cytosine, adenine or guanine. The number of possible arrangements of nucleotides along the DNA chain is immense. Usually two DNA strands are linked together in parallel by specific base-pairing and are helically coiled. Replication of DNA molecules is accomplished by separation of the two strands, followed by the building up of matching strands by means of base-pairing, using the two halves as templates. By a mechanism involving RNA, the structure of DNA is translated into the structure of proteins during their synthesis from amino acids. (Source: ALL)
document document Material of any kind, regardless of physical form, which furnishes information, evidence or ideas, including items such as contracts, bills of sale, letters, audio and video recordings, and machine readable data files. (Source: CCL)
documentaire documentary film Any motion picture or movie in which an actual event, era or life story is presented factually, with little or no fiction. (Source: C / RHW)
documentatie documentation The process of accumulating, classifying and disseminating information, often to support the claim or data given in a book or article. (Source: OED)
documentatie centrum documentation centre Centre for assembling, coding, and disseminating recorded knowledge comprehensively treated as an integral procedure, utilizing various techniques for giving documentary information maximum accessibility and usability. (Source: WEBSTE)
documentatiesysteem documentary system A coordinated assemblage of people, devices or other resources providing written, printed or digitized items that furnish or substantiate information or evidence. (Source: RHW)
doelgroep target group A collection of people selected and approached by some entity for a variety of purposes, including assistance, recruitment, information dissemination, marketing and research. (Source: RHW)
doelstellingen van individuele economische ondernemingen goal of individual economic business The aim, purpose, objective, or end for a profit-seeking enterprise engaged in commerce, manufacturing, or a service. (Source: RHW)
door aardbeving veroorzaakte zeegolven seismic sea wave A large seismically generated sea wave which is capable of considerable destruction in certain coastal areas, especially where submarine earthquakes occur. Although in the open ocean the wave height may be less than one meter it steepens to hights of 15 metres or more on entering shallow coastal water. The wavelength in the open ocean is of the order of 100 to 150 km and the rate of travel of a seismic sea wave is between 640 and 960 km/h. (Source: WHIT)
door bestrijdingsmiddelen gevolgde weg pesticide pathway The specific or known route or vector of any chemical substance released into the environment to prevent, destroy or mitigate any pest that is directly or indirectly detrimental to harvest crops and other human interests. (Source: TOE / FAI / DOE)
door de mens veroorzaakte klimaatsverandering man-made climate change Man-made climate changes may be due to the greenhouse effect and other human activities. A change in albedo of the land brought about by desertification and deforestation affects the amount of solar energy absorbed at the earth's surface. Man-made aerosols produced from the sulphur released from power stations can modify clouds. Changes in ozone levels in the stratosphere due to CFCs may influence climate. (Source: WRIGHT)
door de mens veroorzaakte ramp human-made disaster Violent, sudden and destructive change in the environment caused by man. (Source: ISEP / RHW)
door de wet beschermd recht legally protected right A justifiable claim to have or obtain something or to act in a certain way, which is supported by law and is covered or shielded from the danger of being revoked or repealed. (Source: OED)
doordrenking (materialen) impregnation (materials) The forcing of a liquid substance into the spaces of a porous solid in order to change its properties, as the impregnation of wood with creosote to preserve its integrity against water damage. (Source: MGHa)
doorlatendheid permeability The ability of a membrane or other material to permit a substance to pass through it. (Source: MGH)
doorlichting audit The periodic or continuous verification of the accounts, assets and liabilities of a company or other organization, often to confirm compliance with legal and professional standards. (Source: West's / ODE)
doorlopende scholing continuing education Various forms, methods, and processes of formal and informal education for the continued learning of all ages and categories of the general public. Oriented toward the continued learning/developmental processes of the individual throughout life. (Source: UNUN)
doorsijpeling van water in de bodem water infiltration into the ground The movement of surface water into soil or rock through cracks and pores. (Source: DUNSTE)
doorstromingsveld flow field The velocity and the density of a fluid as functions of position and time. (Source: MGH)
dorp village A group of houses and other buildings, such as a church, a school and some shops, which is smaller than a town, usually in the countryside. (Source: CAMB)
dosering dosage The amount of a substance required to produce an effect. (Source: CONFER)
dosis dose The amount of test substance administered. Dose is expressed as weight of test substance (g, mg) per unit weight of test animal (e.g., mg/kg), or as weight of food or drinking water. (Source: LEE)
dosis-effectrelatie dose-effect relationship The relation between the quantity of a given substance and a measurable or observable effect. (Source: KOREN)
douane customs Duties charged upon commodities on their importation into, or exportation out of, a country.
douaneregelingen customs regulation A body of rules or orders generally issued by the executive authority of a government to establish and direct the taxes, duties or tariffs payable upon merchandise exported or imported. (Source: BLD)
douanetarief customs tariff An official list or schedule setting forth the duties imposed by a government on imported or exported goods. (Source: OED)
draagvermogen load bearing capacity The maximum load that a system can support before failing. (Source: LEEa)
draaioven rotary furnace A heat-treating furnace of circular construction which rotates the workpiece around the axis of the furnace during heat treatment; workpieces are transported through the furnace along a circular path. (Source: MGH)
drager carrier
drank beverage Any one of various liquids for drinking, usually excluding water. (Source: AMHER)
drankenindustrie beverage industry
drijfgas propellant A gas used in aerosol preparations to expel the liquid contents through an atomizer. (Source: UVAROV)
drijfnetvisserij drift net fishing The use of fishing nets of great length and depth, aptly described as 'walls of death' because of the huge numbers of marine mammals, birds, and turtles that became ensnared in them. The Tarawa Declaration of 1989 formulated at the 20th South Pacific Forum, aimed at banning drift netting in the South Pacific. In June 1992 the UN banned drift netting in all the world's oceans. (Source: GILP96)
drijvende olielaag oil slick The mass of oil that floats on a surface of water, which is discharged accidentally, naturally or by design, and can be moved by currents, tides and the wind. (Source: ALL)
drinkwater drinking water Water that is agreeable to drink, does not present health hazards and whose quality is normally regulated by legislation. (Source: GUNN)
drinkwaterbeschermingsgebied drinking water protection area Area surrounding a water recovery plant in which certain forms of soil utilization are restricted or prohibited in order to protect the groundwater. (Source: AZENP)
drinkwatervoorziening drinking water supply The provision and storage of potable water, or the amount of potable water stored, for the use of a municipality, or other potable water user. (Source: ISEP)
droge depositie dry deposition The accumulation of both particles and gases as they come into contact with soil, water or vegetation on the earth's surfaces. (Source: DES)
drogen drying The process of partially or totally removing water or other liquids from a solid. (Source: ZINZAN)
droog gazon dry lawn
droogontsmetting van zaad seed dressing A chemical applied before planting to protect seeds and seedlings from disease or insects. (Source: EPAGLO)
droogte drought A period of abnormally dry weather sufficiently prolonged so that the lack of water causes a serious hydrologic imbalance (such as crop damage, water supply shortage) in the affected area. (Source: MGH)
droogtebeheer drought control Measures taken to prevent, mitigate or eliminate damage caused to the ecosystem, especially crops, by a sustained period of dry weather. (Source: ISEP)
druk pressure A type of stress which is exerted uniformly in all directions; its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (Source: MGH)
drukkerij printing work The art, process or business of producing reproductions of written text or images in multiple copies, in book, periodical or newspaper formats, or in other similar formats. (Source: SIC / RHW)
drukkerij-industrie printing industry A sector of the economy in which an aggregate of commercial enterprises is engaged in the reproduction of written text or images in multiple copies such as books, periodicals, newspapers or other similar formats. (Source: SIC)
druppelsgewijze bevloeiing trickle irrigation Method in which water drips to the soil from perforated tubes or emitters. This irrigation technology is water conserving compared to flooding, furrows, and sprinklers. (Source: CNIE)
dry farming dry farming A system of extensive agriculture allowing the production of crops without irrigation in areas of limited rainfall. Dry farming involves conserving soil moisture through mulching, frequent fallowing, maintenance of a fine tilth by cross-ploughing, repeated working of the soil after rainfall and removal of any weeds that would take up some of the moisture. (Source: GOOD)
duin dune A low mound, ridge, bank, or hill of loose, windblown granular material (generally sand, sometimes volcanic ash), either bare or covered with vegetation, capable of movement from place but always retaining its characteristic shape. (Source: BJGEO)
duurzaam gebruik sustainable use Use of the environment and its living resources at a rate that does not exceed its capacity for renewal in order to ensure its availability for future generations. (Source: DUNSTE / UNUNa)
duurzaamheid durability The state or quality of being able to last or continue in a particular condition, resisting wear, decay or significant deterioration. (Source: RHW)
duurzaamheidsbeginsel principle of sustainability Principle stated by the World Commission on Environment and Development (The Bruntland Commission) in 1987: development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the needs of future generations. Sustainable development is a process of integrating economic, social and ecological goals, and should not mean a trade-off between the environment and development. Sustainable development should imply balance rather than conflict. (Source: GRAHAWa)
duurzame goederen durable goods Goods which have a reasonably long life and which are not generally consumed in use: e.g. refrigerator. (Source: WESTS)
duurzame ontwikkeling sustainable development Development that provides economic, social and environmental benefits in the long term having regard to the needs of living and future generations. Defined by the World Commission on Environment and Development in 1987 as: development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. (Source: GILP96)
duurzame ontwikkelingsindicator sustainable development indicator Statistical indicators used for measuring sustainable development that may be chosen among a wide range of themes as, for example, environmental capacity and quality of life. (Source: PORT)
dwangmaatregel penalty 1) A punishment for a crime.2) A sum specified in a contract as payable on its breach but not constituting a genuine estimate of the likely loss. (Source: DICLAW)
eco-fysiologie ecophysiology The study of biophysical, biochemical and physiological processes used by animals to cope with factors of their physical environment, or employed during ecological interactions with other organisms. (Source: PARCOR)
ecologie (als onderdeel van de sociologie) human ecology The study of the growth, distribution, and organization of human communities relative to their interrelationships with other humans and other species and with their environment. (Source: UNUN)
ecologie van het water aquatic ecology The study of the relationships among aquatic living organisms and between those organisms and their environment. (Source: ALLa)
ecologisch bouwen green building The self-contained dwelling where man simulates the ways of ecosystems, i.e. his wastes are converted to fuel by anaerobic digestion for methane production and the residues from the digestion are used for growing food. The food residues are composted and/or used for methane production. Solar energy is trapped by the greenhouse effect and used for house, crop and water heating. A windmill would be used for electricity. Thus, given sufficient space, sunshine, rainfall and wind, the ecohouse is in theory a self-contained system recycling its own wastes and using the sun as its energy input. (Source: PORT)
ecologisch evenwicht ecological balance The condition of equilibrium among the components of a natural community such that their relative numbers remain fairly constant and their ecosystem is stable. Gradual readjustments to the composition of a balanced community take place continually in response to natural ecological succession and to alterations in climatic and other influences. (Source: ALL)
ecologisch evenwicht eco-balance An eco-balance refers to the consumption of energy and resources and the pollution caused by the production cycle of a given product. The product is followed throughout its entire life cycle, from the extraction of the raw materials, manufacturing and use, right through to recycling and final handling of waste. (Source: DUNI)
ecologisch gevoelig gebied ecologically sensitive area Area where it is likely that a change in some parts of the system will produce a recognizable response. (Source: ALL2a)
ecologische (levens)gemeenschap ecological community 1) All of the plants and animals in an area or volume; a complex association usually containing both animals and plants. 2) Any naturally occurring group of organisms that occupy a common environment. (Source: LANDY / ALL)
ecologische aanpassing ecological adaptation Change in an organism so that it is better able to survive or reproduce, thereby contributing to its fitness. (Source: PHC)
ecologische abondantie ecological abundance Number of individual specimens of an animal or plant seen over a certain period of time in a certain place. (Source: PHC)
ecologische beoordeling ecological assessment Ecological assessment consists in monitoring the current and changing conditions of ecological resources from which success or failure of the ecosystem can be judged without bias; understanding more fully the structure and function of ecosystems in order to develop improved management options; developing models to predict the response of ecosystems to changes resulting from human-induced stress from which possible ecosystem management strategies can be assessed and assessing the ecological consequences of management actions so that decisionmakers can best understand the outcomes of choosing a particular management strategy. (Source: ESEPA)
ecologische boekhouding ecological bookkeeping The systematic accounting or recordkeeping of a company's impact on the environment or its progress towards environmentally sound business practices. (Source: ISEP / RHW)
ecologische cultuur environmental culture The total of learned behavior, attitudes, practices and knowledge that a society has with respect to maintaining or protecting its natural resources, the ecosystem and all other external conditions affecting human life. (Source: ANT / TOE)
ecologische draagvermogen ecological carrying capacity 1) The maximum number of species an area can support during the harshest part of the year, or the maximum biomass it can support indefinitely. 2) The maximum number of grazing animals an area can support without deterioration. (Source: ALL)
ecologische factor ecological factor An environmental factor that, under some definite conditions, can exert appreciable influence on organisms or their communities, causing the increase or decrease in the number of organisms and/or changes in the communities. (Source: UNUN)
ecologische inventarisatie ecological stocktaking Taking stock of, evaluating, or inventorying a company's impact on the environment or its progress towards environmentally sound business practices. (Source: RHW)
ecologische niche ecological niche 1) The space occupied by a species, which includes both the physical space as well as the functional role of the species.2) Ecological niche refers to the characteristics of an environment that provides all the essential food and protection for the continued survival of a particular species of flora or fauna. In addition to food and shelter, there is no long-term threat to existence in that place from potential predators, parasites and competitors. The concept of the ecological niche goes a long way beyond the idea of the species habitat. (Source: LBC / WRIGHT)
ecologische ongelijkheid ecological inequality Any imbalance or disparity among inhabitants of the same living environment deemed inappropriate, unjust or detrimental to that environment's integrity. (Source: TOE / RHW)
ecologische ontwikkeling ecodevelopment 1) Conservative development based on long term optimization of biosphere resources.2)An approach to development through rational use of natural resources by means of appropriate technology and system of production which take into account and provide for the conservation of nature. (Source: GREMES / UNUN)
ecologische parameter ecological parameter A variable, measurable property whose value is a determinant of the characteristics of an ecosystem. (Source: EPAGLOa)
ecologische zone ecozone A broad geographic area in which there are distinctive climate patterns, ocean conditions, types of landscapes and species of plants and animals. (Source: SCHNET)
economie economics The social study of the production, distribution, and consumption of wealth. (Source: GREENW)
economie economy The system of activities and administration through which a society uses its resources to produce wealth. (Source: GOOD)
economie economics
economie, financien economics, finance
economisch beleid economic policy A definite course of action adopted and pursued by a government, political party or enterprise pertaining to the production, distribution and use of income, wealth and commodities. (Source: RHW)
economisch gebied economic region A district or an administrative division of a city or territory that is designed according to some material, distributive or productive criteria. (Source: RHW)
economisch managementsinstrumenten economic management instrument A tool or method used by any organization in the management of developmental processes used in the production of, or in the regulation of, material resources. (Source: OED)
economisch plan economic plan A design, scheme or project pertaining to the production, distribution and use of income, wealth and commodities. (Source: RHW)
economisch systeem economic system Organized sets of procedures used within or between communities to govern the production and distribution of goods and services. (Source: TEA)
economische activiteit economic activity Any effort, work, function or sphere of action pertaining to the production of goods, services or any other resource with exchange value. (Source: RHW / NDECON)
economische analyse economic analysis The quantitative and qualitative identification, study, and evaluation of the nature of an economy or a system of organization or operation. (Source: ISEP / RHW)
economische concentratie economic concentration The extent to which a market is taken up by producers within a given industry. (Source: ODE)
economische gegevens economic data
economische geografie economic geography The geography of people making a living, dealing with the spatial patterns of production, distribution and consumption of goods and services. The development of economic geography over the past three decades has witnessed the substitution of analysis for description, leading to an identification of the factors and an understanding of the processes affecting the spatial differentiation of economic activities over the earth's surface. (Source: GOOD)
economische groei economic growth An increase over successive periods in the productivity and wealth of a household, country or region, as measured by one of several possible variables, such as the gross domestic product. (Source: ODE)
economische instrumenten economic instrument Any tool or method used by an organization to achieve general developmental goals in the production of, or in the regulation of, material resources. (Source: OED)
economische levensvatbaarheid economic viability Capability of developing and surviving as a relatively independent social, economic or political unit. (Source: WEBSTEa)
economische ontwikkeling economic development The state of nations and the historical processes of change experienced by them, the extent to which the resources of a nation are brought into productive use; the concept of development subsumes associated social, cultural and political changes as well as welfare measures. (Source: GOOD)
economische planning economic planning An economy in which prices, incomes etc. are determined centrally by government rather than through the operation of the free market, and in which industrial production is governed by an overall national plan.
economische rechten economic rights The just claims and legal guarantees to access, participate in and profit from the production, distribution and use of property, intellectual property, income and wealth. (Source: RHW)
economische sector economic sector A part of a country's or region's commercial, industrial and financial activity, delimited either by public, corporate and private organization of expenditures or by agriculture, manufacturing and service product types. (Source: ODE)
economische steun economic support Any form of financial assistance or inducement for persons or institutions. (Source: ISEP)
economische stimuleringsmaatregel economic incentive Rewards or penalties offered by government or management to induce an economic sector, company or group of workers to act in such a way as to produce results that plan objectives or policy goals. (Source: ODE)
economische structuur economic structure The underlying framework, including transportation and communications systems, industrial facilities, education and technology, that enables a country or region to produce goods, services and other resources with exchange value. (Source: MGHME / RHW)
economische theorie economic theory The study of relationships in the economy. Its purpose is to analyze and explain the behaviour of the various economic elements. The body of economic theory can be divided into two broad categories, positive theory and welfare theory. Positive theory is an attempt to analyze the operation of the economy without considering the desirability of its results in terms of ultimate goals. Welfare theory is concerned primarily with an evaluation of the economic system in terms of ethical goals which are not themselves derived from economic analysis. (Source: GREENW)
economische toestand economic situation The complex of elements which, in a given period, characterize the condition or state of a country or region's ability to produce goods, services and other resources with exchange value. (Source: trZ / RHW)
economische trend economic trend Changes of variables and parameters of an economic system, analysed in statistical calculations.
economisch-ecologische efficiëntie economical-ecological efficiency The competency in performance in business matters involving the relation between financial and environmental principles. (Source: ISEP / RHW)
eco-pediatrie eco-paediatrics Branch of medical science concerning the study and the therapy of children diseases caused by environmental factors. (Source: CEDa / RRDA)
ecosysteem ecosystem A community of organisms and their physical environment interacting as an ecological unit. (Source: LBC)
ecosysteem in water aquatic ecosystem Any watery environment, from small to large, from pond to ocean, in which plants and animals interact with the chemical and physical features of the environment. (Source: GILP96)
ecosysteem riviermonding estuarine ecosystem
ecosysteem van bosgebeid woodland ecosystem The interacting system of a biological community and its non-living environmental surroundings in wooded areas or land areas covered with trees and shrubs. (Source: TOE / WOR)
ecosysteem van de bodem terrestrial ecosystem Any terrestrial environment, from small to large, in which plants and animals interact with the chemical and physical features of the environment. (Source: GILP96)
ecosysteem van de zeebodem benthic ecosystem The interacting system of the biological communities located at the bottom of bodies of freshwater and saltwater and their non-living environmental surroundings. (Source: TOE / DOE)
ecosysteem van een onvruchtbaar gebied arid land ecosystem The interacting system of a biological community and its non-living environmental surroundings in a climatic region where the annual precipitation averages less than 10 inches per year. (Source: TOE / DOE)
ecosysteem van grasland grassland ecosystem The interacting system of the biological communities located in biomes characterized by the dominance of indigenous grasses, grasslike plants and forbs, and their non-living environmental surroundings. (Source: TOE / DOE)
ecosysteem van hooglanden highland ecosystem The interacting systems of the biological communities and their non-living surroundings in regions of relatively high elevation, typically characterized by decreased air pressure and temperature, reduced oxygen availability and increased isolation. (Source: TOE / APD)
ecosysteem van waterrijke gebied wetlands ecosystem Ecosystems of areas largely inundated with water but offering elevated lands as a habitat for wildlife. This areas include swamps, both seasonal and permanent, marsh, open fresh water, shallow saline lagoons, the estuaries of rivers, floodplains and coastal sand dunes. They provide food, breeding grounds, water and sanctuary for many forms of fish, birds and other animal and plant life. They are among the most productive ecosystems producing timber, peat moss and crops such as rice and a variety of berries. (Source: GILP96 / WRIGHT)
ecosysteem van/in koude gebieden cold zone ecosystem The interacting system of a biological community and its non-living environmental surroundings located in climatic regions where the air temperature is below 10° Celsius for eight to eleven months of the year. (Source: TOE / EOC)
ecosysteem-analyse ecosystem analysis Detailed study of an ecosystem carried out to ascertain its features from the point of view of its soil composition, energy flux, biogeochemical cycles, biomass, organisms and their relationship with the environment. (Source: RRDA)
ecosystemen van halfdroog land semi-arid land ecosystem The interacting system of a biological community and its non-living environmental surroundings in regions that have between 10 to 20 inches of rainfall and are capable of sustaining some grasses and shrubs but not woodland. (Source: TOE / DOE)
ecosyteem van het tropisch woud tropical forest ecosystem The interacting system of a biological community and its non-living environmental surroundings in forests found in tropical regions near the equator, which are characterized by warm to hot weather and abundant rainfall. (Source: TOE / DOE)
ecotoerisme ecotourism Excursions to relatively untouched lands, which for the tourist promise the chance to observe unusual wildlife and indigenous inhabitants. The travel industry, in an attempt to market adventure and authenticity to those travellers weary of 'civilisation' promote travel to environments free of modern technology. Ecotourism's inherent contradiction is the promotion of untouched lands, which immediately become touched by the hands of tourism. (Source: WPR)
ecotoxicologie ecotoxicology The science dealing with the adverse effects of chemical, physical agents, and natural products on populations and communities of plants, animals and human beings. (Source: GILP96)
ecotoxicologische evaluatie ecotoxicological evaluation Evaluation of the adverse effects of chemicals, physical agents, and natural products on population and communities and plants, animals and human beings. (Source: GILP96)
ecotype ecotype Species that has special characteristics which allow it to live in a certain habitat. (Source: PHC)
een onderneming sluiten closing down of firm The termination or shutdown, temporary or permanent, of a corporation, factory or some other business organization. (Source: RHW)
een plaats ophogen raising a site The building up of land by the deposition of allochthonous material, such as rocks, gravel, etc. (Source: RRDA)
een steengroeve ontginnen quarrying The surface exploitation and removal of stone or mineral deposits from the earth's crust. (Source: MGH)
eengezinswoning single family dwelling An unattached dwelling unit inhabited by an adult person plus one or more related persons. (Source: KOREN)
Eerste Kamer Upper House The body of a bicameral legislature comprising either representatives of member states in a federation or a select number of individuals from certain privileged estates or social classes. (Source: (Source: CIV / RHW)
eetbare vetten edible fat An oil that can be eaten as a food or food accessory. (Source: MGH)
effect op het microklimaat microclimate effect
effect van handel op het milieu trade impact on environment Trade impacts on the environment can be direct, such as trade of endangered species, of natural resources, of natural products such as tropical timber, etc., or indirect, such as deforestation, loss of habitats, pollution from mining, from energy production, oil spills, global warming, etc., increases in transport infrastructures. (Source: NWFa)
effecten effect Effects include: a) direct effects, which are caused by the action and occur at the same time and place, b) indirect effects, which are caused by the action and are later in time or farther removed in distance, that are still reasonably foreseeable. (Source: LANDY)
efficiëntiecriterium efficiency criterion Parameter or rule for assessing the competency in performance of production relative to the input of resources. (Source: ISEP / RHW)
efficiëntieniveau efficiency level The ratio of output to input, usually given as a percentage. (Source: ECHO2)
effluent effluent The waste liquid from domestic sewage, industrial sites or from agricultural processes. Effluents are harmful when they enter the environment, especially in freshwater, because of their polluting chemical composition. (Source: WRIGHT)
EG Raad van Ministers EC Council of Ministers The organ of the EU that is primarily concerned with the formulation of policy and the adoption of Community legislation. The Council consists of one member of government of each of the member states of the Community, and its presidency is held by each state in turn for periods of six months. (Source: DICLAW)
EG-beleid EC policy
EG-milieukeur(merk) EC ecolabel The European Community (EC) initiative to encourage the promotion of environmentally friendly products. The scheme came into operation in late 1992 and was designed to identify products which are less harmful to the environment than equivalent brands. For example, eco-labels will be awarded to products that do not contain chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) which damage ozone layer, to those products that can be, or are, recycled, and to those that are energy efficient. The labels are awarded on environmental criteria set by the EC. These cover the whole life cycle of a product, from the extraction of raw materials, through manufacture, distribution, use and disposal of the product. The first products to carry the EC eco-labels were washing machines, paper towels, writing paper, light bulbs and hairsprays. (Source: WRIGHT)
EG-Raad EU Council The Council of the European Union is an institution which exercises legislative and decision-making powers. At the same time, it is the forum in which the representatives of the Governments of the 15 Member States can assert their interests and try to reach compromises. The Council ensures general coordination of the activities of the European Community, the main objective of which is the establishment of an internal market, i.e. an area without internal frontiers guaranteeing four freedoms of movement - for goods, persons, services and capital - to which should soon be added a single currency. In addition, the Council is responsible for intergovernmental cooperation, in common foreign and security policy (CFSP) and in the areas of justice and home affairs (JHA), including for example matters of immigration and asylum, combating terrorism and drugs and judicial cooperation. (Source: UEEU)
EG-richtlijn EC directive A type of legislation issued by the European Union which is binding on Member States in terms of the results to be achieved but which leaves to Member States the choice of methods. (Source: BUSIN)
EG-richtlijn betreffende afvalverwerking EC directive on waste disposal EC Directive whose main object concerns waste prevention, recycling and transformation into alternative energy sources. (Source: DIRAMB)
EG-richtlijn betreffende biociden EC directive on biocides Directive regulating the placing of biocidal products on the market. (Source: GRAHAW)
EG-richtlijn betreffende de bescherming van water EC directive on water protection Directive concerning the use and management of water resources for a rational economical and social development and the protection of the related environmental features. (Source: DIRAMB)
EG-richtlijn betreffende verpakkingen EC directive on packaging EC Directive proposed on 15 July 1992 aiming at harmonizing national measures concerning the management of packaging and packaging waste; the directive covers all packaging placed on the market. (Source: PORT)
EG-Verdrag EC Treaty
EG-verordening EC regulation
EG-verordening betreffende milieubeheer en EC regulation on eco-management and audit
EG-verordening inzake bestaande chemicaliën EC regulation on existing chemicals Regulation designed to identify and control of risks deriving from existing chemicals. According to this program the main goal is the collection of basic information about existing chemicals including their uses and characteristics, environmental fate and pathways, toxicity and ecotoxicity. (Source: DOBRIS)
ei egg A large, female sex cell enclosed in a porous, calcareous or leathery shell, produced by birds and reptiles. (Source: MGH)
eigenaar van het afval owner of waste Any possessor or proprietor of refuse from places of human or animal habitation, or of unwanted materials left over from a manufacturing process. (Source: TOE)
eigendom ownership Collection of rights to use and enjoy property, including right to transmit it to others. The complete dominion, title, or proprietary right in a thing or claim. (Source: BLACK)
eigendomsbescherming property protection That benefit or safety which the government affords to the citizens to insure their individual or corporate right to exclusive enjoyment and disposal of property, money and any other thing tangible or intangible that represents a source of income or wealth. (Source: LLL)
eigendomsrecht right of property The legal guarantee or just claim inhering in a citizen's relation to some physical thing, but especially a plot of land, including the right to possess, use and dispose of it. (Source: BLD)
eigendomsregister land and property register The system of registering certain legal estates or interests in land. It describes the land and any additional rights incidental to it, such as rights of way over adjoining land. (Source: DICLAW)
eigenschap attribute A distinctive feature of an object. In mapping and GIS applications, the objects are points, lines, or polygons that represent features such as sampling locations, section corners (points); roads and streams (lines); lakes, forest and soil types (polygons). These attributes can be further divided into classes such as tree species Douglas-fir and ponderosa pine) for forest types and paved and gravel for road types. Multiple attributes are generally associated with objects that are located on a single map layer. (Source: FORUMT)
eiken(bomen) oak Any tree of the genus Quercus in the order Fagales, characterized by simple, usually lobed leaves, scaly winter buds, a star-shaped pith, and its fruit, the acorn, which is a nut; the wood is tough, hard, and durable, generally having a distinct pattern. (Source: MGH)
eiland island A land mass, especially one smaller than a continent, entirely surrounded by water. (Source: AMHER)
eilandecosysteem island ecosystem Unique but fragile and vulnerable ecosystems due to the fact that the evolution of their flora and fauna has taken place in relative isolation. Many remote islands have some of the most unique flora in the world; some have species of plants and animals that are not found anywhere else, which have evolved in a specialized way, sheltered from the fierce competition that species face on mainland. (Source: WRIGHT)
eilandengroep archipelago A chain of many islands including the waters that surround them. (Source: DOE)
eindopslag final storage A system where inert materials, which are not to be mobilized by natural processes even for long time periods, are confined by three barriers: the natural impermeable surroundings, an artificial barrier (such as liner) which can be controlled and, most important, the inert material itself. The concept of final storage includes the possibility to mine the materials in the future if such materials are sufficiently 'clean' (mono-landfills) and if it becomes economic to mine such ores.
eiwit protein Any of a class of high-molecular weight polymer compounds composed of a variety of alfa-amino acids joined by peptide linkages. (Source: MGH)
eiwithoudend product protein product
elasticiteit elasticity Ability of a material to return to original dimensions after deformation. (Source: LEE)
elders off-site Activities taking place or located away from the site. (Source: AMHER)
elektriciteit electricity A general term used for all phenomena caused by electric charge whether static or in motion. (Source: UVAROV)
elektriciteitsbedrijf electricity company Company which is responsible for the supply and distribution of electric energy to a given area. (Source: RRDA)
elektriciteitsbeheer electricity supply industry Industry for the supply and distribution of electric power. (Source: RRDA)
elektriciteitscentrale electric power plant A stationary plant containing apparatus for large-scale conversion of some form of energy (such as hydraulic, steam, chemical, or nuclear energy) into electrical energy. (Source: MGH)
elektriciteitscentrale power station A stationary plant containing apparatus for large-scale conversion of some form of energy (such as hydraulic, steam, chemical, or nuclear energy) into electrical energy. (Source: MGH)
elektriciteitsopwekking electricity generation The act or process of transforming other forms of energy into electric energy. (Source: LEE)
elektriciteitsverbruik electricity consumption Amount of electricity consumed by an apparatus. (Source: PHC)
elektriciteitsvoorziening electric power supply
elektrische batterij electrical storage device
elektrische batterij electric battery A direct-current voltage source made up of one or more units that convert chemical, thermal, nuclear, or solar energy into electrical energy. (Source: MGH)
elektrische leiding electric line Wires conducting electric power from one location to another; also known as electric power line. (Source: MGH)
elektrische stroom electric power The rate at which electric energy is converted to other forms of energy, equal to the product of the current and the voltage drop. (Source: MGH)
elektrokinetica electrokinetics The study of the motion of electric charges, especially of steady currents in electric circuits, and of the motion of electrified particles in electric or magnetic fields. (Source: MGH)
elektrolyse electrolysis The production of a chemical reaction by passing an electric current through an electrolyte. In electrolysis, positive ions migrate to the cathode and negative ions to the anode. (Source: DICCHE)
elektronica electronics Study, control, and application of the conduction of electricity through gases or vacuum or through semiconducting or conducting materials. (Source: MGH)
elektronisch afval electronic scrap Any material from electronic devices and systems, generated as a waste stream in a processing operation or discarded after service. (Source: APD / RHW)
elektronisch materiaal electronic material
elektronische informatienetwerk electronic information network A system of interrelated computer and telecommunications devices linked to permit the exchange of data in digital or analog signals. (Source: WIC)
elektronische post electronic mail Information or computer stored messages that are transmitted or exchanged from one computer terminal to another, through telecommunication. (Source: CED / WIC)
elektrosmog electrosmog Pollution caused by electric and magnetic fields generated by power lines, electrical equipment, mobile and cordless phones, radar, electrical household appliances, microwave ovens, radios, computers, electric clocks, etc. (Source: NPLa)
elektrotechniek electrical engineering Engineering that deals with practical applications of electricity; generally restricted to applications involving current flow through conductors, as in motors and generators. (Source: MGH)
elektrotechnische apparatuur electrotechnical equipment All the equipment connected with the technological use of electric power. (Source: CEDa)
elektrotechnische industrie electrical industry Industry for the production of electric energy. (Source: CED)
elektrotechnische industrie electrotechnical industry A sector of the economy in which an aggregate of commercial enterprises is engaged in the design, manufacture and marketing of machinery, apparatus and supplies for the generation, storage and utilization of electrical energy, such as household appliances, radio and television receiving equipment, and lighting and wiring equipment. (Source: SIC)
elektrotechnische industrie electrical goods industry Economic activity for manufacturing electric material and devices. (Source: RRDA)
elektrovoertuig electric vehicle Vehicle driven by an electric motor and characterized by being silent and less polluting. (Source: RRDA)
element dat inwerkt op de oppervlakte surface active compound Any soluble substance composed of two or more unlike atoms held together by chemical bonds that reduces interfacial tension between liquids or a liquid and a solid, often used as detergents, wetting agents and emulsifiers. (Source: APD / WQA)
elementen uit groep 0 element of group 0 A group of monatomic gaseous elements forming group 18 (formerly group 0) of the periodic table: helium (He), neon (Ne), argon (Ar), krypton (Kr), xenon (Xe), and radon (Rn). (Source: DICCHE)
elementen uit groep I (alkalimetalen) element of group I (alkaline) Any of the monovalent metals lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium, caesium, and francium, belonging to group 1A of the periodic table. They are all very reactive and electropositive. (Source: CED)
elementen uit groep II (aardalkalimetalen) element of group II (alkaline earth metals) Any of the divalent electropositive metals beryllium, magnesium, calcium, strontium, barium, and radium, belonging to group 2A of the periodic table. (Source: CED)
elementen uit groep III element of group III Group III consists of two subgroups: group IIIb and group IIIa. Group IIIa consists of scandium, yttrium, and lanthanium, which is generally considered with the lanthanoids, and actinium, which is classified with the actinoids. Group IIIb, the main group, comprises boron, aluminium, gallium, indium, and thallium. (Source: CHSK)
elementen uit groep IV element of group IV Group IV consists of two subgroups: group IVb, main group, and group IVa. Group IVa consists of titanium, zirconium, and hafnium which are generally classified as transition metals. The main group consists of carbonium, silicium, germanium, tin, and lead. The main valency of the elements is IV, and the members of the group show a variation from nonmetallic to metallic behaviour in moving down the group. The reactivity of the elements increases down the group from carbon to lead. All react with oxygen on heating. (Source: CHSK)
elementen uit groep V element of group V Group V consists of two subgroups: group Vb, the main group, and group Va. Group Va consists of vanadium, niobium, and tantalum, which are generally considered with the transition elements. The main group consists of nitrogen, phosphorous, arsenic, antimony, and bismuth. (Source: CHSK)
elementen uit groep VI element of group VI Group VI consists of two subgroups: group VIb, the main group, and group VIa. Group VIa consists of chromium, molybdenum, and tungsten. The main group consists of oxygen, sulphur, selenium, tellurium, and polonium. (Source: CHSK)
elementen uit groep VII element of group VII Any of the elements of the halogen family, consisting of fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, and astatine. (Source: MGH)
emancipatie emancipation The state of being free from social or political restraint or from the inhibition of moral or social conventions.
embryo embryo An early stage of development in multicellular organisms. (Source: MGH)
embryogenese embryogenesis The formation and development of an embryo from an egg. (Source: MGH)
emissie door vliegtuigmotoren aircraft engine emission The formation and discharge of gaseous and particulate pollutants into the environment, especially the stratosphere, chiefly from airplanes, helicopters and other high-altitude aircrafts. (Source: MHE)
emissiebeheer emission control Procedures aiming at reducing or preventing the harm caused by atmospheric emissions. (Source: RRDA)
emissiebron emission source A chemical process, building, furnace, plant or other entity responsible for the discharge of pollutants or contaminants into the environment. (Source: DES / DEP)
emissiefactor emission factor The relationship between the amount of pollutants produced to the amount of raw materials processed, or fuel consumed, in any polluting process. (Source: TOE)
emissiegegevens emission data Data concerning pollutants released into the environment from a permanent or mobile installation or from products. (Source: AZENP)
emissienorm emission standard The maximum amount of discharge legally allowed from a single source, mobile or stationary. (Source: LANDY)
emissiereductie emission reduction The act or process of limiting or restricting the discharge of pollutants or contaminants, such as by setting emission limits or by modifying the emission source. (Source: EEN)
emissieregister emission register A listing, by source, of the amounts of air pollutants discharged in the atmosphere of a community daily. (Source: LANDY)
emissies emission A discharge of particulate gaseous, or soluble waste material/pollution into the air from a polluting source. (Source: UNUN)
emissietoestand emission situation
emissievoorspelling emission forecast The final step in a clean air plan is to predict future air quality to demonstrate that we can (if we can) meet the health standards by implementing the measures proposed in the plan. This is done by first projecting the emission inventory into the future, taking into account changes in population, housing, employment in specific business sectors, and vehicle miles traveled. These data are obtained from various sources and the resulting emissions are adjusted to account for regulations and control measures scheduled for implementation during the same time period. Additional adjustments are made to reflect large facilities that are expected to start up, modify, or shut down. The resulting inventory is an emission forecast, and is usually expressed in tons per day of particular pollutants for a given year. Additional steps may be required to determine how the forecasted quantities of air pollution will affect the overall air quality. One way to accomplish this is through computer modeling. A computer model simulates how pollutants disperse, react, and move in the air. The inputs to such a computer model are complex. They include weather patterns, terrain, and the chemical nature of air pollutants. (Source: APCD)
emulgatie emulsification The process of dispersing one liquid in a second immiscible liquid. (Source: MGH)
emulsie emulsion A stable dispersion of one liquid in a second immiscible liquid, such as milk (oil dispersed in water). (Source: MGH)
encyclopedie encyclopaedia A comprehensive, often multivolume, reference work containing articles on a wide rage of subjects or on various aspects of a particular field, usually, alphabetically arranged. (Source: AMHER)
endemische soorten endemic species Species native to, and restricted to, a particular geographical region. (Source: LBC)
endocrien systeem endocrine system The chemical coordinating system in animals, that is, the endocrine glands that produce hormones. (Source: MGH)
end-of-pipe technologie end-of-pipe technology An approach to pollution control which concentrates upon effluent treatment or filtration prior to discharge into the environment, as opposed to making changes in the process giving rise to the wastes. (Source: GRAHAW)
energie energy The capacity to do work; involving thermal energy (heat), radiant energy (light), kinetic energy (motion) or chemical energy; measured in joules. (Source: LBC)
energie energy
energie energy
energiebalans energy balance The energetic state of a system at any given time. (Source: WRIGHT)
energiebedrijf power company Company which is responsible for the supply and distribution of electric energy to a given area. (Source: RRDA)
energiebeheer energy management The administration or handling of power derived from sources such as fossil fuel, electricity and solar radiation. (Source: RHW / FFD)
energiebehoefte energy demand
energiebehoud energy conservation The strategy for reducing energy requirements per unit of industrial output or individual well-being without affecting the progress of socio-economic development or causing disruption in life style. In temperate developed countries most energy is used in heating and lighting industrial and domestic buildings. Industrial processes, transport and agriculture are the other main users. During the 1970s it was demonstrated that substantial savings could be achieved through appropriate building technologies and the use of energy-efficient equipment for heating, air-conditioning and lighting. Most goods could and should be both manufactured and made to work more efficiently. (Source: WRIGHT)
energiebeleid energy policy A statement of a country's intentions in the energy sector. (Source: BRACK)
energiebesparing energy saving Avoiding wasting energy. (Source: PHC)
energiebron energy source Potential supplies of energy including fossil and nuclear fuels as well as solar, water, wind, tidal and geothermal power. (Source: PHC)
energiebronmateriaal energy source material Sources from which energy can be obtained to provide heat, light, and power. Energy resources, including fossil and nuclear fuels as well as solar, water, tidal and geothermal energy, may be captured or recovered and converted into other energy forms for a variety of household, commercial, transportation, and industrial applications. (Source: PARCOR)
energiebronnen energy resource Potential supplies of energy which have not yet been used (such as coal lying in the ground, solar heat, wind power, geothermal power, etc.). (Source: PHC)
energiegebruik energy utilisation
energiegebruikspatroon energy utilisation pattern
energie-herwinning energy recovery A form of resource recovery in which the organic fraction of waste is converted to some form of usable energy. Recovery may be achieved through the combustion of processed or raw refuse to produce steam through the pyrolysis of refuse to produce oil or gas; and through the anaerobic digestion of organic wastes to produce methane gas. (Source: LANDY)
energie-industrie energy industry Industry which converts various types of fuels as well as solar, water, tidal, and geothermal energy into other energy forms for a variety of household, commercial, transportation, and industrial application. (Source: PZ)
energiemarkt energy market The trade or traffic of energy sources treated as a commodity (such as fossil fuel, electricity, or solar radiation). (Source: RHW)
energieomzetting energy conversion The process of changing energy from one form to another. (Source: MGH)
energie-opslag energy storage Amount of energy reserves; often refers to the stocks of non-renewable fuel, such as oil, which a nation, for example, possesses. (Source: PHC)
energie-opwekking energy production Generation of energy in a coal fired power station, in an oil fired power station, in a nuclear power station, etc. (Source: RRDA)
energieprocessen energy process Any natural phenomenon or series of actions by which energy is converted or made more usable. (Source: MES)
energierendement energy efficiency Refers to actions to save fuels by better building design, the modification of production processes, better selection of road vehicles and transport policies, the adoption of district heating schemes in conjunction with electrical power generation, and the use of domestic insulation and double glazing in homes. (Source: WRIGHT)
energietechnologie energy technology
energieverbruik energy consumption Amount of energy consumed by a person or an apparatus shown as a unit. (Source: PHC)
energieverpilling energy dissipation Any loss of energy, generally by conversion into heat. (Source: MGH)
energievoorziening energy supply The provision and storage of energy (the capacity to do work or produce a change), or the amount of energy stored, for the use of a municipality, or other energy user. (Source: ISEP / FFD)
energiewetgeving energy legislation
Engelse tuin English garden A plot of ground consisting of an orderly and balanced arrangement of masses of flowers, shrubs and trees, following British traditions or style. (Source: CBO)
enquête survey A critical examination of facts or conditions to provide information on a situation. Usually conducted by interviews and/or on-site visitations. (Source: LANDY)
enterovirus enterovirus Any of a subgroup of the picornaviruses infecting the gastrointestinal tract and discharged in feces, including coxsackieviruses, echoviruses, and polioviruses; may be involved in respiratory disease, meningitis, and neurological disease. (Source: KOREN)
enzym enzyme Any of a group of catalytic proteins that are produced by living cells and that mediate and promote the chemical processes of life without themselves being altered or destroyed. (Source: MGH)
epidemieën epidemic A sudden increase in the incidence rate of a disease to a value above normal, affecting large numbers of people and spread over a wide area. (Source: MGH)
epidemiologie epidemiology 1) The study of the mass aspects of disease.2) The study of the occurrence and distribution of disease and injury specified by person, place, and time. (Source: MGH / KOREN)
equatoriaal klimaat equatorial climate Climate characterized by constant temperatures, abundant rainfall and a very short dry season. (Source: RAMADE)
equivalente dosis equivalent dose A quantity used in radiation protection, expressing all radiation on a common scale for calculating the effective absorbed dose. The unit of dose equivalent is the rem. which is numerically equal to the absorbed dose in rads multiplied by certain modifying factors such as the quality factor, the distribution factor, etc. (Source: KOREN)
erfdienstbaarheid easement The rights of use over the property of another; a burden on a piece of land causing the owner to suffer access by another. (Source: DUHA)
erfgoed aan planten plant heritage The sum of the earth's or a particular region's herb, vegetable, shrub and tree life viewed as the inheritance of the present generation, especially plant species deemed worthy of preservation and protection from extinction. (Source: PPP / OED)
ergonomie ergonomics The study of human capability and psychology in relation to the working environment and the equipment operated by the worker. (Source: MGH)
erosie erosion The general process or the group of processes whereby the materials of Earth's crust are loosened , dissolved, or worn away and simultaneously moved from one place to another, by natural agencies, which include weathering, solution, corrosion, and transportation, but usually exclude mass wasting. (Source: BJGEO)
erosiebeheersing erosion control Practices used during construction or other land disturbing activities to reduce or prevent soil erosion. Typical practices include planting of trees and quick growing grass on disturbed areas and other means to slow the movement of water across a disturbed site and trap the soil that does get transported by runoff. (Source: YORK)
erts ore A mineral or mineral aggregate, more or less mixed with gangue, that can be worked and treated at a profit. (Source: ALL)
esthetica aesthetics Considerations, values, and judgements pertaining to the quality of the human perceptual experience (including sight, sound, smell, touch, taste, and movement) evoked by phenomena or components of the environment. (Source: UNUN)
estuarium estuary Area at the mouth of a river where it broadens into the sea, and where fresh and sea water intermingle to produce brackish water. The estuarine environment is very rich in wildlife, particularly aquatic, but it is very vulnerable to damage as a result of the actions of humans. (Source: WRIGHT)
estuariumvervuiling estuary pollution Contamination of the generally broad portion of a stream near its outlet which is influenced by the tide of the water body into which it flows. Many estuaries have become badly contaminated by wastes that have been generated from heavily populated areas.
ethanol ethanol A colorless liquid, miscible with water, used as a reagent and solvent. Also known as alcohol; ethyl alcohol; grain alcohol. (Source: MGH)
ether ether A colorless liquid, slightly soluble in water; used as a reagent, intermediate, anesthetic, and solvent. (Source: MGH)
ethiek ethics The philosophical study of the moral value of human conduct and of the rules and principles that ought to govern it. (Source: AMHER)
ethologie ethology The study of animal behaviour in a natural context. (Source: MGH)
etikettering labelling Attaching a notice to a product or container bearing information concerning its contents, proper use, manufacturer and any cautions or hazards of use. (Source: KOREN)
etiketteringsplicht obligation to label The legal responsibility or duty compelling manufacturers to affix certain marks or other written identification to their products, as is directed by laws, regulations or government standards. (Source: BLD / FPL)
etsen etching The incision of lines on a plate of metal, glass, or other material by covering it with an acid-resistant coating, scratching through the coating, and then permitting an acid bath to erode exposed parts of the plate. (Source: MGH)
etsende stoffen etching substance Substance capable of wearing away the surface of a metal, glass, etc. by chemical action. (Source: CEDa)
Euratom Euratom A precursor to the European Community, the European Atomic Energy Community was founded in 1958 by the European Common Market to conduct research, develop nuclear energy, create a common market for nuclear fuels and supervise the nuclear industry so as to prevent abuse and protect health. (Source: ERD)
Europa Europe The second smallest continent, forming the W extension of Eurasia: the border with Asia runs from the Urals to the Caspian and the Black Sea. The coastline is generally extremely indented and there are several peninsulas (notably Scandinavia, Italy and Iberia) and offshore islands (including the British Isles and Iceland). It contains a series of great mountain systems in the south (Pyrenees, Alps, Apennines, Carpathians, Caucasus), a large central plain, and a N region of lakes and mountains in Scandinavia. (Source: CED)
Europees Eenheidsverdrag single European act A 1987 amendment to the founding treaties dealing primarily with the internal market,European Political Cooperation (EPC), and institutional reform of the EC. The measures covered by the legislation include: the elimination of frontiers controls, the acceptance throughout the market of professional qualification, the acceptance of natural standards for product harmonization, open tendering for public supply contracts, the free movement of capital between states, etc. (Source: INFOAB / DICLAW)
Europees Hof van Justitie European Court of Justice The supreme court of The European Union which oversees the application of theEU treaties, decides upon the validity and the meaning of Community legislation and determines whether any act or omission by the European Commission, the Council of Minister or any member state constitutes a breach of Community law. (Source: EUEN / DICLAW)
Europees Hof van Justitie Court of Justice of the European Communities Institution set up under Treaty of Rome to ensure that in interpretation and application of the Treaty the law is observed. It consists of judges from each member state, appointed for 6-year periods, assisted by three Advocates General. It sits in Luxembourg, expressing itself in judgements when called upon to do so in proceedings initiated by member states, institutions of the EC and natural or legal persons. Procedures are generally inquisitorial. (Source: CURZON)
Europees Milieuagentschap European Environment Agency The EEA is being set up to provide the European Community and its member states with objective, reliable and standardized information on the environment. It will assess the success of existing environmental policies and the data will be used to develop new policies for environmental protection measures. It will gather information covering the present, and foreseeable, state of the environment. The priority area are: air quality and emissions; water quality, pollutants and resources; soil quality, flora and fauna, and biotopes; land use and natural resources; waste management; noise pollution; chemicals; and protection of coastal areas. The Agency will also take into account the socio-economics dimension, cover transboundary and international matters, and avoid the duplication of the activities of other bodies. (Source: WRIGHT)
Europees Monetair Stelsel European Monetary System An organization established in Europe in 1979 to coordinate financial policy and exchange rates for the continent by running the Exchange Rate Mechanism (ERM) and assisting movement toward a common European currency and a central European bank. (Source: ODE)
EuroPees natuurreservaat European nature reserve
Europees Parlement European Parliament Formerly the 'Assembly' of EEC. Comprises some 520 'representatives of the peoples' of European Community states, directly elected, and based in Strasbourg. Exercises advisory and supervisory powers; debates and passes resolutions and may veto admission of new member states. (Source: CURZON)
Europese binnenmarkt internal European market
Europese Commissie European Commission The European Union's administrative body, composed of twenty independent members appointed by the Member States for five-year terms and vested with powers of initiative, implementation, management and control according to the mandates established in EU Treaties or handed down by the EU Council. (Source: EUR)
Europese Gemeenschappen European Communities The collective body that resulted in 1967 from the merger of the administrative networks of the European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM), the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC), and the European Economic Community (EEC). The singular term has also been widely used. (Source: ABDN)
Europese Herstelprogramma European Recovery Programme
Europese Milieuraad European Environmental Council
Europese Monetair Fonds European Monetary Fund Fund organized by the European Monetary System in which members of the European Community deposit reserves to provide a pool of resources to stabilize exchange rates and to finance balance of payments in support of the pending full European Monetary Union.
Europese norm European standard A standard which has been approved pursuant to the statutes of the standards bodies with which the Community has concluded agreements. (Source: ECHO2)
Europese Unie European Union The 15 nations (Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, the UK, Austria, Finland and Sweden) that have joined together to form an economic community with common monetary, political and social aspirations. The EU came into being on 1 November 1993 according to the terms of the Maastricht Treaty; it comprises the three European Communities, extended by the adoption of a common foreign and security policy which requires cooperation between member states in foreign policy and security and cooperation in justice and home affairs. (Source: DICLAW)
eutrofiëring eutrophication A process of pollution that occurs when a lake or stream becomes over-rich in plant nutrient; as a consequence it becomes overgrown in algae and other aquatic plants. The plants die and decompose. In decomposing the plants rob the water of oxygen and the lake, river or stream becomes lifeless. Nitrate fertilizers which drain from the fields, nutrients from animal wastes and human sewage are the primary causes of eutrophication. They have high biological oxygen demand (BOD). (Source: WRIGHT)
evaluatie evaluation
evaluatie van technologie evaluation of technology
evaluatiecriterium evaluation criterion A standard, norm, value or measurement by which the quantity or quality of a process, object or person's work performance is ascertained through an analysis and judgment of the relevant information in context and in view of established goals, objectives and standards. (Source: DAM)
evaluatiemethode evaluation method
evolutie evolution The biological theory or process whereby species of plants and animals change with the passage of time so that their descendants differ from their ancestors, i.e. development from earlier forms by hereditary transmission of slight variations in successive generations. (Source: UNUN)
exacte wetenschap(pen) exact science Mathematics and other sciences based on calculation. (Source: CED)
executie (hypotheek) foreclosure To shut out, to bar, to destroy an equity of redemption. A termination of all rights of the mortgagor or his grantee in the property covered by the mortgage. The process by which a mortgagor of real or personal property, or other owner of property subject to a lien, is deprived of his interest therein. Procedure by which mortgaged property is sold on default of mortgagor in satisfaction of mortgage debt. In common usage, refers to enforcement of lien, trust deed, or mortgage in any method provided by law. (Source: WESTS)
expediteur forwarding agent A person or business that specializes in the shipment and receiving of goods. (Source: OED)
experiment experiment A test under controlled conditions that is made to demonstrate a known truth, examine the validity of a hypothesis, or determine the efficacy of something previously untried. (Source: MGH)
experimentele studie experimental study Study based on experimentation. (Source: CED)
expertensysteem expert system A computer configuration of hardware and software that simulates the judgment and behavior of a human or an organization with extensive knowledge in a particular field, often by giving answers, solutions or diagnoses. (Source: RHW / WIC)
exploitatie van (natuurlijke) hulpbronnen resource exploitation
exploitatie van de oceaan ocean exploitation The utilization of the ocean for its food resources, mineral resources, and energy and water sources. (Source: PARCORa)
exploitatie van de zeebodem sea bed exploitation Marine mineral resources extend far beyond those presently exploited; minerals are derived from two separate types of marine sources: from sedimentary deposits underlying the continental shelves and from inshore deposits on the surface of the continental shelves. By far the most valuable of the mineral resources exploited from marine environments is petroleum. Offshore placer deposits on the surface of the continental shelves yield gold, platinum, and tin. On the floors of the world's oceans manganese nodules are found as a result of pelagic sedimentation or precipitation; they are small, irregular, black to brown, friable, laminated concretionary masses consisting primarily of manganese salts and manganese-oxide minerals. (Source: PARCOR / BJGEO)
extensieve veehouderij extensive cattle farming Farming system practiced in very large farms, characterized by low levels of inputs per unit area of land; in such situations the stocking rate, the number of livestock units per area , is low. (Source: GOODa)
extractieve bedrijfstakken extractive industry Primary activities involved in the extraction of non-renewable resources. (Source: GOOD)
fabriek industrial plant (building) Buildings where the operations related to industrial productive processes are carried out. (Source: ZINZAN)
fabrieksuitrusting plant equipment The equipment, including machinery, tools, instruments, and fixtures necessary for an industrial or manufacturing operation. (Source: AMHER)
fabriekswezen manufacturing trade The process or act of exchanging, buying or selling any manufactured product, or the raw materials for any manufacturing process. (Source: RHW / ISEP)
faecesbacterieën faecal bacterium Bacteria contained in human and animal faeces. (Source: RRDA)
familie family A group comprising parents, offsprings and others closely related or associated with them. (Source: LBC)
familierecht family law Branch of specialty of law, also denominated 'domestic relations' law, concerned with such subjects as adoption, annulment, divorce, separation, paternity, custody, support and child care. (Source: BLACK)
farmaceutische industrie pharmaceutical industry Concerted activity concerned with manufacturing pharmaceutical goods. (Source: MGH)
farmacokinetica pharmacokinetics The study of the rates of absorption, tissue distribution, biotransformation, and excretion. (Source: LEE)
farmacologie pharmacology The science dealing with the nature and properties of drugs, particularly their actions. (Source: MGH)
fauna fauna The entire animal life of a given region, habitat or geological stratum. (Source: LBC)
faunavervalsing bastardisation of fauna One of the possible consequences of the introduction of animal species in an area where they are not indigenous. Such translocation of species always involves an element of risk if not of serious danger. Newly arrived species may be highly competitive with or otherwise adversely affect native species and communities. (Source: RRDA / WPRa)
federaal recht (D) federal law A binding rule or body of rules established by a government that has been constituted as a union of independent political units or states. (Source: BLD)
Federal Immission Control Act Federal Immission Control Act The 1974 act, which protects against environmentally harmful effects of air pollution, noise, vibration and similar occurrences, was redrafted on 14/5/90, and amended last on 23/11/95. It forms the basis of nation-wide, comprehensive law on air quality, noise abatement and plant safety. The act contains, among other things, regulations for the construction and running of environmentally hazardous facilities, requirements for substances, the composition and running of motor vehicles, protection of particular areas and the appointment of company representatives for immissions and faults. (Source: UBADE)
federale overheid federal authority The power of a central government agency or its administrators to carry out the terms of the law creating the agency as well as to administer and implement regulations, laws and government policies. (Source: BLD)
federale regering federal government A system in which a country or nation formed by a union or confederation of independent states is governed by a central authority or organization. (Source: BLD)
fenol phenol A white crystalline soluble poisonous acidic derivative of benzene, used as an antiseptic and disinfectant and in the manufacture of resins, nylon, dyes, explosives and pharmaceuticals. (Source: CED)
feromoon pheromone Any substance secreted by an animal which influences the behaviour of other individuals of the same species. (Source: MGH)
fiets bicycle A vehicle with two wheels in tandem, pedals connected to the rear wheel by a chain, handlebars for steering, and a saddlelike seat.
fietspad cycle path Part of the road or a special path for the use of people riding bicycles. (Source: CAMB)
fijne stof fine dust Air-borne solid particles, originating from human activity and natural sources, such as wind-blown soil and fires, that eventually settle through the force of gravity, and can cause injury to human and other animal respiratory systems through excessive inhalation. (Source: ALL)
fijnmechanica precision engineering Research and development, design, manufacture and measurement of high accuracy components and systems. It is related to mechanical, electronic, optical and production engineering, physics, chemistry, and computer and materials science. (Source: ASPE)
film film A motion picture; a thin flexible strip of cellulose coated with a photographic emission, used to make negatives and transparencies. (Source: CED)
filosofie philosophy The academic discipline concerned with making explicit the nature and significance of ordinary and scientific beliefs and investigating the intelligibility of concepts by means of rational argument concerning their presuppositions, implications, and interrelationships; in particular, the rational investigation of the nature and structure of reality (metaphysics), the resources and limits of knowledge (epistemology), the principles and import of moral judgment (ethics), and the relationship between language and reality (semantics). (Source: CED)
filter filter A porous material for separating suspended particulate matter from liquids by passing the liquid through the pores in the filter and sieving out the solids. (Source: MGH)
filteren van een beeld image filtering A remote sensing term related to image enhancement that refers to the removal of a spatial component of electromagnetic radiation. (Source: WHITa)
filterkoek filter cake Accumulated solids, wet or dry, generated by any filtration process, including accumulation on fabric filters in air filtering processes, or accumulation of wet solids in liquid filtering processes. (Source: EED / ISEP)
filtratie filtration Separation of suspended particles from a liquid, gas, etc., by the action of a filter. (Source: CED)
financieel beheer financial management The management of acquisitions and the use of long- and short-term capital by a business.
financieel fonds financial fund Monetary resources set aside for some purpose. (Source: RHW)
financieel instrumenten financial instrument A generic term that refers to the many different forms of financing a business may use. For example - loans, shares, and bonds are all considered financing instruments. (Source: PGE)
financiële bijdrage financial contribution Something given, including any form of income or price support; individual investor's monetary offering or contribution to common fund or stock; government agency's or lending aid agency's subsidy, grant, or other contribution to help bolster an economy. (Source: OED)
financiële hulp financial aid The transfer of funds from developed to underdeveloped countries. (Source: GOODa)
financiële markt financial market A place or institution in which buyers and sellers meet and trade monetary assets, including stocks, bonds, securities and money. (Source: RHW)
financiële ondersteuning financial assistance Help and support provided on matters concerning money. (Source: ISEP / RHW)
financiële vergoeding financial compensation The financial reparations that a claimant seeks or a court awards for injuries sustained or property harmed by another. (Source: IVW)
financiële wet financial law
financiën finances The monetary resources or revenue of a government, company, organization or individual. (Source: RHW)
financiering financing Procurement of monetary resources or credit to operate a business or acquire assets. (Source: WESTS)
fixatie rainout Process by which particles in the atmosphere act as centres round which water can form drops which then falls as rain. (Source: PHC)
flatgebouw apartment block An apartment building in which each apartment is individually wholly owned and the common areas are jointly owned. (Source: CED)
flessedop bottle cap
flora (gezamenlijke vegetatie) flora (biology) The plant life characterizing a specific geographic region or environment. (Source: MGH)
floraherstel flora restoration The process of returning plant ecosystems and habitats to their original conditions. (Source: DUNSTE)
floravervalsing bastardisation of flora One of the possible consequences of the introduction of plant species in an area where they are not indigenous. (Source: RRDA)
flotatie flotation A process used to separate particulate solids by causing one group of particles to float; utilizes differences in surface chemical properties of the particles, some of which are entirely wetted by water, others are not. (Source: MGH)
fluïdica fluidics A control technology that employs fluid dynamic phenomena to perform sensing, control, information, processing, and actuation functions without the use of moving mechanical parts. (Source: MGH)
fluor fluorine A gaseous or liquid chemical element; a member of the halide family, it is the most electronegative element and the most chemically energetic of the nonmetallic elements; highly toxic, corrosive, and flammable; used in rocket fuels and as a chemical intermediate. (Source: MGH)
fluoridering fluoridation The addition of the fluorine ion to municipal water supplies in a final concentration of 0.8-1.6 ppm (parts per million) to help prevent dental caries in children. (Source: MGH)
fokken breeding The application of genetic principles to the improvement of farm animals and cultivated plants. (Source: MGH)
foktechniek breeding technique Term referring to the systems employed in animal rearing (extensive and intensive). (Source: RRDA)
folklore folklore The traditional and common beliefs, practices and customs of a people, which are passed on as a shared way of life, often through oral traditions such as folktales, legends, anecdotes, proverbs, jokes and other forms of communication. (Source: VFP)
fontein fountain A stream of water that is forced up into the air through a small hole, especially for decorative effect or the structure in a lake or pool from which this flows. (Source: CAMB)
fosfaat phosphate 1) Generic term for any compound containing a phosphate group.2) Any salt or ester of any phosphoric acid, especially a salt of orthophosphoric acid. (Source: MGH / CED)
fosfaatvervanging substitution of phosphate Replacement of phosphate in detergents by environmentally safer substances, such as zeolite. The substitute will not act as a nutrient, and so will not cause eutrophication as a result of the accelerated growth of plants and microorganisms if it is released into waterways. (Source: WRIGHTa)
fosfaatvervangingsmiddel phosphate substitute All substances that are able to substitute phosphate compounds in detergents; they must have the same chemical and physical properties and must be less polluting for the environment. (Source: RRDA)
fosfaatverwijdering phosphate removal Replacement of phosphate in detergents by environmentally safer substances, such as zeolite. The substitute will not act as a nutrient, and so will not cause eutrophication as a result of the accelerated growth of plants and microorganisms if it is released into waterways. (Source: WRIGHTa)
fosfor phosphorus A nonmetallic element used to manufacture phosphoric acid, in phosphor bronzes, incendiaries, pyrotechnics, matches, and rat poisons; the white or yellow allotrope is a soft waxy solid, soluble in carbon disulfide, insoluble in water and alcohol, and is poisonous and self-igniting in air; the red allotrope is an amorphous powder, insoluble in all solvents and is nonpoisonous; the black allotrope comprises lustrous crystals similar to graphite, and is insoluble in most solvents. (Source: MGH)
fosforzuurhoudende meststof phosphatic fertiliser Fertilizer compound or mixture containing available (soluble) phosphate; examples are phosphate rock (phosphorite), superphosphates or triple superphosphates, nitrophosphate, potassium phosphate, or N-P-K mixtures. (Source: MGH)
fossiel fossil Any remains, trace, or imprint of a plant or animal that has been preserved in the Earth's crust since some past geologic or prehistoric time. (Source: BJGEO)
fossiele brandstof fossil fuel The energy-containing materials which were converted over many thousands of years from their original form of trees, plants and other organisms after being buried in the ground. Physical and chemical processes occurred in the Earth's crust that changed them into coal, peat, oil or natural gas. (Source: WRIGHT)
fossiele bron plane source Pollution which arises from various activities with no discrete source. (Source: GRAHAW)
foto photograph An image captured by a camera or some other device and reproduced as a picture, usually on a sensitized surface and formed by the chemical action of light or of radiant energy. (Source: MHD / RHW)
fotochemisch effect photochemical effect The result or consequence of a chemical reaction caused by light or ultraviolet radiation. (Source: MHD)
fotochemisch middel photochemical agent Agents which trigger off photochemical reactions. (Source: RRDA)
fotochemische oxidant photochemical oxidant Any of the chemicals which enter into oxidation reactions in the presence of light or other radiant energy. (Source: MGH)
fotochemische product photochemical product Degradation products that are produced by the action of light radiation. (Source: FLGISAa)
fotochemische reactie photochemical reaction Chemical reaction which is initiated by light of a specific wavelength. In an environmental context an example is the potential action of ultraviolet light on CFCs which may bring about the detrimental degradation of the ozone layer. Photochemical reactions initiate the process of photosynthesis in which plants convert carbon dioxide into sugars, which are incorporated into cell materials. (Source: GRAHAW)
fotochemische smog photochemical smog A combination of fog and chemicals that come from automobile and factory emissions and is acted upon by the action of the sun. Nitrogen dioxide, in the presence of the sun and some hydrocarbons, is turned into nitric oxide and atomic oxygen. The atomic oxygen reacts with the oxygen molecules and other constituents of automobile exhaust fumes to form a variety of products including ozone. The ozone is harmful in itself and is also implicated in a highly complex series of continuing reactions. As long as there is ozone or nitrogen dioxide and sunlight present, other undesirable reactions will occur.
fotochemische vervuiling photochemical pollution Air pollution containing ozone and other reactive chemical compounds formed by the action of sunlight on nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons, especially those in automobile exhaust.
fotografie photography The process of forming visible images directly or indirectly by the action of light or other forms of radiation on sensitive surfaces. (Source: MGH)
fotogrammetrie photogrammetry The process of making measurements from photographs, used especially in the construction of maps from aerial photographs and also in military intelligence, medical and industrial research, etc. (Source: CED)
fotosynthese photosynthesis The process by which plants transform carbon dioxide and water into carbohydrates and other compounds, using energy from the sun captured by chlorophyll in the plant. Oxygen is a by-product of the process. Photosynthesis is the essence of all plant life (autotrophic production) and hence of all animal life (heterotrophic production) on the planet Earth. The rate of photosynthesis depends on climate, intensity and duration of sunlight, available leaf area, soil nutrient availability, temperature, carbon dioxide concentration, and soil moisture regimes. (Source: DUNSTE)
Franse tuin French formal garden
freatisch water water table Water that occupies pores, cavities, cracks and other spaces in the crustal rocks. It includes water precipitated from the atmosphere which has percolated through the soil, water that has risen from deep magmatic sources liberated during igneous activity and fossil water retained in sedimentary rocks since their formation. The presence of groundwater is necessary for virtually all weathering processes to operate. Phreatic water is synonymous with groundwater and is the most important source of any water supply. (Source: WHIT)
freon freon Trade name for a group of polyhalogenated hydrocarbons containing fluorine and chlorine; an example is trichlorofluoromethane. (Source: MGH)
fruit fruit A fully matured plant ovary with or without other floral or shoot parts united with it at maturity. (Source: MGH)
fruitteelt fruit cultivation Cultivation of fruit trees for home consumption or on a commercial basis. (Source: CED)
functionele (geschikte) termen functional terms
furan furan A colourless flammable toxic liquid heterocyclic compound, used in the synthesis of nylon. (Source: CED)
fysico-chemische analyse physicochemical analysis Analysis based on the physical changes associated with chemical reactions. (Source: UVAROVa)
fysico-chemische behandeling physicochemical treatment Any processing of wastewater, toxic substances or other materials involving a combination of physical and chemical methods, such as physical processes including air-stripping or filtration and chemical processes including coagulation, chlorination or ozonation. (Source: TOE)
fysico-chemische processen physicochemical process Processes involving changes in the physical properties and chemical structure of substances. (Source: CED)
fysico-chemische zuivering physicochemical purification Used to concentrate waste brines and to remove solid organics and ammonia from aqueous solutions. Physical treatment consists of reverse osmosis, dialysis, electrodialysis, evaporation, carbon, adsorption, ammonia stripping, filtration, sedimentation, and flocculation. Chemical treatment consists of ion exchange, neutralization, oxidation, reduction, precipitation, and calcination.
fysiologie physiology The biological study of the functions of living organisms and their parts. (Source: AMHER)
fysisch milieu physical environment The material surroundings of a system, process or organism. (Source: APD)
fysische aspecten, geluid,trillingen, straling physical aspects, noise, vibrations, radiations
fysische chemie physical chemistry A science dealing with the effects of physical phenomena on chemical properties. (Source: LEE)
fysische eigenschappen physical property Property of a compound that can change without involving a change in chemical composition. (Source: MGH)
fysische geografie physical geography The study of the spatial and temporal characteristics and relationships of all phenomena within the Earth's physical environment. (Source: WHIT)
fysische meting van milieuvervuiling physical measurement of pollution The quantitative determination of the presence, extent or type of pollutant substances in the environment using mechanical means, including optical, electrical, acoustical and thermodynamic techniques. (Source: APD / RHW)
fysische oceanografie physical oceanography The study of the physical aspects of the ocean, the movements of the sea, and the variability of these factors in relationship to the atmosphere and the ocean bottom. (Source: MGH)
fysische processen physical process A continuous action or series of changes which alters the material form of matter. (Source: RHW)
fysische verontreiniging physical pollution The introduction or presence of harmful substances or forces in the environment that cause damage to the environment and its processes due to their material actions, as through vibration, thermal alteration or electromagnetic radiation. (Source: TOE / APD / LES)
fysische vervuiler physical pollutant A pollutant characterized by its influence on environmental conditions caused by forces and operations of physics, such as noise, microwave radiation, vibration, etc. (Source: Landy)
fytomassa phytomass Plant biomass; any quantitative estimate of the total mass of plants in a stand, population, or within a given area, at a given time. (Source: LBC)
fytoplankton phytoplankton Planktonic plant life. (Source: MGH)
fytosanitaire behandeling phytosanitary treatment Removal of heavy metals from water by the employment of plants or treatment by which plant organisms act to degrade hazardous organic contaminants or transform hazardous inorganic contaminants to environmentally safe levels in soils, subsurface materials, water, sludges, and residues. (Source: ENVAR / LBL)
fytotoxiciteit phytotoxicity
galvanisatie galvanisation The act of coating iron or steel with zinc, either by immersion in a bath of molten zinc or by deposition from a solution of zinc sulphate, to give protection against corrosion. (Source: ALL)
gammastraling gamma radiation Radiation of gamma rays. (Source: MGH)
gang; brede doorgang; doorgang corridor A physical linkage, connecting two areas of habitat and differing from the habitat on either side. Corridors are used by organisms to move around without having to leave the preferred habitat. (Source: DUNSTE)
garrigue garrigue Mediterranean bush consisting of low evergreen shrubs and abundant herbaceous plants. (Source: ZINZAN)
gas gas A substance that continues to occupy in a continuous manner the whole of the space in which it is placed, however large or small this place is mad, the temperature remaining constant. (Source: PITT)
gasbedrijf gas company Company charged with the production and distribution of gas for domestic use. (Source: RRDA)
gascentrale gas powered plant Power station which burns gas, as opposed to a coal-fired station or nuclear power station. (Source: GILP96)
gaschromatografie gas chromatography A separation technique involving passage of a gaseous moving phase through a column containing a fixed phase; it is used principally as a quantitative analytical technique for volatile compounds. (Source: MGH)
gasfabriek gaswork Place where gas, especially coal gas, is made. (Source: PHC)
gasmengsel gas mixture
gasmotor gas engine An internal combustion engine that uses gaseous fuel. (Source: MGH)
gasnetwerk gas network Interconnected system of pipes for the distribution and supply of gas. (Source: PHC)
gaspijpleiding gas pipeline A long pipe, especially underground, used to transport gas over long distances. (Source: CED)
gasreservoir gas reservoir Large tank for storing coal gas or natural gas. (Source: PHC)
gastarbeid migrant labour Temporary employment performed by persons who move from place to place, such as agricultural workers following crop seasons. (Source: RHW)
gasvoorziening gas supply The provision and storage of any fuel gas, or the amount of any fuel gas stored, for the use of a municipality, or other fuel gas user. (Source: ISEP)
gasvorm gaseous state State of matter in which the matter concerned occupies the whole of its container irrespective of its quantity. (Source: DICCHE)
gasvormige luchtverontreiniger gaseous air pollutant Uncondensed or volatile gases, usually comprised of chemical compounds, discharged to the atmosphere. (Source: DEE)
gaszuivering gas purification Removal of pollutants or contaminants from waste incineration or other combustion processes. (Source: MGHa)
gebergtebeschrijving orography A rarely used word referring to the study of mountain systems and the depiction of their relief. (Source: WHIT)
gebergte-ecosysteem mountain ecosystem Ecosystems found on high-mountains at low latitudes. Mountain ecosystems are very vulnerable. They are increasingly sensitive to soil erosion, landslide and rapid loss of habitat and genetic diversity. Widespread poverty and an increase in the numbers of mountain inhabitants lead to deforestation, cultivation of marginal lands, excessive livestock grazing, loss of biomass cover and other forms of environmental degradation. Because little is known about mountain ecosystems, Agenda 21 has proposed the establishment of a global mountain database. This is essential for the launch of programmes that would contribute to the sustainable development of mountain ecosystems. The proposals also focus on promoting watershed development and alternative employment for people whose livelihoods are linked to practices that degrade mountains. (Source: WRIGHT)
gebied distribution area 1) The overall geographical distribution of a talon. 2) The range occupied by a community or other group. (Source: LBC)
gebied dat voor meerdere doeleinden wordt gebruikt mixed use area Use of land for more than one purpose; e.g. grazing of livestock, watershed and wildlife protection, recreation, and timber production. (Source: RRDA)
gebied tussen de hoog- en de laagwaterlijn intertidal zone 1) The area between land and sea which is regularly exposed to the air by the tidal movement of the sea. Marine organisms that inhabit the intertidal zones have to adapt to periods of exposure to air and to the waves created by wind, which makes it the most physically demanding of the marine habitats. 2) The shore zone between the highest and lowest tides. (Source: WRIGHT / LBC)
gebladerte foliage The green leaves of a plant. (Source: CED)
geboortebeperking birth control Limitation of the number of children born by preventing or reducing the frequency of impregnation. (Source: MGH)
gebouw building Something built with a roof and walls, such as a house or factory. (Source: CED)
gebruik van (natuurlijke) hulpbronnen resource utilisation
gebruik van afval als materiaal use of waste as material
gebruik van afval voor energie-doeleinden use of waste as energy source
gebruik van afvalwarmte waste heat utilisation Waste heat applications include space heating and refrigeration in urban areas, thawing of ice-bound seaways, agricultural use to stimulate growth and to extend the growing season and in aquaculture to stimulate the growth of algae, shellfish, and other potential marine food sources. (Source: PZ)
gebruik van het warmtegevend vermogen utilisation of calorific value Calorific value is the heat per unit mass produced by complete combustion of a given substance. Calorific values are used to express the energy values of fuels; usually these are expressed in megajoules per kilogram. They are also used to measure the energy content of foodstuffs; i.e. the energy produced when the food is oxidized in the body. The units here are kilojoules per gram. Calorific values are measured using a bomb calorimeter (apparatus consisting of a strong container in which the sample is sealed with excess oxygen and ignited electrically. The heat of combustion at constant volume can be calculated from the resulting rise in temperature). (Source: DICCHE)
gebruik van insektenbestrijdingsmiddelen utilisation of pesticides Use of chemical or biological substances to deliberately kill unwanted plants or animals. (Source: DUNSTE)
gebruik vanplaatselijke grondstoffen local resource utilisation The use of a source of supply from a municipal or regional area, which can be readily drawn upon when needed. (Source: RHW)
gebruikersvoordeel user advantage
gebruiksbeperking restriction on use A limitation on the utilization of land or some other property, often inscribed in a deed or lease document. (Source: BLD)
gebruikt water used water Wastewater or utilized water from a home, community, farm or industry, which is often discharged after utilization. (Source: WRT / TOE)
geclassificeerde inrichting classified facility Facility that is forbidden to be disclosed outside a specified ring of secrecy for reasons of national security. (Source: WEBSTE)
geclassificeerde plaats classified site Site which is declared protected because of its natural, landscape, artistic or archeological features in order to guarantee its conservation, maintenance and restoration. (Source: SKENEa)
gecombineerd afvalwater combined waste water A mixture of domestic or industrial wastewater and surface runoff. (Source: ISEP / WWC)
gecombineerd rioolsysteem combined sewer system A sewer intended to serve as a sanitary sewer and a storm sewer, or as an industrial sewer and a storm sewer. (Source: JJK)
gecombineerd vervoer combined transport Transport in which more than one carrier is used, e.g. road, rail and sea. (Source: ECHO1)
gedrag behaviour Any observable action or response of an organism, group or species to environmental factors. (Source: LBC)
gedrag verbruiker consumer behaviour An observable pattern of activity concerned with the purchase of goods and services and susceptible to the influence of marketing and advertising strategies. (Source: CON)
gedraging van verontreinigende stoffen pollutant behaviour
gedragspatroon behaviour pattern A relatively uniform series of overt activities that can be observed with some regularity. (Source: DUNSTE)
gedragswetenschappen behavioural science The study of the behaviour of organisms. (Source: ZINZAN / ALL)
gegevens met geografische componenten geo-referenced data
gegevens over de toestand van het milieu data on the state of the environment
gegevens per hoofd (van de bevolking) per capita data
gegevensanalyse data analysis The evaluation of digital data, i.e. data represented by a sequence of code characters. (Source: MGH)
gegevensbank data base A computerized compilation of data, facts and records that is organized for convenient access, management and updating. (Source: WIC)
gegevensbescherming data protection Policies, procedures or devices designed to maintain the integrity or security of informational elements in storage or in transmission. (Source: ISEP)
gegevenscentrum data centre An organization established primarily to acquire, analyze, process, store, retrieve, and disseminate one or more types of data. (Source: MGH)
gegevensdrager data carrier A medium on which data can be recorded, and which is usually easily transportable, such as cards, tape, paper, or disks. (Source: MGH)
gegevensverwerking data processing Any operation or combination of operations on data, including everything that happens to data from the time they are observed or collected to the time they are destroyed. (Source: MGH)
gegevensverwerving data acquisition The act of collecting and gathering individual facts, statistics or other items of information. (Source: RHW)
gehalte aan adsorbeerbare organohalogenen (AOX) AOX value Organic halogens subject to absorption. This is a measure of the amount of chlorine (and other halogens) combined with organic compounds. (Source: PORT)
gehalte aan rottend organisch materiaal saprobic index Indication or measure of the level of organic pollution. (Source: ALLa)
gehalte aan verontreinigende stoffen pollutant concentration A measure of the amount of a polluting substance in a given amount of water, soil, air, food or other medium. (Source: FFD)
gehalte aan zware metalen heavy metal load The amount of stress put on an ecosystem by heavy metal pollution released into it. (Source: ISEP)
gehoor (zintuig) hearing (sense) The general perceptual behaviour and the specific responses made in relation to sound stimuli. (Source: MGH)
gehoor(systeem) hearing system The system that is concerned with the perception of sound, is mediated through the organ of Corti of the ear in mammals or through corresponding sensory receptors of the lagena in lower vertebrates, is normally sensitive in man to sound vibrations between 16 and 27.000 cycles per second but most receptive to those between 2.000 and 5.000 cycles per second, is conducted centrally by the cochlear branch of the auditory nerve, and is coordinated especially in the medial geniculate body. (Source: WEBSTE)
gehoorbescherming hearing protection The total of measures and devices implemented to preserve persons from harm to the faculty of perceiving sound. (Source: OED)
gehoorschade hearing impairment A decrease in strength or any abnormality or partial or complete loss of hearing or of the function of ear, or hearing system, due directly or secondarily to pathology or injury; it may be either temporary or permanent.
geïntegreerd bedrijfsbeheer integrated management Unified, combined and coordinated management of environmental problems which correlates relevant organisations, groups, individuals and disciplines by bringing the parts together for a complete approach. (Source: UNUN)
geïntegreerde milieubeschermingstechnologie integrated environmental protection technology Technologies that meet environmental objectives by incorporating pollution prevention concepts in their design. Integrated environmental control strategies introduced in the early design stages of a process, rather than an end-of-pipe control option introduced in the later stages, improve the technical and economic performance of a process. (Source: ENVAR)
geïntegreerde ongediertebestrijding integrated pest control A systematic, comprehensive approach to pest control that uses the insect's or rodent's own biology and behaviour to find the least toxic control methods at the lowest cost. (Source: KOREN)
geïntegreerde vervuilingsbeheersing integrated pollution control A procedure whereby all major emissions to land, air, and water are considered simultaneously and not in isolation to avoid situations in which one control measure for one medium adversely affects another. (Source: GILP96)
gelaagdheid stratification The arrangement of a body of water, as a lake, into two or more horizontal layers of different characteristics, especially densities. (Source: MGH)
gelaagdheid van de dampkring atmospheric layering Any one of a number of strata or layers of the earth's atmosphere; temperature distribution is the most common criterion used for denoting the various shell. Also known as atmospheric shell; atmospheric region. (Source: MGH)
gelastigde voor gevaarlijke goederen commissioner for dangerous goods An authorized or appointed government official that regulates the production, use, transport or clean-up of materials that pose a threat to human health and to the environment, particularly materials that are toxic, corrosive, ignitable, explosive or chemically reactive. (Source: TOE)
geldtheorie theory of money A coherent group of general propositions about the supply and demand of money, interest rates, the flow of money's influence on the overall economy or the policies that should be adopted by institutions controlling the money supply. (Source: ODE / MGHME)
geleedpotigen arthropod The largest phylum in the animal kingdom; adults typically have segmented body, a sclerotized integument, and many-jointed segmental limbs. (Source: MGH)
geleidend vermogen conductivity The ratio of the electric current density to the electric field in a material. Also known as electrical conductivity. (Source: MGH)
geluid noise Sound which is unwanted, either because of its effects on humans, its effect on fatigue or malfunction of physical equipment, or its interference with the perception or detection of other sounds. (Source: MGH)
geluid sound Auditory sensation produced by the oscillations, stress, pressure, particle displacement, and particle velocity in a medium with internal forces; pressure variation that the human ear can detect. (Source: KOREN)
geluid van vliegtuigen aircraft noise Effective sound output of the various sources of noise associated with aircraft operation, such as propeller and engine exhaust, jet noise, and sonic boom. (Source: MGH)
geluid,lawaai,trillingen noise, vibrations
geluiddicht maken soundproofing Reducing or eliminating reverberation in a room by placing sound-absorbing materials on the walls and ceiling. (Source: MGH)
geluidsafscherming noise barrier Barriers for reducing the propagation of sound: they are widely used in industry and alongside roads and railways to shield receivers from noise sources. Barriers will not reduce the noise on the receivers side, but will increase it, unless the barrier is also covered in absorbing material. (Source: PARCOR)
geluidsanalyse noise analysis Determination of the frequency components that make up a particular noise being studied. (Source: MGH)
geluidsbeperking noise control The process to control the audible sound to an acceptable level. (Source: LEE)
geluidscomfort acoustic comfort
geluidseffect noise effect
geluidseigenschap acoustic property The characteristics found within a structure that determine the quality of sound in its relevance to hearing. (Source: KOREN)
geluidsemissie noise emission The release of noise into the environment from various sources that can be grouped in: transportation activities, industrial activities and daily normal activities. (Source: DIFID)
geluidsemissie sound emission Diffusion into the environment of a sound emitted from a given source. (Source: RRDA)
geluidsfilter acoustic filter A device employed to reject sound in a particular range of frequencies while passing sound in another range of frequencies. (Source: MGH)
geluidshinder noise disturbance Noise interferes with communication and interferes with thought processes. Noise interferes with sleep, it causes anger and frustration, and has been implicated as a contributor to various psychological and physiological problems. Noise detracts from the quality of life and the environment. (Source: PZ)
geluidshinder noise pollution Harmful or unwanted sounds in the environment, which in specific locals, can be measured and averaged over a period of time. (Source: APD)
geluidsimmissie noise immission Immission in the environment of acoustic vibrations that negatively affect human beings, animals, plants or other objects. (Source: RRDA)
geluidsimmissie sound immission The introduction in the environment of noise deriving from various sources that can be grouped in: transportation activities, industrial activities and daily normal activities. (Source: DIFIDa)
geluidsisolatie acoustic insulation The process of preventing the transmission of sound by surrounding with a nonconducting material. (Source: CED)
geluidskwaliteit acoustical quality The characteristics of a confined space that determines its ability to enable music and speech to be heard clearly within it. (Source: UVAROV)
geluidsleer acoustics The science of the production, transmission and effects of sound. (Source: MGH)
geluidsmeting noise measurement The process of quantitatively determining one or more properties of acoustic noise. (Source: MGH)
geluidsmeting noise monitoring The systematic deployment of monitoring equipment for the purpose of detecting or measuring quantitatively or qualitatively the presence, effect, or level of noise. (Source: GILP96)
geluidsmeting sound measurement Because of the large variations in sound magnitudes, and because the human hearing sensation seems to vary in a logarithmic way, logarithms are used in measurement of sound. The sound pressure level is given in decibels (dB). (Source: PARCOR)
geluidsniveau acoustic level Physical quantity of sound measured, usually expressed in decibels. (Source: KORENa)
geluidsniveau noise level Physical quantity of unwanted sound measured, usually expressed in decibels. (Source: KOREN)
geluidsoverdracht sound transmission Passage of a sound wave through a medium or series of media. (Source: MGH)
geluidsspectrum noise spectrum The range of frequencies occurring in the noise emitted by a source. (Source: UVAROV)
geluidssterkte loudness The magnitude of the physiological sensation produced by a sound, which varies directly with the physical intensity of sound but also depends on frequency of sound and waveform. (Source: MGH)
geluidssterkte sound level The sound pressure level (in decibels) at a point in a sound field, averaged over the audible frequency range and over a time interval. (Source: MGH)
geluidsvoortplanting sound propagation The travelling of acoustic waves in the atmosphere with a speed independent of their amplitude. The speed only depends on the acoustic medium and is proportional to the square route of the absolute temperature for any given medium. (Source: RRDA / PARCOR)
geluidswetgeving noise legislation Legislation introduced by many governments to prevent or restrict the emission of noise from industrial, commercial and domestic premises; from motor vehicles and aircraft; and from consumer appliances and equipment. (Source: GILP96)
gemakkelijk afbreekbare stof weakly degradable substance A substance that is not easily converted to another, usually less complex compound. (Source: GILP96a)
gematigd ecosysteem temperate ecosystem The interacting system of a biological community and its non-living environmental surroundings in regions of or related to moderate climates, intermediate between tropical and polar zones and having distinct warm to hot summer seasons and cool to cold winter seasons. (Source: TOE / DOE)
gematigd klimaat temperate climate The climate of the middle latitudes; the climate between the extremes of tropical climate and polar climate. (Source: MGH)
gemeenschap society Human group of people, more or less large and complex, associated for some common interest and characterized by distinctive hierarchical relationships. (Source: ZINZAN)
gemeenschap levend op een grondgebied territorial community An infrastructure, body of people or homogenous constituency that is physically situated in a localized exurban area. (Source: RHW / TEF)
gemeenschappelijk handelsbeleid common commercial policy The set of uniform trade principles or practices established by an European Community customs union, which implements common tariff rates, tariff and trade agreements with non-member countries, import and export policies, and export promotion. (Source: EUR)
gemeenschappelijk landbouwbeleid common agricultural policy The set of regulations and practices adopted by member countries of the European Community that consolidates efforts in promoting or ensuring reasonable pricing, fair standards of living, stable markets, increased farm productivity and methods for dealing with food supply or surplus. (Source: CNI)
gemeenschappelijk tariefbeleid common tariff policy A course of action adopted and pursued by member countries, in which it is agreed to impose a system of duties or tax charges on imports from non-member countries. (Source: ODE)
gemeenschappelijke regeling common agreement A system of law established by following earlier judicial decisions and customs, rather than statutory or legislatively enacted law. (Source: BLD / WOR)
gemeenschappelijke voorziening community facility Buildings, equipment and services provided for a community. (Source: CAMB)
gemeenschapswetgeving Community ruling
gemeente local authority The power of a government agency or its administrators to administer and implement laws and government policies for a city, town or small district. (Source: BLD)
gemeente municipality A town, city, or other district having powers of local self-government. (Source: LANDY)
gemeentebegroting Community budget A schedule of revenues and expenditures for a specific time period that is devised by the European Community, a body of people organized into a political unity. (Source: MGHME / OED)
gemeentelijk (vuil)stortplaats municipal dumping Place where a town's refuse is disposed of after it has been collected. (Source: PHC)
gemeentelijk afval municipal waste The combined residential and commercial waste materials generated in a given municipal area. (Source: LANDY)
gemeentelijk milieuplan municipal environment plan A formulated or systematic method for the management of a city or town's natural or ecological resources. (Source: OED)
gemeentelijk verwarmingsnetwerk municipal heating network System of heating all houses in a urban district from a central source (as from hot springs in Iceland or by cooling water from a power station). (Source: PHC)
gemeentelijk waterbeheer municipal water management Municipal water management deals with aspects of water supply and water technology concerning planning, processing, building and producing. It also concerns the problems of waste water collection, sewage disposal, waste water treatment in rural areas, water economising measures, water body quality management. (Source: TUBERL)
gemeentelijke financiën Community finance The financial resources or income of the European Community, a body of people organized into a political unity. (Source: ISEP / OED)
gemeentelijke reiniging municipal cleansing The aggregation of services offered by a town or city in which streets and other public areas are kept clean, such as through trash pick-ups, street sweeping and decontamination of water, soil and other natural resources. (Source: FFD)
gemeentelijke watervoorziening municipal water distribution system Any publicly or privately organized setup in which water is processed at a central plant and delivered to homes and businesses via water pipes. (Source: WQA)
gemeenteniveau municipal level The jurisdiction, position or status of city, town or local government. (Source: DAM / OED)
gemeentereinigingsdienst municipal cleansing service Removal for treatment or disposal of those residues that can be regarded as waste including removal of litter from public places, public thoroughfares or the countryside. (Source: ECHO1)
gemeentewerken municipal engineering Branch of engineering dealing with the form and functions of urban areas. (Source: MGH)
gemeentewet Community act
gemengd (landbouw)bedrijf mixed farming Type of agriculture based on the combination of crop production and cattle raising. (Source: GREMES)
gemengd bos mixed forest A forest composed of several tree species. (Source: FORGOVa)
gemengd bos mixed woodland
gemorste hoeveelheid spillage The uncontrolled discharge, leakage, dripping or running over of fluids or liquid substances. (Source: HMD)
gen gene A unit of heredity composed of DNA occupying a fixed position on a chromosome. A gene may determine a characteristic of an individual by specifying a polypeptide chain that forms a protein or part of a protein (structural gene); or repress such operation (repressor gene). (Source: CED)
geneeskrachtige plant(ensoort) medicinal plant Plants having therapeutic properties. (Source: CEDa)
geneeskunde medicine (practice) The science and art of treating and healing. (Source: MGH)
geneesmiddel drug (medicine) A chemical substance used internally or externally as a medicine for the prevention, diagnosis, treatment or cure of disease, for the relief of pain or to control or enhance physical or mental well-being. (Source: RHW, APD)
genenbank gene bank Storehouses of seeds or vegetative tissue, kept in low humidity and temperature, to help maintain genetic diversity. Sometimes known as seed banks or germ plasm banks. their contents mostly originate from a wide range of primitive strains and wild crop varieties. The International Board for Plant Genetic Resources (IBPGR), which was established in 1974, promotes the collection, documentation, evaluation, conservation and eventual use of genetic resources of significant plant species. Gene banks are the subject of international controversy because they contain seeds that have mostly been acquired from the developing countries by the industrially rich countries, where they have been used in breeding programmes to develop new strains. Instead of taking decades over a traditional plant breeding programme by fertilization, it is now possible to manipulate directly the genes of plants, creating genetically modified organisms (GMOs), which are plants modified to give a higher resistance to disease and improved growth and yields and, therefore, increase the profit of the plant breeder and farmer. (Source: WRIGHT)
genetica genetics The science that is concerned with the study of biological inheritance. (Source: MGH)
genetisch effect genetic effect Inheritable change, chiefly mutations produced by chemical substances, herbicides, radiations, etc. (Source: RRDA)
genetisch gewijzigd organisme genetically modified organism An organism that has undergone external processes by which its basic set of genes has been altered. (Source: LEE)
genetische diversiteit genetic diversity The variation between individuals and between populations within a species. (Source: WRIGHT)
genetische hulpbronnen genetic resource The gene pool in natural and cultivated stocks of organisms that are available for human exploitation. It is desirable to maintain as diverse a range of organisms as possible, particularly of domesticated cultivars and their ancestors, in order to maintain a wide genetic base. The wider the genetic base, the greater the capacity for adaptation to particular environmental conditions. (Source: ALL2)
genetische informatie genetic information The information for protein synthesis contained in the nucleotide sequences of the DNA polynucleotide chain. (Source: RRDA)
genetische manipulatie genetic engineering 1) The complex of techniques for the production of new genes and the alteration of the structure of the chromosomes to produce effects beneficial to man, in agriculture and medicine.2) The intentional production of new genes and alteration of genomes by the substitution or addition of new genetic material. (Source: ZINZAN / MGH)
genetische variatie genetic variation Change in one or more phenotypic characteristics, due to gene mutation or rearrangement, environmental effects, etc. (Source: DELFIN)
genetische wijziging genetic modification Inheritable changes produced by ionizing radiation, exposure to certain chemicals, ingestion of some medication and from other causes. (Source: CONFER)
genotoxiciteit genotoxicity
geodesie geodesy A subdivision of geophysics which includes determination of the size and shape of the earth, the earth's gravitational field, and the location of points fixed to the earth's crust in an earth-referred coordinate system. (Source: MGH)
geofysica geophysics The physics of the earth and its environment, that is, earth, air and space. (Source: MGH)
geofysisch milieu geophysical environment The physical earth and its surroundings, consisting of the oceans and inland waters, lower and upper atmosphere, space, land masses and land forms. (Source: APD / ENZ)
geogene factor geogenic factor Geogenic factors are those which originate in the soil, as opposed to those of anthropic origin (anthropogenic). (Source: RRDA)
geografie geography The study of the natural features of the earth's surface, comprising topography, climate, soil, vegetation, etc. and man's response to them. (Source: CED)
geografisch informatiesysteem geographic information system An organized collection of computer hardware, software, geographic data, and personnel designed to efficiently capture, store, update, manipulate, analyze, and display all forms of geographically referenced information that can be drawn from different sources, both statistical and mapped. (Source: SFRC / GILP96)
geografische eigenschap geographic attribute A characteristic or data element of a database that is associated with a geographical feature, such as the geographical location of a landform, property or structure. (Source: APD / FRE / KIN)
geografische projectie geographical projection A representation of the globe constructed on a plane with lines representative of and corresponding to the meridians and parallels of the curved surface of the earth. (Source: GIS / RHW)
geografische spreiding van hulpbronnen geographic distribution of resources The physical character and distribution of natural resources at the face of the Earth. The fundamental differences between land and ocean, latitudinal differences in insulation, spatial variations in receipts of precipitation, and patterns of geological composition and deformation of the Earth's crust together provide the basis for distinguishing definite geographical patterns of resource availability over the world. (Source: PARCORa)
geografische verspreiding van de bevolking geographical distribution of population The number of inhabitants in or spread across designated subdivisions of an area, region, city or country. (Source: RHW)
geologie geology The study or science of the earth, its history, and its life as recorded in the rocks; includes the study of geologic features of an area, such as the geometry of rock formations, weathering and erosion, and sedimentation. (Source: MGH)
geologische processen geological process Dynamic actions or events that occur at the Earth's surface due to application of natural forces resulting from gravity, temperature changes, freezing and thawing, chemical reactions, seismic shaking, and the agencies of wind and moving water, ice and snow. Where and when a force exceeds the strength of the earth material, the material is changed by deformation, translocation, or chemical reactions. (Source: DUNSTE)
geologische ramp geological disaster Disasters caused by movements and deformation of the earth's crust. (Source: ZINZANa)
geometrische correctie geometric correction A remote sensing term referring to the adjustment of an image for geometric errors. (Source: DWEB)
geomorfologie geomorphology The study of the classification, description, nature, origin, and development of present landforms and their relationships to underlying structures, and of the history of geologic changes as recorded by these surface features. (Source: BJGEO)
geomorfologische processen geomorphic process The physical and chemical interactions between the Earth's surface and the natural forces acting upon it to produce landforms. The processes are determined by such natural environmental variables as geology, climate, vegetation and baselevel, to say nothing of human interference. The nature of the process and the rate at which it operates will be influenced by a change in any of these variables. (Source: WHIT)
geotechniek geotechnics The application of scientific methods and engineering principles to civil engineering problems through acquiring, interpreting, and using knowledge of materials of the crust of the earth. (Source: MGH)
geotechnologie geotechnology The application of scientific methods and engineering techniques to the exploitation and use of natural resources. (Source: BJGEO)
geothermische energie geothermal energy An energy produced by tapping the earth's internal heat. At present, the only available technologies to do this are those that extract heat from hydrothermal convection systems, where water or steam transfer the heat from the deeper part of the earth to the areas where the energy can be tapped. The amount of pollutants found in geothermal vary from area to area but may contain arsenic, boron, selenium, lead, cadmium, and fluorides. They also may contain hydrogen sulphide, mercury, ammonia, radon, carbon dioxide, and methane. (Source: KOREN)
geplande stedelijke ontwikkeling planned urban development Any physical extension of, or changes to, the uses of land in metropolitan areas following certain preparations or designs. (Source: CGP)
geprefabriceerd gebouw prefabricated building Building whose sections are manufactured in specialized factories and later transported and assembled on a building site. (Source: CEDa)
gerechtelijke handeling juridical act Acts relating to the administration of justice. (Source: CURZON)
gerechtigheid justice The correct application of law as opposed to arbitrariness. (Source: CURZON)
gerechtshof court of justice A tribunal having jurisdiction of appeal and review, including the ability to overturn decisions of lower courts or courts of first instance. (Source: BLD)
geregistreerde plaats registered site Area which is officially registered because of its unique features; a description is provided concerning its location, size, latitude, longitude, orientation, elevation, boundaries, wildlife, hydrological and soil characteristics, etc. (Source: IUCNa)
gescheiden afvalverwerking dual waste management To reduce the quantity of packaging waste, and thereby of overall MSW, Germany introduced a far-reaching legislation to reduce waste, based on the producer's responsibility principle. Industry was given the option to set up a third party organization which would carry out the collection and sorting of sales packaging for care of manufacturers and retailers. Thus, Some 600 companies created 'Duales System Deutschland' in 1990 ('Dual' because it meant creating a second collection system in parallel to the existing waste collection system of the local authorities). Duales System Deutschland (DSD), now has overall responsibility for the separate collection and recycling of packaging. At present, the Dual System is the only nationwide system for the collection and sorting of sales packaging. Packaging participating in this collection system is marked with the Green Dot. (Source: EPEBE)
gescheiden inzameling separated collection The collection of individual components of solid waste from any source, usually separated into different collection containers, in order to recover, reuse or recycle the material or to facilitate its collection and disposal. (Source: GSW)
gescheiden ophaling aan de bron sorting at source The classification and separation of solid waste, according to type, at the location where it is generated. (Source: EEN / FFD)
gescheiden rioolstelsel separate sewer system Sewer system having distinct pipes for collecting superficial water and sewage water. (Source: FLGISA)
geschiedenis history A systematic written account comprising a chronological record of events (as affecting a city, state, nation, institution, science, or art) and usually including a philosophical explanation of the cause and origin of such events. (Source: WEBSTE)
geschiedkundig monument historical monument Monument built in memory of an historical event. (Source: RRDA)
geschiedkundig onderzoek historical research The study of events in relation to their development over time. (Source: GOOD)
geschiedkundige evolutie historical evolution The process by which small but cumulative changes in the learned, nonrandom, systematic behavior and knowledge of a people occur from generation to generation. (Source: ANT)
geschiedkundige kern historic centre That part of a town or city in which the principal public and historic buildings are located. (Source: GOOD)
geschiedkundige plaats historical site Place where significant historical events occurred and which is important to an indigenous culture or a community. (Source: LANDYa)
geschikte technologie appropriate technology 1) A flexible and participatory approach to developing economically viable, regionally applicable and sustainable technology.2) Technology designed to be used in developing countries. Typical requirements arethat it should: be easy to use by the unskilled; have no difficult-to-get parts; be easily repaired on the spot. Typical example: a simple windmill to pump water rather than a diesel-driven pump. The terms `alternative', `intermediate' and`appropriate' are often used interchangeably. (Source: IISD / VCN)
gesteente rock Any aggregate of minerals that makes up part of the earth's crust. It may be unconsolidated, such as sand, clay, or mud, or consolidated, such as granite, limestone, or coal. (Source: CED)
gesteentemechanica rock mechanics The theoretical and applied science of the physical behavior of rocks, representing a 'branch of mechanics concerned with the response of rock to the force fields of its physical environment'. (Source: BJGEO)
getijcentrale tidal power station Power station where the generation of power is provided by the ebb and flow of the tides. The principle is that water collected at high tide behind a barrage is released at low tide to turn a turbine that, in turn, drives a generator. (Source: PORT / BRACK)
getijde-energie tidal power Mechanical power, which may be converted to electrical power, generated by the rise and fall of ocean tides. The possibilities of utilizing tidal power have been studied for many generations, but the only feasible schemes devised so far are based on the use of one or more tidal basins, separated from the sea by dams (known as barrages), and of hydraulic turbines through which water passes on its way between the basins and the sea. (Source: ALL)
getijwater tidal water Any water whose level changes periodically due to tidal action. (Source: MGH)
geurhinder odour nuisance
geurstof aromatic substance Substance having a distinctive, usually fragrant smell. (Source: CED)
geurvervuiling olfactory pollution Pollution produced by gaseous emissions in the atmosphere that, even in very small amounts, may cause injuries or a condition of general unease or sickness to persons living in the vicinity. (Source: FLGISA)
gevaar van vervuilende stoffen hazard of pollutants Risk or danger to human health, property or the environment posed by the introduction of a harmful substances into the ecosystem. (Source: RHW / TOE)
gevaar voor de gezondheid health hazard
gevaar voor de milieuhygiëne environmental health hazard Any physical, chemical or other agent capable of causing harm to the interrelationship between humans and the surrounding external conditions, threatening both human well-being and ecological integrity. (Source: TOE)
gevaar voor het milieu environmental hazard A physical or chemical agent capable of causing harm to the ecosystem or natural resources. (Source: FFD)
gevaarlijk afval hazardous waste Any waste or combination of wastes with the potential to damage human health, living organisms or the environment. Hazardous wastes usually require special handling and disposal procedures which are regulated by national and international laws. (Source: HMD / DEE / HMH)
gevaarlijk bouwmateriaal hazardous working material A poison, corrosive agent, flammable substance, explosive, radioactive chemical, or any other material which can endanger human health or well-being if handled improperly. (Source: MGH)
gevaarlijk getij red tide Sea water which is covered or discoloured by the sudden growth of algal bloom or by a great increase in single-celled organisms, dinoflagellates. Red tides are often fatal to many forms of marine life and, in some cases, can result in human deaths because the dinoflagellates are eaten by clams and mussels which concentrate the paralysing toxins which they produce. (Source: WRIGHT)
gevaarlijke goederen dangerous goods Goods or products that are full of hazards or risks when used, transported, etc. (Source: ISEP)
gevaarlijke installatie dangerous installation Installations whose functioning involves the possibility of major hazards such as chemical plants, nuclear, coal and oil power production plants, etc. (Source: WPRa)
gevaarlijke stof hazardous substance Any material that poses a threat to human health and/or the environment. Typical hazardous substances are toxic, corrosive, ignitable, explosive, or chemically reactive. (Source: LEE)
gevaarlijke stoffen voor het milieu environmentally dangerous substance Substance that causes undesirable change in the physical, chemical, or biological characteristics of the air, water, or land that can harmfully affect the health, survival, or activities of human or other living organisms. (Source: VIRPURa)
gevaarlijkestoffenwetgeving hazardous substances legislation A binding rule or body of rules prescribed by a government to regulate the production, use or clean-up of materials that pose a threat to human health and the environment, particularly materials that are toxic, corrosive, ignitable, explosive or chemically reactive. (Source: TOE / BLD)
gevaren hazard A physical or chemical agent capable of causing harm to persons, property, animals, plants or other natural resources. (Source: FFD / HMD)
gevaren, veiligheid risks, safety
gevarenzone hazard area Any site or region in which there is a physical or chemical agent capable of causing harm to property, persons, animals, plants or other natural resources. (Source: FFD / HMD)
gevoelig gebied sensitive area Areas of a country where special measures may be given to protect the natural habitats which present a high level of vulnerability. (Source: BRACK)
gevoelig natuurgebied sensitive natural area Terrestrial or aquatic area or other fragile natural setting with unique or highly-valued environmental features. (Source: EPAGLO)
gevoelige omgeving sensitive environment Any parcel of land, large or small, under public or private control, that already has, or with remedial action could achieve, desirable environmental attributes. These attributes contribute to the retention and/or creation of wildlife habitat, soils stability, water retention or recharge, vegetative cover, and similar vital ecological functions. Environmentally sensitive areas range in size from small patches to extensive landscape features. They can include rare or common habitats, plants and animals. (Source: DUNSTE)
gevoeligheidsanalyse sensitivity analysis A formalized procedure to identify the impact of changes in various model components on model output. Sensitivity analysis is an integral part of simulation experimentation and may influence model formulations. It is commonly used to examine model behaviour. The general procedure is to define a model output variable that represents an important aspect of model behaviour. The values of various inputs of the model are then varied and the resultant change in the output variable is monitored. Large changes in the output variable imply that the particular input varied is important in controlling model behaviour. Within this general definition, sensitivity analysis has been applied to a variety of model inputs including state variables, environmental variables and initial conditions. (Source: YOUNG)
gevolgd onderwijs educational path A guided trail, designed to explain to children a piece of countryside, the type of soil, flora, fauna, etc. Such trails may be self-guiding, using either explanatory notices set up at intervals or numbered boards referring to a printed leaflet: in other cases parties may be led by a demonstrator or warden. (Source: GOOD)
gevolgen van lawaai op de gezondheid health effect of noise Noise consequences on human health consist in loss of hearing and psychological effects. (Source: KOREN)
gevolgen van milieuverontreiniging pollution effect The main pollution effects concern human health and cover all aspects of the physical environment - air, water and land, including the effects of climate change. Human activities which are sources of pollution arise from domestic, commercial, industrial and military sectors and their effects are influenced by various issues, trends and public sector programmes, such as safe water and food, management of waste, increasing use of chemicals in agriculture, and urbanization. Types of pollutants which are negatively impacting health include litter, toxic chemicals, nuclear waste, lead, spoil from mining, food and water contaminants; and the polluting effects of over-population. (Source: WPR)
gevolgen, invloeden, effecten effects, impacts
gewasbehandeling crop treatment Use of chemicals in order to avoid damage of crops by insects or weeds. (Source: WRIGHTa)
gewasbescherming crop protection The problem of crop protection has changed dramatically since 1945. There is now a whole arsenal of chemicals with which to combat agricultural pests and diseases, but this development has itself many drawbacks. Such sophisticated techniques are available only to a minority of farmers; in most parts of the world the standard of crop protection remains abysmally low. In addition, modern crop protection methods have been criticized for relying too heavily on chemical control. Biological controls, both natural and contrived, have been neglected. In some cases involving misuse of agricultural chemicals, crops must be protected from the very measures intended for their protection. Meanwhile previously localized pests and diseases continue to spread worldwide. (Source: WPR)
gewasbescherming plant protection Conservation of plant species that may be rare or endangered, and of other plants of particular significance. (Source: GILP96)
gewasbeschermingsmiddel plant protection product Any substance or mixture of substances which through physiological action protects the plants against parasites, fungi, virus, or other damaging factors. (Source: KORENa)
gewassenteelt crop production The act or process of yielding produce from farmland, for livestock or human consumption. (Source: RHW / AGP)
gewervelde dieren vertebrate Any chordate animal of the subphylum Vertebrata, characterized by a bony or cartilaginous skeleton and a well-developed brain: the group contains fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals. (Source: CED)
gewest region A designated area or an administrative division of a city, county or larger geographical territory that is formulated according to some biological, political, economic or demographic criteria. (Source: RHW / ISEP)
gewestelijk natuurpark regional natural park A park operated and managed by a region. (Source: LANDY)
gewestelijk voorschrift regional law
gewestelijke gezag regional authority The power of a government agency or its administrators to administer and implement laws and government policies applicable to a specific geographical area, usually falling under the jurisdiction of two or more states. (Source: BLD)
gewestelijke ontwikkeling regional development The progress or advancement for a large geographical territory or a designated division of a country or state, particularly in economic growth that leads to modernization or industrialization. (Source: RHW)
gewestelijke overeenkomst regional convention An assembly of national, political party or organizational delegates representing persons or the interests of a specific geographic area, or the pact or the agreement that arises from such an assembly. (Source: BLD)
gewestelijke planning regional planning The step by step method and process of defining, developing and outlining various possible courses of actions to meet existing or future needs, goals and objectives for a designated area or an administrative division of a city, county or larger geographical area. (Source: RHW / BLD)
gewestelijke verordening regional regulation A body of rules or orders prescribed by government, management or an international organization or treaty pertaining to or effective within a specific territory of one or more states. (Source: BLD / RHW)
gewestplan regional plan The plan for a region according to some physiographic, biological, political, administrative, economic, demographic, or other criteria. (Source: LANDY)
geweststatistieken regional statistics
geweststructuur regional structure The organization or arrangement of a large geographical territory or a designated division of a country or state that may be formulated according to some administrative, biological, political, economic or demographic criteria. (Source: RHW)
geweven stof fabric Any cloth made from yarn or fibres by weaving, knitting, felting, etc. (Source: CED)
gewicht weight The gravitational force with which the earth attracts a body. By extension, the gravitational force with which a star, planet, or satellite attracts a nearby body. (Source: MGH)
gewoonte en gebruik custom and usage A group pattern of habitual activity usually transmitted across generations and, in some instances, having the force of law. (Source: ISEP / RHW)
gezagsdragende instelling authority body An organized assemblage of authorized persons or officials empowered to implement and enforce laws, oversee jurisdictions, settle disputes, adjudicate or make some other legal determination. (Source: RHW / BLD)
gezamenlijke afvalwaterverwerking collective wastewater treatment
gezamenlijke tenuitvoerlegging (Conferentie van Rio de Janeiro) joint implementation (Rio Conference)
gezamenlijke verbranding co-incineration Joint incineration of hazardous waste, in any form, with refuse and/or sludge. (Source: LEE)
gezinshuishouden private household Living quarters where a group of persons (family) live together. (Source: GOOD)
gezinsplanning family planning The control of the number of children in a family and of the intervals between them, especially by the use of contraceptives. (Source: CED)
gezinstoestand marital status The standing of an individual with regard to a legally recognized conjugal relationship, either in the present or past. (Source: RHW)
gezondheid health A state of dynamic equilibrium between an organism and its environment in which all functions of mind and body are normal. (Source: MGH)
gezondheid van dieren animal health
gezondheid, voeding health, nutrition
gezondheidsbescherming health protection
gezondheidsdienst health service The supply of health care to the public. (Source: CEDa)
gezondheidssteun sanitary assistance
gezondheidsvoorschrift health regulation A body of rules or orders prescribed by government or management to promote or protect the soundness of human bodies and minds in the workplace, at home or in the general environment. (Source: BLD / RHW)
gezondheidswetgeving health legislation Laws, ordinances, or codes prescribing sanitary, clean air, etc., standards and regulations, designed to promote and preserve the health of the community and working conditions of businesses. (Source: BLACK)
gezondheidszorg health care
gezondmaking van het milieu environmental sanitation
giftig afval toxic waste Refuse posing a significant hazard to the environment or to human health when improperly handled; includes carcinogenic, mutagenic, teratogenic or phytotoxic wastes, or wastes harmful to aquatic species, or poisonous wastes. (Source: DEE / HMD)
giftig effect toxic effect A result produced by the ingestion or contact of poisonous materials. (Source: RRDA)
giftig metaal toxic metal Metals (usually heavy metals) which interfere with the respiration, metabolism or growth of organisms. (Source: EPAGLO)
giftig product toxic product Any product which can cause acute or chronic injury to the human body or which is suspected of being able to cause disease or injury under some conditions. (Source: KOREN)
giftige stof toxic substance A chemical or mixture that may present a risk or injury to health or the environment. (Source: LANDY)
giftige stof toxin A poisonous substance generally of plant or animal origin. (Source: LANDY)
giftigheid toxicity The degree of danger posed by a substance to animal or plant life. (Source: LANDY)
giftigheid van bestrijdingsmiddelen toxicity of pesticides
giftigheidsboordeling toxicological assessment The process of characterizing and evaluating the inherent toxicity of a chemical substance, a poison, etc. (Source: KORENa)
giftigheidsonderzoek toxicological testing Test for the determination of the inherent toxicity of a chemical. (Source: KOREN)
gips gypsum A colourless or white mineral used in the building industry and in the manufacture of cement, rubber, paper and plaster of Paris. (Source: CED)
gipsafval waste gypsum By-product of the wet limestone flue gas desulphurisation process. (Source: PORTa)
GIS digitaal formaat GIS digital format The digital form of data collected by remote sensing. (Source: YOUNG)
GIS digitaal systeem GIS digital system An organized collection of computer hardware, software, geographic data, and personnel designed to efficiently capture, store, update, manipulate, analyze, and display all forms of geographically referenced information that can be drawn from different sources, both statistical and mapped. (Source: SFRC / GILP96)
GIS digitale techniek GIS digital technique The transformation to digital form of data collected by remote sensing, traditional field and documentary methods and of existing historical data such as paper maps, charts, and publications. (Source: YOUNG)
GIS laboratorium GIS laboratory A laboratory where GIS data drawn from different sources are stored, handled, analyzed and updated. (Source: GILP96a)
gist yeast Many species of unicellular fungi, most of which belong to the Ascomycetes and reproduce by budding. The genus Saccharomyces is used in brewing and winemaking because in low oxygen concentration it produces zymase, an enzyme system that breaks down sugars to alcohol and carbon dioxide. Saccharomyces is also used in bread-making. Some yeasts are used as a source of protein and of vitamins of the B group. (Source: ALL)
gisting fermentation Any enzymatic transformation of organic substrates, especially carbohydrates, generally accompanied by the evolution of gas; a physiological counterpart of oxidation, permitting certain organisms to live and grow in the absence of air; used in various industrial processes for the manufacture of products, such as alcohols, acids, and cheese by the action of yeasts, molds, and bacteria; alcoholic fermentation is the best-known example. Also known as zymosis. (Source: MGH)
glaciologie glaciology 1) The study of all aspects of snow and ice; the science that treats quantitatively the whole range of processes associated with all forms of solid existing water. 2) The study of existing glaciers and ice sheets, and of their physical properties. (Source: BJGEO)
glas glass A hard, amorphous, inorganic, usually transparent, brittle substance made by fusing silicates, sometimes borates and phosphates, with certain basic oxides and then rapidly cooling to prevent crystallization. (Source: MGH)
glasafval waste glass Discarded material from the glass manufacturing process or from used consumer products made of glass. (Source: GMR)
glasindustrie glass industry Industry for the production of glassware. (Source: CED)
glastuinbouw greenhouse cultivation Cultivation of plants, especially of out-of-season plants, in glass-enclosed, climate-controlled structures. (Source: MGH)
glasvezel fibreglass A material made from small fibres of glass twisted together, which is used for keeping buildings warm, or a plastic strengthened by these fibres and used for making structures such as the outsides of cars and boats. (Source: CAMB)
gletsjer glacier Slow moving masses of ice which have accumulated either on mountains or in polar regions. They are found where warm, moist air or warm water meets cold air or water. They move, influenced by the force of gravity and the pressure of the ice, above the underlying slush layers and slide downhill, eventually melting at lower levels to form rivers or reaching sea-level, where they form ice shelves or fall into the water as icebergs. (Source: WRIGHT)
godsdienst religion The expression of man's belief in and reverence for a superhuman power recognized as the creator and governor of the universe.
goederen goods A term of variable content and meaning. It may include every species of personal chattels or property. Items of merchandise, supplies, raw materials, or finished goods. Land is excluded. (Source: DICLAW / WESTS)
goederen en diensten goods and services The total of economic assets, including both physical or storable objects and intangible acts of human assistance. (Source: ODE)
goedkeuring approval
goedkeuring van installaties approval of installations Authorization or permission for setting up or making adjustments to a building or to a mechanical or electrical system or apparatus. (Source: OED)
goedkope vlag flag of convenience Practice of registering a merchant vessel with a country that has favourable (i.e. less restrictive ) safety requirements, registration fees, etc.
golf golf A game played on a large open course, the object of which is to hit a ball using clubs, with as few strokes as possible, into each of usually 18 holes.
golfenergie wave energy Power extracted from the motion of sea waves at the coast. (Source: CED)
golvenstroming op zee swell A regular movement of marine waves created by wind stress in the open ocean which travels considerable distances away from the generating field and into another wind field. The waves are characterized by relatively smooth, generally unbroken, crests and a fairly regular wavelength, but swell increases in wavelength and decreases in wave height as it moves away from the generating area. Local wind waves may be superimposed upon swell waves as they approach a coastline, thereby creating sharper crests and a choppy sea. (Source: WHIT)
goudwieren chrysophyta The golden-brown and orange-yellow algae; a diverse group of microscopically small algae which inhabit fresh and salt water, many being planktonic. They contain carotenoid pigments and may be unicellular, colonial, filamentous or amoeboid. (Source: ALL)
graad rate The amount of change in some quantity during a time interval divided by the length of the time interval. (Source: MGH)
graan grain Edible, starchy seeds of the grass family (Graminae) usable as food by man and his livestock. (Source: MGH)
grafieklijn progress line A diagrammatic presentation of observed data in the sequence of their occurrence in time, in the context of water flow. (Source: ECHO1)
granulometrie granulometry 1) The determination of the different grain size in a granular material.2) The proportion by weight of particles of different sizes in granular material. (Source: ECHO2)
grasachtigen graminaceous plant A very large family of plants including cereals such as wheat, maize, etc. (Source: PHC)
grasbrand grass fire A conflagration in or destroying large areas of any vegetation in the Gramineae family as found in fields, meadows, savannas or other grasslands. (Source: ISEP / ALL)
grasland grassland Grassland cover nearly one-fifth of the Earth's land surface. They include savannah, the prairies of North America, and the steppes of Russia and Central Asia. Grassland ecosystems support thousands of different species, above and below the ground, and have a vital part to play maintaining the ecological balance of the world. (Source: WRIGHT)
grassen grass A very large and widespread family of Monocotyledoneae, with more than 10.000 species, most of which are herbaceous, but a few are woody. The stems are jointed, the long, narrow leaves originating at the nodes. The flowers are inconspicuous, with a much reduced perianth, and are wind-pollinated or cleistogamous. The fruit in single-seeded, usually a caryopsis. Grasses are the most important of all plants for food. (Source: ALL)
grens border The dividing line or frontier between political or geographic regions. (Source: CED)
grens van de algemene noodtoestand public emergency limit
grensgebied marginal land Low quality land the value of whose production barely covers its cultivation costs. (Source: PAENS)
grenslaag boundary layer The layer of fluid adjacent to a physical boundary in which the fluid motion is significantly affected by the boundary and has a mean velocity less than the free stream value. (Source: LBC)
grensoverschrijdende vervuiling transboundary pollution Polluted air and water, or any other contaminated waste, that is generated in one country and transmitted to others. (Source: BRACK)
grensoverschrijding boundary crossing Crossing of a state border. (Source: RRDA)
grensvlak tussen het oceaanwater en de lucht ocean-air interface The sea and the atmosphere are fluids in contact with one another, but in different energy states - the liquid and the gaseous. The free surface boundary between them inhibits, but by no means totally prevents, exchange of mass and energy between the two. Almost all interchanges across this boundary occur most effectively when turbulent conditions prevail. A roughened sea surface, large differences in properties between the water and the air, or an unstable air column that facilitates the transport of air volumes from sea surface to high in the atmosphere. Both heat and water (vapor) tend to migrate across the boundary in the direction from sea to air. Heat is exchanged by three processes: radiation, conduction, and evaporation. The largest net exchange is through evaporation, the process of transferring water from sea to air by vaporization of the water. (Source: PARCOR)
grensvlakspanning surface tension The force acting on the surface of a liquid, tending to minimize the area of the surface; quantitatively, the force that appears to act across a line of unit length on the surface. Also known as interfacial force; interfacial tension; surface intensity. (Source: MGH)
grenswaarde limit value A workplace exposure criterion or standard that determines if a facility or building has a concentration of a substance to which most workers can be exposed without harmful or adverse effects. (Source: HEG)
grenswaarde threshold value The maximum concentration of a particular substance to which a worker should be exposed in a given period of time. (Source: BRACK)
grind gravel A mixture of rock fragments and pebbles that is coarser than sand. (Source: CED)
grindgroeve gravel pit A place where gravel is dug out of the ground. (Source: CAMB)
grindwinning gravel extraction Obtaining a mixture of coarse sand and small water- worn or pounded stones, (used for paths and roads and as an aggregate) from the earth. (Source: GILP96a)
groenbemester green manure Herbaceous plant material plowed into the soil while still green. (Source: MGH)
groene (door)gang green corridor Avenues along which wide-ranging animals can travel, plants can propagate, genetic interchange can occur, populations can move in response to environmental changes and natural disasters, and threatened species can be replenished from other areas. (Source: WILDLAa)
groene groente green vegetable A vegetable having the edible parts rich in chlorophyll and forming an important source of vitamins and micronutrients. (Source: WEBSTE)
groene revolutie green revolution The name given to the widespread development of high-yield strains of wheat, corn and rice during the 1960s and early 1970s. It was more formally known as the Indicative World Plan for Agricultural Development. The revolution came after the Food and Agricultural Organization held the World Food Congress in 1963. A 'Freedom from Hunger' campaign was set up with the goal of increasing food supplies and solving the world's hunger problems. (Source: WRIGHT)
groene zoom peripheral park area A zone of the park where scientific research is allowed. Beyond this there is a buffer zone which protects the whole reserve from agricultural, industrial and urban development. (Source: WRIGHTa)
groengordel greenbelt 1) An area of land, not necessarily continuous, near to and sometimes surrounding a large built-up area. The area is kept open by permanent and severe restriction on building. 2) An irrigated, landscaped, and regularly maintained fuelbreak, usually put to some additional use, such as a golf course, park, or playground. 3) A planning designation that mandates the setting aside of otherwise developable lands for the purpose of creating natural or semi-natural open spaces. Greenbelts are usually linear parkways, tracts, or belts of land running through or around urban conurbations.4) An area or zone of open, semi-rural, low-density land surrounding existing major urban areas, but not necessarily continuous. The zone is to be kept open by permanent and severe restrictions on new development. (Source: ALL / DUNSTE / GOOD)
groente vegetable Any of various herbaceous plants having parts that are used as food. (Source: CED)
groenteteelt vegetable cultivation Cultivation of herbaceous plants that are used as food. (Source: CEDa)
groenvoorziening green space A plot of vegetated land separating or surrounding areas of intensive residential or industrial use and devoted to recreation or park uses. (Source: LANDY)
groepsgedrag group behaviour An observable pattern of activity displayed by persons in and as an aggregate. (Source: RHW)
groeve; steengroeve quarry An open or surface working or excavation for the extraction of building stone, ore, coal, gravel, or minerals. (Source: MGH)
grondbelasting land tax Property tax. A tax laid upon the legal or beneficial owner of real property, and apportioned upon the assessed value of his land. (Source: WESTS)
gronddruk soil loading In soil mechanics and civil engineering the term is used to denote the increased weight brought to bear on the ground surface. (Source: WHIT)
grondgebied territory An area that an animal or group of animals defends, mainly against members of the same species. (Source: ALL)
grondgebruik land use The term land use deals with the spatial aspects of all human activities on the land and with the way in which the land surface is adapted, or could be adapted, to serve human needs. (Source: GOOD)
grondgebruiksplan land use plan The key element of a comprehensive plan; describes the recommended location and intensity of development for public and private land uses, such as residential, commercial, industrial, recreational and agricultural. (Source: LANDY)
grondgebruiksplanning land use planning The interdisciplinary process of evaluating, organising, and controlling the present and the future development and use of lands and their resources in terms of their suitability on sustained yield basis. Includes an overall ecological evaluation in terms of specific kinds of uses as well as evaluations of social, economic, and physical contexts to the land concerned. (Source: UNUN)
grondgebruiksregime land use regime Relation existing between the landowner and the tenant farmer who cultivates the land. (Source: ECHO1)
grondgebruiksstelsel soil use regime Type of management and utilization of the soil. (Source: GOODa)
grondsoort soil type A phase or subdivision of a soil series based primarily on texture of the surface soil to a depth at least equal to plow depth (about 15 cm). (Source: BJGEO)
grondstof raw material A crude, unprocessed or partially processed material used as feedstock for a processing operation. (Source: MGH)
grondstoffen resources
grondstoffen, hulpbronnen resources (utilisation of resources)
grondstofverbruik raw material consumption The developed countries depend on a stable supply of raw materials for their industries. Total resource requirements are increasing rapidly over the entire world. In developed countries, although population is increasing slowly, per capita use is increasing rapidly, while the opposite is happening in developing countries. Traditionally raw materials have been classified as non-renewable resources, but a distinction may be important between 'loosable' resources, such as oil and coal, and 'non-loosable' resources, such as metals, which can be used several times over by recycling processes. (Source: WPR)
grondverbetering soil improvement Process of protecting the soil from excessive erosion and making soil more fertile and productive. (Source: LANDY)
grondverharding soil stabilisation Chemical or mechanical treatment designed to increase or maintain the stability of a soil mass or otherwise to improve its engineering properties, as by increasing its shear strength, reducing its compressibility, or decreasing its tendency to absorb water. Stabilization methods include physical compaction and treatment with cement, lime, and bitumen. (Source: BJGEO)
grondwaarde land value The monetary or material worth in commerce or trade of an area of ground considered as property. (Source: RHW)
grondwater groundwater Water that occupies pores and crevices in rock and soil, below the surface and above a layer of impermeable material. It is free to move gravitationally, either downwards towards the impermeable layer or by following a gradient. (Source: ALL)
grondwater; diep grondwater soil water Water stored in soils. (Source: LANDY)
grondwaterbescherming groundwater protection Precautionary actions, procedures or installations undertaken to prevent or reduce harm to the environmental integrity of fresh water found beneath the earth's surface, usually in aquifers, which supply wells and springs. (Source: RHW / TOE)
grondwaterkwaliteit groundwater quality Groundwater accounts for over 95% of the earth's useable fresh-water resources; over half the world's population depends on groundwater for drinking-water supplies. This invisible resource is vulnerable to pollution and over-exploitation. Effective conservation of groundwater supplies requires the integration of land-use and water management. (Source: GILP96)
grondwaterverontreiniging groundwater pollution Contamination of any water found under the earth's surface by any leaching pollutants, such as inorganic compounds (chlorides, nitrates, heavy metals, etc.), synthetic organic chemicals (pesticides, fertilizers, etc.) and pathogens (bacteria, parasites, etc.).
grondwaterwinning groundwater extraction The process, deliberate or inadvertent, of extracting ground water from a source at a rate so in excess of the replenishment that the ground water level declines persistently, threatening exhaustion of the supply or at least a decline of pumping levels to uneconomic depths. (Source: BJGEO)
groot wild big game Large wild animals that weigh typically more than 30 lb when fully grown, hunted for food, sport or profit. (Source: CORBIT / AMHER)
groothandel wholesale trade The business of selling goods to retailers in larger quantities than they are sold to final consumers but in smaller quantities than they are purchased from manufacturers. (Source: CED)
grote risico major risk The high probability that a given hazard or situation will yield a significant amount of lives lost, persons injured, damage to property , disruption of economic activity or harm to the environment; or any product of the probability of occurrence and the expected magnitude of damage beyond a maximum acceptable level. (Source: TOE / HMD)
grote verbrandingsinstallatie large combustion plant Any sizable building which relies on machinery that converts energy released from the rapid burning of a fuel-air mixture into mechanical energy. (Source: PMA)
haag hedge A line of closely planted bushes or shrubs, marking the boundaries of a field. The type of hedge varies between parts of the country, and its age can be dated from the number of species of tree and shrub present. Over the last thirty years hedge-row removal has had a marked visual effect on lowland agricultural landscapes. From the farmer's point of view, in areas of predominant arable or intensively managed grazing, there is little or no economic justification for retaining hedges. (Source: GOOD)
habitat habitat 1) The locality in which a plant or animal naturally grows or lives. It can be either the geographical area over which it extends, or the particular station in which a specimen is found.2) A physical portion of the environment that is inhabited by an organism or population of organisms. A habitat is characterized by a relative uniformity of the physical environment and fairly close interaction of all the biological species involved. In terms of region, a habitat may comprise a desert, a tropical forest, a prairie field, the Arctic Tundra or the Arctic Ocean. (Source: WRIGHT / GILP)
hagedissen lizard Any reptile of the suborder Lacertilia, especially those of the family Lacertidae, typically having an elongated body, four limbs, and a small tail: includes the gechos, iguanas, chameleons, monitors, and slow worms. (Source: CED)
hagel hail Precipitation in the form of balls or irregular lumps of ice, always produced by convective clouds, nearly always cumulonimbus. (Source: MGH)
hakhoutbosje coppice A growth of small trees that are repeatedly cut down at short intervals; the new shoots are produced by the old stumps. (Source: MGH)
halffabricaat semimanufactured product Product that has undergone a partial processing and is used as raw material in a successive productive step. (Source: ZINZAN)
halfgeleider semiconductor A solid crystalline material whose electrical conductivity is intermediate between that of a metal and an insulator and is usually strongly temperature-dependent. (Source: MGH)
halfmetaal semi-metal An element having some properties characteristic of metals and others of non-metals. Many metalloids give rise to an amphoteric oxide (e.g. arsenic or antimony) and many are semiconductors. (Source: UVAROV)
haloform haloform A haloalkane, containing three halogen atoms, e.g. iodoform, CHI3; a haloform reaction is a reaction to produce haloforms from a ketone. For example, if propanone is treated with bleaching powder, the chlorinated ketone so formed reacts to form chloroform. (Source: UVAROV)
halogeenbevattende verontreinigende stof halogenated pollutant An organic compound bonded with one of the five halogen elements (astatine, bromine, chlorine, fluorine, and iodine). Several of these compounds contribute to reductions in the concentration of ozone in the stratosphere. (Source: OER / ERG)
halogeenbifenyl halogenated biphenyl Halogen derivatives of biphenyl. (Source: MGH)
halogeenfenol halogenated phenol Halogen derivatives of phenol. (Source: MGHa)
halogeenkoolwaterstof halogenated hydrocarbon One of a group of halogen derivatives of organic hydrogen and carbon containing compounds; the group includes monohalogen compounds (alkyl or aryl halides) and polyhalogen compounds that contain the same or different halogen atoms. (Source: MGH)
halogeenterphenyl halogenated terphenyl
halogeenverbinding halogenated compound A substance containing halogen atoms. (Source: MGHa)
halveringstijd half-life The time required for one-half the atoms of a given amount of radioactive material to undergo radioactive decay. (Source: KOREN)
handel trade (services) The act or process of buying, selling or exchanging goods and services at either wholesale or retail, within a country or between countries. (Source: RHW)
handel (economisch) trade (economic) The act or the business of buying and selling for money. Mercantile or commercial business in general or the buying and selling, or exchanging, of commodities, either by wholesale or retail within a country or between countries. (Source: WESTS)
handel en verbruik trade and consumption The act or process of buying, selling, or exchanging commodities and the use of goods and services. (Source: ISEP)
handel in planten plant trade Trade of plants is subjected to regulations established by the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES). (Source: DUNSTEa)
handel, diensten trade, services
handel, diensten trade, services
handelsactiviteit trade activity
handelsbarrière trade barrier An artificial restraint on the free exchange of goods and services between nations. The most common types of trade barriers are tariffs, quotas, and exchange control. Such obstacles to trade are usually imposed by a country that wishes to protect domestic products in their home market against foreign competition, better its terms of trade, reduce domestic unemployment, or improve its balance-of-payments position. The raising of trade barriers by one country often provokes other nations position. Generally, the effect of a trade barrier is to reduce the volume of trade while increasing the domestic price of the protected good. Thus, it results in a relatively inefficient allocation of world resources and reduces the level of total world income and production. (Source: GREENW)
handelsbeleid trade policy A course of action adopted and pursued by government, business or some other organization, which promotes or determines the direction for the act or process of buying, selling or exchanging goods and services within a country or between countries. (Source: RHW)
handelsbeperking trade restriction Commercial discrimination that apply to the exports of certain countries but not to similar goods from other countries. (Source: USIA)
handelsrecht commercial law The whole body of substantive jurisprudence applicable to the rights, intercourse and relations of persons engaged in commerce, trade or mercantile pursuits. (Source: BLACK)
handelsrelaties trade relations
handelsverrichting commercial transaction The conduct or carrying on of trade, business or a financial matter to a conclusion or settlement. (Source: RHW)
handenarbeid handicraft A particular skill performed with the hands. (Source: CED)
handhaven preserve
handhaving enforcement The execution, carrying out or putting into effect an order, regulation, law or official decree. (Source: BLD)
handhaving van de vrede peacekeeping The activities to prevent, contain, moderate and/or terminate the hostilities between or within States, through the medium of an impartial third party intervention, organised and directed internationally. This intervention isconducted using military forces, police and civilians with the consent of the main belligerents, to complement the diplomatic conflict resolution process and, to restore and maintain peace. (Source: VCDS)
handhaving van de waterstanden water table protection Water table is inherently susceptible to contamination from landuse activities. Remediation is very expensive and often impractical. Prevention of contamination is therefore critical in effective groundwater management. (Source: TECHBA)
handhaving van het milieurecht environmental law enforcement Any variety of activities associated with promoting compliance and obedience to those binding rules of a state that have been promulgated to safeguard ecological integrity, preserve natural resources and protect human health. (Source: BLD / TOE)
handvest chart (act) A formal written record of transactions, proceedings, etc., as of a society, committee, or legislative body. (Source: CED)
handvest van de stadsecologie urban ecology charter A graphic representation of a city area or other densely populated region, portraying the location of groups or select types of people in their environment through various geographic techniques. (Source: SOC / RHW)
hardheid hardness Resistance of a solid to indentation, scratching, abrasion or cutting. (Source: MGH)
harmonisatie van wetten harmonisation of law The process by which two or more states, sometimes under the auspices of an interstate or international organization, change their legislation relevant to some area of common concern to conform their statutes and to facilitate compliance and enforcement across borders. (Source: GT2)
hars resin Any of a class of solid or semisolid organic products of natural or synthetic origin with no definite melting point, generally of high molecular weight; most resins are polymers. (Source: MGH)
harshoudende plant resinous plant Plants yielding or producing resin. (Source: CED)
hart en bloedvaten cardiovascular system Those structures, including the heart and blood vessels, which provide channels for the flow of blood. (Source: MGH)
hart- en vaatziekten cardiovascular disease
haven harbour Area of water next to the coast, often surrounded by thick walls, where ships and boats can be sheltered. (Source: CAMB)
HCFK partially halogenated chlorofluorohydrocarbon Hydrocarbons whose hydrogen atoms have been partially substituted with chlorine and fluorine. They are used in refrigeration, air conditioning, packaging, insulation, or as solvents and aerosol propellants. Because they are not destroyed in the lower atmosphere they drift into the upper atmosphere where their chlorine components destroy ozone. (Source: LANDY)
heester(gewas) shrub A woody perennial plant, smaller than a tree, with several major branches arising from near the base of the main stem. (Source: CED)
heffing levy A ratable portion of the produce of the property and labor of the individual citizens, taken by the nation, in the exercise of its sovereign rights, for the support of government, for the administration of the laws, and as the means for continuing in operation the various legitimate functions of the state. (Source: WESTS)
heffing op geluidsemissie noise emission levy A mandatory sum of money levied by government upon producers of disturbing, harmful or unwanted sounds, frequently in the transportation or construction industries, to encourage reduction of sound levels. (Source: Landy)
heffingsonderscheid tax differentiation
heide heathland An area with poor acid soil, typically dominated by ling (Calluna) or heaths (Erica). (Source: ALL)
heide moor A tract of unenclosed waste ground, usually covered with heather, coarse grass, bracken, and moss. (Source: CED)
helderheid luminosity The functional relationship between stellar magnitude and the number and distribution of stars of each magnitude interval. Also known as relative luminosity factor. (Source: UVAROV / MGH)
helling slope The inclined surface of any part of the Earth's surface, as a hillslope; also, a broad part of a continent descending toward an ocean, as the Pacific slope. (Source: BJGEO)
hengelsport angling The art or sport of catching fish with a rod and line and a baited hook or other lure, such as a fly. (Source: CED)
herbebossing reforestation The planting of trees in forest areas which have been cleared. Reforestation has become increasingly important for preventing or reversing environmental degradation and for helping to maximize economic returns on commercially forested lands. (Source: WRIGHT)
herbegroeiing revegetation Planting of new trees and, particularly, of native plants in disturbed sites where the vegetation cover has been destroyed, to stabilize the land surface from wind and water erosion and to reclame the land for other uses. Revegetation practices are employed in mined lands, roadsides, parks, wetlands, utility corridors, riparian areas, etc. (Source: REVEGa / CORBIT)
herbicide herbicide A chemical that controls or destroys undesirable plants. (Source: LANDY)
herbruikbaarheid recyclability Characteristic of materials that still have useful physical or chemical properties after serving their original purpose and that can, therefore, be reused or remanufactured into additional products. (Source: LEE)
hercirculatie van gas vapour recovery system Gas feedback device: while refuelling gasoline vapors are sucked off and led back again into the storage tank. (Source: WASCH)
hergebruik recycling A resource recovery method involving the collection and treatment of a waste product for use as raw material in the manufacture of the same or a similar product. (Source: LANDY)
hergebruik van afval waste reclamation The process of collecting and separating wastes in preparation for reuse. (Source: GSW)
hergebruik van afval waste recovery The process of obtaining materials or energy resources from waste. (Source: EED)
hergebruik van materialen reuse of materials Any re-utilization of products or components, in original form, such as when used glass bottles are sterilized and refilled for resale. (Source: TOE)
hergebruik van resten residue recycling Recycling of material or energy which is left over or wasted in industrial processes and other human activities. Examples include waste heat and gaseous pollutants from electricity generation, slag from metal-ore refining, and garbage. A residual becomes an output or input when a technological advance creates economic opportunities for the waste. (Source: GILP96)
hergebruik van water water reuse Use of process wastewater or treatment facility effluent in a different manufacturing process. (Source: LEE)
hergebruikbare verpakking reusable container Any container which has been conceived and designed to accomplish within its life cycle a minimum number of trips or rotations in order to be refilled or reused for the same purpose for which it was conceived. (Source: PORT)
hergebruikt materiaal recycled material Waste materials that are transformed into new products in such a manner that the original products may lose their identity. (Source: LANDY)
hergebruikverhouding recycling ratio
herhuisvesting rehousing To provide with new or different housing. (Source: RRDA)
herintroductie van een plantensoort plant species reintroduction Reintroducing wild plant species to their natural habitat. The reintroduction of species in a region requires a preliminary study to establish the reasons of their disappearance and the modifications that might have occurred in the biotopes. (Source: SCIFRI / RAMADE)
herinvoering reintroduction Reintroduction of exterminated species in an area; it is bound to fail if the chosen animal became extinct in the area too long ago and if the area itself has undergone too many changes. Reintroduction needs years of careful planning - the approval of local population, technical conditions of the release, feeding system, protection and breeding control - and even then some unexpected problems may arise. (Source: WPR)
herinvoering van diersoorten animal species reintroduction Attempts made to prevent the extinction of threatened species and populations by reintroducing them in their natural habitat. The reintroduction of species in a region requires a preliminary study to establish the reasons of their disappearance and the modifications that might have occurred in the biotopes. (Source: RBGKEWa / RAMADE)
herinvoering van soorten species reintroduction Reintroducing wild animal and plant species to their natural habitat. The reintroduction of species in a region requires a preliminary study to establish the reasons of their disappearance and the modifications that might have occurred in the biotopes. (Source: SCIFRI / RAMADE)
hernieuwbare energiebron renewable energy source Energy sources that do not rely on fuels of which there are only finite stocks. The most widely used renewable source is hydroelectric power; other renewable sources are biomass energy, solar energy, tidal energy, wave energy, and wind energy; biomass energy does not avoid the danger of the greenhouse effect. (Source: UVAROV)
hernieuwbare grondstof renewable raw material Resources that have a natural rate of availability and yield a continual flow of services which may be consumed in any time period without endangering future consumption possibilities as long as current use does not exceed net renewal during the period under consideration. (Source: WHIT)
hernieuwbare natuurlijke hulpbronnen renewable resource Resources capable of being continuously renewed or replaced through such processes as organic reproduction and cultivation such as those practiced in agriculture, animal husbandry, forestry and fisheries. (Source: LANDY)
hernieuwing renovation The process of restoring something to good condition, through corrective maintenance or repairs. (Source: RHW)
herstel recovery The act or process of restoring something to an original or formal condition, of claiming back a possession, etc. (Source: CED)
herstel regeneration The renewing or reuse of materials such as activated carbon, single ion exchange resins, and filter beds by appropriate means to remove organics, metals, solids, etc. (Source: LEE)
herstel rehabilitation A conservation measure involving the correction of past abuses that have impaired the productivity of the resources base. (Source: MGH)
herstel restoration The process of renewing or returning something to its original, normal or unimpaired condition, particularly works of art, cultural artifacts, furniture or buildings. (Source: RHW)
herstel van de waterkwaliteit restoration of water Any treatment process in which contaminated water is cleansed or corrected, particularly by use of a pump-and-treat approach. (Source: OSW / GHT)
herstel van in het wild levende planten en dieren fauna restoration The process of returning wildlife ecosystems and habitats to their original conditions. (Source: DUNSTE)
herstel van oude installaties retrofitting of old plants Making changes to old industrial plants installing new equipment's and facilities for the disposal of gas emissions in the atmosphere, of waste water and waste material in soil and water. (Source: RRDA)
herstellen redress An administrative or legal remedy that attempts to restore a person to his or her original or expected position prior to loss or injury, including breach of contract. (Source: BLD)
herstelling van een installatie installation restoration The process of repairing or reconstructing an edifice in order to return it to its original condition. (Source: ZINZANa)
herstellingsbedrijf repair business Any commercial activity, position or site that involves work in restoring or fixing some material thing or structure, such as by replacing parts or putting together something torn, broken or detached. (Source: RHW)
herstelmaatregel restoration measure Procedure or course of action taken to reestablish or bring back to state of environmental or ecological health. (Source: RHW)
herstelplan recovery plan A formulated or systematic method for the restoration of natural resources or the reuse of materials and objects. (Source: OED)
hert deer The common name for 41 species of even-toed ungulates that compose the family Cervidae in the order Artiodactyla; males have antlers. (Source: MGH)
herwerking reprocessing Restoration of contaminated nuclear fuel to a usable condition. (Source: MGH)
het vervuiler betaalt-principe polluter-pays principle The principle that those causing pollution should meet the costs to which it gives rise. (Source: BRACK)
het (ver)smelten melting A change of the state of a substance from the solid phase to the liquid phase. Also known as fusion. (Source: MGH)
het aanbrengen van nieuwe onderdelen [in oudere modellen] retrofitting 1) Addition of a pollution control device on an existing facility without making major changes to the generating plant.2) Providing a jet, an automobile, a computer, or a factory, for example, with parts, devices or equipment not in existence or available at the time of original manufacture. (Source: TOE / AMHER)
het balanceren [proces] balancing (process) The act of determining the difference between total receipts and expenditure in any account, or settling by paying what remains due on an account. (Source: ODE / RHW)
het behandelen van drinkwater drinking water treatment The Directive on the Quality of Surface Water Intended for Drinking Water defines three categories of water treatment (A1, A2, A3) from simple physical treatment and disinfection to intensive physical and chemical treatment. The treatment to be used depends on the quality of the water abstracted. The Directive uses imperative values for parameters known to have an adverse effect on health and also guide values for those which are less adverse. There is also a directive which complements the 'surface water abstraction' Directive by indicating the methods of measurement and the frequency of sampling and analysis required. (Source: PORT)
het bewaren van bewijsmateriaal preservation of evidence To maintain and keep safe from harm, destruction or decay any species of proof legally presented at the trial of an issue, including witnesses, records, documents, exhibits and concrete objects. (Source: BLD)
het bewustzijn van de burger citizen awareness State of citizens of being aware of their civic obligations. (Source: ZINZAN)
het bouwen construction work The construction, rehabilitation, alteration, conversion, extension, demolition or repair of buildings, highways, or other changes or improvement to real property, including facilities providing utility services. The term also includes the supervision, inspection, and other on-site functions incidental to the actual construction. (Source: LEE)
het bouwrijp maken van een terrein building site preparation
het chemisch meten van vervuiling chemical measurement of pollution The quantitative determination of the presence, extent or type of pollutant substances in the environment by studying the actions or reactions of known chemicals to those pollutants. (Source: APD / RHW)
het controleren van gegevens monitoring data
het dateren dating Any of several techniques such as radioactive dating, dendrochronology, or varve dating, for establishing the age of rocks, palaeontological or archaeological specimens, etc. (Source: CED)
het effect op de gezondheid effect on health
het effect op de mens effect on man
het effect op het milieu effect on the environment Resultant of natural or manmade perturbations of the physical, chemical or biological components making up the environment. (Source: LANDY)
het ijken van meettoestellen calibration of measuring equipment The determination or rectification of, according to an accepted standard, the graduation of any instrument giving quantitative measurements. (Source: APD / RHW)
het in gevaar brengen van het grondwater groundwater endangering Threat to the quality and quantity of groundwater by activities related to the use of land. As some activities (e.g. landfill) present a particular risk of pollution, the closer an activity is to a well or borehole, the greater the risk of the pumped water being polluted. The type of soil, the geology, the rainfall and the amount of water pumped out of the ground must all be taken into consideration. (Source: PORTa)
het in kaart brengen van korstmossen mapping of lichens Maps of lichens distribution indicating air quality. Fruticose lichens (with branched structures well above the surface) are more susceptible to SO2 damage than foliose lichens (whose leaflike thallus lies nearly flat on surface) and both in turn are more susceptible than crustose lichens (which embed their tissue in the cracks of bark, soil, or rocks). The use of morphological lichen types as indicators of air pollution concentrations is well developed. (Source: WESTM)
het in klemmen vangen trapping To catch an animal in a mechanical device or enclosed place or pit. (Source: CED)
het indexeren van informatie indexing of documentation A service which creates a special contents list, containing titles, authors, abstracts, subject headings and other information, to describe a large number of publications and to be used in searchable, machine-readable (or printed) look-up tables. (Source: RHW)
het inschatten van het effect van iets impact assessment Evaluation of the effect of a project upon the environment. (Source: PHC)
het invoeren van diersoorten introduction of animal species Animals which have been translocated by human agency into lands or waters where they have not lived previously, at least during historic times. Such translocation of species always involves an element of risk if not of serious danger. Newly arrived species, depending on their interspecific relationships and characteristics, may act as or carry parasites or diseases, prey upon native organisms, display toxic reactions, or be highly competitive with or otherwise adversely affect native species and communities. (Source: WPR)
het invoeren van plantensoorten introduction of plant species Plants which have been translocated by human agency into lands or waters where they have not lived previously, at least during historic times. Such translocation of species always involves an element of risk if not of serious danger. Newly arrived species may be highly competitive with or otherwise adversely affect native species and communities. Some may become a nuisance through sheer overabundance. They may become liable to rapid genetic changes in their new environment. Many harmful introductions have been made by persons unqualified to anticipate the often complex ecological interaction which may ensue. On the other hand many plants introduced into modified or degraded environments may be more useful than native species in controlling erosion or in performing other positive functions. (Source: WPR)
het kankerverwekkend zijn carcinogenicity The ability or tendency of a substance or physical agent to cause or produce cancer. (Source: CONFER)
het kappen van kreupelhout bush clearing The removal of brush using mechanical means, either by cutting manually or by using machinery for crushing, rolling, flailing, or chipping it, or by chemical means or a combination of these. (Source: DUNSTE)
het klonen cloning The production of genetically identical individuals from a single parent. Cloning plants usually involves plant cell culture. Cloning animals is more difficult and relays on some manipulation of their normal reproductive cycle. A clone is a group of organisms of identical genetic constitution, unless mutation occurs, produced from a single individual by asexual reproduction, parthenogenesis or apomixis. (Source: BIOTAZ)
het kristalliseren crystallisation The formation of crystalline substances from solutions or melts. (Source: MGH)
het leeg laten lopen van een(water)bekken dam draining The drawing of water from a reservoir by means of draining pipes located at the bottom of the basin and controlled by a system of sluices which ensure, if necessary, the emptying of the basin in a given period of time in respect of downstream conditions. (Source: MANCOS)
het minimaliseren van de effecten van iets impact minimisation Actions, procedures or installations undertaken to reduce the extent or degree of negative effects on human health and the ecosystem introduced by human design or interaction with the environment. (Source: OED)
het ongedaan maken van de effecten van iets impact reversal The counteracting or undoing of negative effects or influences on the environment. (Source: OED)
het ontzwaveling van brandstof desulphurisation of fuel Removal of sulfur from fossil fuels (or removal of sulfur dioxide from combustion fuel gases) to reduce pollution. (Source: LEE)
het oplossen van milieuproblemen environmental problem solving The activity of finding solutions for troublesome or perplexing situations involving ecological or natural resources. (Source: OED)
het opnieuw vrijkomen van verontreinigende stoffen pollutant remobilisation
het opruimen van oorlogsmaterieel disposal of warfare materials Disposal of the material remnants of war, which can seriously impede development and cause injuries and the loss of lives and property. The disposal of warfare waste is problematic because it can be highly dangerous, toxic, long-living and requires the utilization of specific and sophisticated technologies, particularly in the case of mines and unexploded bombs which have been left on the war territories. (Source: WPR)
het opstellen van economische prognoses economic forecasting The production of estimates of future financial and commercial trends, based on econometric models or surveys. (Source: ODE)
het per ongeluk vrijkomen van organismen accidental release of organisms Genetically engineered organisms that are released in the environment by mistake; once released they may exhibit some previously unknown pathogenicity, might take over from some naturally occurring bacteria (possibly having other positive functions which thus are lost) or pass on some unwanted trait to such indigenous bacteria. There is also concern that an uncontrolled genetic mutation could produce a form with hazardous consequences for the environment. (Source: WPRa)
het raffineren van kolen coal refining The processing of coal to remove impurities. (Source: PHCa)
het regelen van hergebruik life-cycle management Management of all the stages involved in the life of a product such as raw materials acquisition, manufacturing, distribution and retail, use and re-use and maintenance, recycling and waste management, in order to create less environmentally harmful products. (Source: PORT)
het slachten van dieren slaughtering of animals Killing of animals for food. (Source: PHC)
het stellen van doelen target setting Establishing or determining environmental goals or objectives. (Source: RHW)
het toekennen van een milieukeur(merk) ecolabelling The European Community's initiative to encourage the promotion of environmentally friendly products. The scheme came into operation in late 1992 and was designed to identify products which are less harmful to the environment than equivalent brands. It was hoped that by buying labelled goods, consumers would be able to put pressure on manufacturers and retailers both to make and to stock 'greener' products. This includes the effects they have on the environment at all stages. The labels are awarded on environmental criteria set by the EC. (Source: WRIGHT)
het uitlenen van documenten document lending The service provided by a library in which the library's clients are temporarily allowed to use books and other printed materials outside the library. (Source: RHW)
het uitsterven extinction (ecological) 1) The complete disappearance of a species of plant or animal from the planet.2) Disappearing of animals and plants from the biota. (Source: WRIGHT / GREMES)
het verloren gaan van biotopen loss of biotope Destruction of biotopes produced by environmental degradation which in turn is caused by air- or water-borne pollution. (Source: WPR)
het vervuiler-betaalt-principe community-pays principle A tenet of environmental policy, according to which the costs of ecological challenges, environmental quality improvements and the removal of environmental hazards are allotted to community groups or local corporations and, thereby, to the general public. (Source: GAB)
het verweiden van de kudde transhumance The seasonal migration of livestock to suitable grazing grounds. (Source: CED)
het verzamelen van bewijzen taking of evidence In criminal law and torts, the act of laying hold upon an evidence, with or without removing the same.
het vissen fishing The attempt to catch fish or other aquatic animal with a hook or with nets, traps, etc. (Source: ZINZANa)
het vloeibaar maken fluidisation A roasting process in which finely divided solids are suspended in a rising current of air (or other fluid), producing a fluidized bed; used in the calcination of various materials, in the coal industry, etc. (Source: MGH)
het voeren van dieren feeding of animals The act and effect of supplying animals with food. (Source: ZINZAN)
het vol laten lopen van een spaarbekken silting up The filling or partial filling with silt of a reservoir that receives fine-grained sediment brought in by streams and surface runoff. (Source: BJGEO)
het voorkomen van de effecten van iets impact prevention Precautionary measures, actions or installations implemented to avert negative effects on the environment. (Source: TOE)
het voorkomen van gevaar anticipation of danger The act of foreseeing, expecting and taking measures against possible future exposure to harm, death or a thing that causes these. (Source: ISEP)
het vrijkomen van verontreinigende stoffen pollutant mobilisation
het vuren firing The process of applying fire or heat, as in the hardening or glazing of ceramics. (Source: HARRIS)
het wegruimen van slib clearing sludge
het zweten transpiration The loss of water vapour from a plant, mainly through the stomata and to a small extent through the cuticle and lenticels. Transpiration results in a stream of water, carrying dissolved minerals salts, flowing upwards through the xylem. (Source: ALL)
heterocyclische verbinding heterocyclic compound Compound in which the ring structure is a combination of more than one kind of atom. (Source: MGH)
heuvel hill A natural elevation of the land surface, rising rather prominently above the surrounding land, usually of limited extent and having a well-defined outline, rounded rather than peaked or rugged, with no specific definition of absolute elevation. (Source: BJGEO)
hinder nuisance Anything that affects or prejudices health. (Source: GILP96)
hoefdieren ungulate Hoofed mammals, including the Artiodactyla and Perissodactyla. (Source: ALL)
hoenderachtigen gallinacean The order of birds that includes grouse, ptarmigan, capercaillie, partridges, pheasants, quails, turkeys and peacocks. These are mainly grain-eating, heavy-bodied, ground-nesting birds, capable of only short, rapid flights. The cocks are usually more colourful than the hens. (Source: ALL)
hoeveelheid afval waste volume The total amount of refuse or unusable material produced at any source. (Source: RHW)
hoeveelheid vervuiling dat een land kan verdragen land carrying capacity The maximum extent to which ground or soil area may be exploited without degradation or depletion. (Source: ALL)
hof court An organ of the government, belonging to the judicial department, whose function is the application of the laws to controversies brought before it and the public administration of justice. The presence of a sufficient number of the members of such a body regularly convened in an authorized place at an appointed time, engaged in the full and regular performance of its functions. A body in the government to which the administration of justice is delegated. A body organized to administer justice, and including both judge and jury. An incorporeal, political being, composed of one or more judges, who sit at fixed times and places, attended by proper officers, pursuant to lawful authority, for the administration of justice. An organized body with defined powers, meeting at certain times and places for the hearing and decision of causes and other matters brought before it, and aided in this, its proper business, by its proper officers, attorneys and counsel to present and manage the business, clerks to record and attest its acts and decisions, and ministerial officers to execute its commands, and secure due order in its proceedings. (Source: WESTS)
hoge berg high mountain
hoge zuurtegraad strong acidity High degree of ionization of an acid in water solution. (Source: KORENa)
hogedrukapparatuur pressure equipment Equipment operating with an internal pressure greater than atmospheric. (Source: RRDA)
hoger onderwijs higher education Study beyond secondary school at an institution that offers programs terminating in undergraduate and graduate degrees. (Source: COE)
hogesnelheids(spoor)lijn high-speed railway The term 'high-speed traffic' encompasses all trains running at speeds over 200 km/h but also trains running at 200 km/h if the terrain, population density or economic reasons do not justify higher speeds. (Source: EJRCF)
hogesnelheidstrein high-speed train Trains travelling at maximum speeds of 300kmh on special high-speed rail lines. (Source: RRDA)
hol cave 1) An underground hollow with access from the ground surface or from the sea, often found in limestone areas and on rocky coastlines.2) A natural cavity, chamber or recess which leads beneath the surface of the earth, generally in a horizontal or obliquely inclined direction. It may be in the form of a passage or a gallery, its shape depending in part on the joint pattern or structure of the rock and partly on the type of process involved in its excavation. Thus, caves worn by subterranean rivers may be different in character from, and of considerably greater extent than, a sea-cave eroded by marine waves.3) A natural underground open space, generally with a connection to the surface and large enough for a person to enter. The most common type of cave is formed in a limestone by dissolution. (Source: CED / WHIT / BJGEO)
holtedieren coelenterate Animals that have a single body cavity (the coelenteron). The name was formerly given to a phylum comprising the Cnidaria and Ctenophora, but these are now regarded as phyla in their own right, and the name Coelenterata has fallen from use, although it is sometimes used as a synonym for Cnidaria. (Source: ALL)
homepage homepage The preset document that is displayed after starting a World Wide Web browser, or the main World Wide Web document in a series of related documents. (Source: UNM / WIC)
hond dog A common four-legged animal, especially kept by people as a pet or to hunt or guard things. (Source: CAMB)
hondachtige canid Carnivorous mammal in the superfamily Canoidea, including dogs and their allies. (Source: MGH)
hongersnood famine A severe shortage of food, as through crop failure or over population. It may be due to poor harvests following drought, floods, earthquake, war, social conflict, etc. (Source: CED / GUNN)
honorarium fee A charge fixed by law for services of public officers or for use of a privilege under control of government. (Source: WESTS)
hoofdweg trunk road A main road, especially one that is suitable for heavy vehicles. (Source: CED)
hoogbouw high-rise building Any tall, multistoried structure or edifice that is equipped with elevators. (Source: RHW)
hoogrisico-installatie major risk installation Installations whose functioning involves the possibility of major hazards such as chemical plants, nuclear, coal and oil power production plants, etc. (Source: WPRa)
hoogspanningsleiding high voltage line An electric line with a voltage on the order of thousands of volts. (Source: MGH)
hoogstammig bos timber forest Forest whose trees are all in the adult stage and have reached the reproductive period. (Source: RAMADE)
hoogte altitude 1) In general, a term used to describe a topographic eminence. 2) A specific altitude or height above a given level. 3) In surveying, the term refers to the angle between the horizontal and a point at a higher level. (Source: WHIT)
hoogwater high tide water The level of water when the tide is at its highest level. (Source: CED)
hoorzitting hearing procedure Any prescribed course or mode of action governing the preliminary examination by a magistrate of basic evidence and charges to determine whether criminal proceedings, a trial or other judicial actions are justified. (Source: RHW)
horizonvervuiling skyline destruction
hormonenleer endocrinology The study of the endocrine glands and the hormones that they synthesize and secrete. (Source: MGH)
hotelsector hotel industry The industry related with the provision of lodging and usually meals and other services for travelers and other paying guests. (Source: AMHER)
houder zonder statiegeld non-returnable container Any container for which no specific provisions for its return from the consumer or final use has been established. (Source: PORT)
hout als brandstof fuel wood Wood used for heating. (Source: RRDA)
houtafval wood waste Waste which is left over after the processing of raw timber. (Source: ISEP)
houtbescherming wood preservation The use of chemicals to prevent or retard the decay of wood, especially by fungi or insects; widely used preservatives include creosote, pitch, sodium fluoride and tar; especially used on wood having contact with the ground. (Source: HARRIS)
houtindustrie timber industry Industry related with timber harvesting and processing. (Source: RRDA)
houtproduct wood product
houtproductieketen timber producing chain All interrelated steps of the lumber manufacturing process including tree felling, the removal of tops, branches and bark, the piling and sawing of logs, and the transportation and loading of finished boards or other products. (Source: TIM)
houtskool charcoal A porous solid product containing 85-98% carbon and produced by heating carbonaceous materials such as cellulose, wood or peat at 500-600 C° in the absence of air. (Source: MGH)
huid skin The tissue forming the outer covering of the vertebrate body: it consists of two layers, the outermost of which may be covered with hair, scales, feathers, etc. It is mainly protective and sensory in function. (Source: CED)
huisbrandolie domestic fuel oil Liquid petroleum product used in domestic heaters. (Source: CED)
huisbrandstof domestic fuel Fuels obtained from different sources that are used for domestic heating. (Source: RRDA)
huisdier domesticated animal 1) Wild animal which has been trained to live near a house and not be frightened of human beings; 2) species which was formerly wild, now selectively bred to fill human needs. (Source: PHC)
huisdier pet An animal which is kept in the home as a companion and treated affectionately. (Source: CAMB)
huishoudchemicaliën household chemical
huishoudelijk afval domestic waste Waste generated by residential households and comprised of any material no longer wanted or needed. (Source: EED)
huishoudelijk afvalwater domestic waste water Wastewater principally derived from households, business buildings, institutions, etc., which may or may not contain surface runoff, groundwater or storm water. (Source: WWC)
huishoudelijk apparaat domestic appliance A machine or device, especially an electrical one used domestically. (Source: CED)
huishoudelijk lawaai domestic noise Noise caused by domestic facilities and activities. (Source: RRDA)
huishoudelijke artikelen household goods Goods needed for living in a household.
huishoudelijke uitgaven household expenditure Any spending done by a person living alone or by a group of people living together in shared accommodation and with common domestic expenses. (Source: ODE)
huishoudelijke vervuiling domestic pollution
huishouden household A group of persons sharing a home or living space, who aggregate and share their incomes, as evidenced by the fact that they regularly take meals together. (Source: SOCIOL)
huisvesting housing 1) Dwelling-houses collectively and the provision of these.2) Shelter, lodging.
huisvestingsfinanciering housing finance
huisvestingsprogramma housing programme A planned system of projects, services or activities intended to support individuals or families in need of shelter, including transitional or permanent housing and safe havens for low-income, elderly or homeless populations. (Source: HUD)
huisvuilstortplaats domestic waste landfill Site for the disposal of wastes arising from domestic activities. (Source: RRDA)
hulp(verlening) bij rampen disaster relief Money, food or other assistance provided for those surviving a sudden, calamitous event causing loss of life, damage or hardship. (Source: RHW)
hulpbeleid aid policy A course of action adopted and pursued by government or some other organization that promotes or determines the allocation of assistance, support or relief, often from one country to another. (Source: ODE)
hulpstukken fitting (plumbing) Plumbing equipment in a building. (Source: RRDA)
humanitaire hulp humanitarian aid The support or relief given to save human lives or to alleviate suffering, including public health efforts and the provision of financial resources and food, often when governmental authorities are unable or unwilling to provide for such assistance. (Source: RHW / DPG)
humus humus The more or less decomposed organic matter in the soil. Besides being the source of most of the mineral salts needed by plants, humus improves the texture of the soil and holds water, so reducing the loss of nutrients by leaching. (Source: ALL)
huur lease Any agreement which gives rise to relationship of landlord and tenant (real property) or lessor and lessee (real or personal property). Contract for exclusive possession of lands or tenements for determinate period. Contract for possession and profits of lands and tenements either for life, or for certain period of time, or during the pleasure of the parties. (Source: WESTS)
hydraulica hydraulics The branch of science and technology concerned with the mechanics of fluids, especially liquids. (Source: MGH)
hydrobiologie hydrobiology Study of organisms living in water. (Source: ZINZAN)
hydrocultuur hydroculture Growing plants without soil but in sand or vermiculite or other granular material, using a liquid solution of nutrients to feed them. (Source: PHC)
hydrogeologie hydrogeology The science dealing with the occurrence of surface and ground water, its utilization, and its functions in modifying the earth, primarily by erosion and deposition. (Source: MGH)
hydrografie hydrography Science which deals with the measurement and description of the physical features of the oceans, lakes, rivers, and their adjoining coastal areas, with particular reference to their control and utilization. (Source: MGH)
hydrografisch bekken hydrographic basin 1) The drainage basin of a stream. 2) An area occupied by a lake and its drainage basin. (Source: BJGEO)
hydrografisch netwerk hydrographic network The configuration or arrangement in plan view of the natural stream courses in an area. It is related to local geologic and geomorphologic features and history. Synonym: drainage pattern. (Source: BJGEO)
hydrologie hydrology The science that treats the occurrence, circulation, distribution, and properties of the waters of the earth, and their reaction with the environment. (Source: MGH)
hydrologische ramp hydrologic disaster Violent, sudden and destructive change either in the quality of the earth's water or in the distribution or movement of water on land, below the surface or in the atmosphere. (Source: ISEP / APD)
hydrologische stroming hydrologic flow The characteristic behaviour and the total quantity of water involved in a drainage basin, determined by measuring such quantities as rainfall, surface and subsurface storage and flow, and evapotranspiration. (Source: BJGEO)
hydrolyse hydrolysis 1) Decomposition or alteration of a chemical substance by water. 2) In aqueous solutions of electrolytes, the reactions of cations with water to produce a weak base or of anions to produce a weak acid. (Source: MGH)
hydrometeorologie hydrometeorology That part of meteorology of direct concern to hydrologic problems, particularly to flood control, hydroelectric power, irrigation, and similar fields of engineering and water resource. (Source: ZINZAN)
hydrometrie hydrometry The science and technology of measuring specific gravities, particularly of liquids. (Source: MGH)
hydrosfeer hydrosphere The waters of the Earth, as distinguished from the rocks (lithosphere), living things (biosphere), and the air (atmosphere). Includes the waters of the ocean; rivers, lakes, and other bodies of surface water in liquid form on the continents; snow, ice, and glaciers; and liquid water, ice, and water vapour in both the unsaturated and saturated zones below the land surface. Included by some, but excluded by others, is water in the atmosphere , which includes water vapour, clouds, and all forms of precipitation while still in the atmosphere. (Source: BJGEO)
hydrosfeer (zoetwater, zeewater) hydrosphere (freshwater, marine water, waters)
hygiëne hygiene The science that deals with the principles and practices of good health. (Source: MGH)
hygiënisch afgedekte vuilstortplaats sanitary landfill An engineered method of disposing of solid waste on land in a manner that protects the environment, by spreading the waste in thin layers, compacting it to the smallest practical volume and covering it with compacted soil by the end of each working day or at more frequent intervals if necessary. (Source: CORBIT)
hygiënist hygienist A person skilled in the practice of hygiene. (Source: CED)
hypertext hypertext The organization of information units typically containing visible links that users can select or click with a mouse pointer or some other computer device to automatically retrieve or display other documents. (Source: WIC / TWI)
ideologie ideology A body of ideas that reflects the beliefs and interest of a nation, political system, etc. and underlies political action. (Source: CED)
iets in voorraad houden stocking To keep a supply accumulated for future use. (Source: AMHER)
ijking calibration To mark the scale of a measuring instrument so that readings can be made in appropriate units. (Source: CED)
ijs ice The dense substance formed by the freezing of water to the solid state; it commonly occurs in the form of hexagonal crystals. (Source: MGH)
ijsberg iceberg A large mass of detached land ice floating in the sea or stranded in shallow water. (Source: MGH)
ijzer iron A malleable ductile silvery-white ferromagnetic metallic element occurring principally in haematite and magnetite. It is widely used for structural and engineering purposes. (Source: CED)
ijzer- en staalindustrie iron and steel industry Sector of the metallurgical industry dealing with the production of cast iron, steel and iron alloys. Emissions from these industries tend to settle quickly from the atmosphere and can lead to rising concentrations in the soil. The main raw material input to the production process is iron ore. Also recycled scrap is used. (Source: FLGISA / DOBRIS)
ijzergieterij(sector) ironwork industry Industry for the production of iron articles. (Source: WEBSTEa)
ijzerindustrie iron industry A sector of the economy in which an aggregate of commercial enterprises is engaged in the extraction and refinement of iron ore to produce cast iron, wrought iron and steel. (Source: RHW / ENC)
ijzerschroot iron scrap Waste pieces or disused articles of wrought iron (wrought-iron scrap) suitable for reworking for rolling or forging.
IMCO-code IMCO code Codes published by Intergovernmental Maritime Consultative Organisation (IMCO) relating to international shipping, particularly regarding safety and marine pollution. (Source: BRACK)
IMCO-conferentie IMCO Conference Inter-Governmental Maritime Consultative Organisation has been changed into International Maritime Organisation in May 1982. A United Nations Specialized Agency, established in 1958 as the Inter-Governmental Maritime Consultative Organisation to provide a means for co-operation and exchange of information on technical matters related to international shipping, particularly regarding safety and marine pollution. (Source: BRACK)
immissiebeheersing immission control Legislative and administrative procedures aimed at reducing the damage caused by emissions. Pollution control programmes are normally based on human-oriented acceptable dose limits. A very important measure concerns the organisation of an emission inventory. (Source: GOODa)
immissiebeheersingswet immission control law
immissiegrens immission limit Maximum levels of selected pollutants which would lead to unacceptable air quality. (Source: PORT)
immissielast immission load The total amount of immissions introduced in a given environment. (Source: RRDA)
immissies immission The reception of material, such as pollutants, by the environment and from any source. (Source: ALL)
immissies van verontreinigende stoffen pollutant immission The transfer of solid, liquid, or gaseous contaminants in the air, water, and soil. (Source: DIFIDa)
immissieschade immission damage Damage caused by pollution from a distinct source of emission. (Source: GILP96)
immuniteit immunity The ability of an organism to resist disease or toxins by natural or artificial means. (Source: KOREN)
immuniteitsonderzoek immunoassay Any of several methods for the quantitative determination of chemical substances such as hormones, drugs, and certain proteins that utilize the highly specific binding between an antigen and an antibody. (Source: KOREN)
immuniteitsysteem immune system A body system that helps an organism to resist disease, through the activities of specialised blood cells or antibodies produced by them in response to natural exposure or inoculation. (Source: KOREN / CED)
immunologie immunology A branch of biological science concerned with the native or acquired resistance of higher animal forms and humans to infection with microorganisms. (Source: MGH)
immunologische ziekte immunological disease The disruption of the complex system of interacting cells, cell products and cell-forming tissues that protects the body from pathogens, destroys infected and malignant cells and removes cellular debris. (Source: SMD / RHW)
impactbronnen impact source Elements of an action which cause damage to the surrounding environment. (Source: RRDA)
impregneermiddel impregnating agent A material used to fill holes in wood, plaster, or other surfaces before applying a coating such as paint or varnish. (Source: MGH)
impulsgeluid impulsive noise Noise characterized by transient short-duration disturbances distributed essentially uniformly over the useful passband of a transmission system. (Source: MGH)
impulslading sudden load Sudden immission in considerable amount of one or more pollutants in the atmosphere, in a water body or in the soil. (Source: RRDA)
in het wild groeiende plant wild plant Plants growing in a natural state (not cultivated). (Source: CED)
in het wild levende planten en dieren wildlife Animals and plants that grow independently of people, usually in natural conditions. (Source: CAMB)
in vitro proef in vitro assay Assay taking place in an artificial environment. (Source: KOREN)
in vivo proef in vivo assay Experiments that are carried out in the living organism. (Source: UVAROV)
inbeslagneming seizure The official or legally authorized act of taking away possessions or property, often for a violation of law or to enforce a judgment imposed by a court of law. (Source: BLD)
indicator indicator Something that provides an indication especially of trends. (Source: CED)
indicator van milieuverontreiniging pollution indicator Organisms, mostly plants, which are most sensitive to slight changes in environmental factors. When identified their reaction can serve as an early warning of the endangerment of the health of a community. (Source: GILP96)
indirecte inductor indirect discharger A non-domestic source introducing pollutants into a publicly owned waste-treatment system. Indirect dischargers can be commercial or industrial facilities whose wastes enter local sewers. (Source: EPAGLO)
Indische Oceaan Indian Ocean A body of water between the continents of Africa, Antarctica, Asia and Australia including the Bay of Bengal in the east and the Arabian Sea (with the Red Sea, the Gulf of Aden and the Persian Gulf) in the west, and containing several islands and island chains, such as the Andaman, Nicobar and Seychelles. (Source: INP)
individuele afvalwaterverwerking individual wastewater treatment The process of using a natural system or mechanical device to collect, treat and discharge or reclaim wastewater from an individual dwelling without the use of community-wide sewers or a centralised treatment facility. (Source: DWT)
indringing infiltration Movement of water through the soil surface into the ground. (Source: MGH)
industrialisatie industrialisation The process whereby manufacturing industry comes to occupy the predominant position in a national or regional economy. (Source: GOOD)
industrie industry An industry is a group of establishments engaged in the same or similar kinds of economic activities. Industries produce commodities that are sold with the expectation of recovering the total cost of production. A single industry can produce many different commodities. (Source: PGE)
industrie, ambacht, technologie, uitrusting industry, crafts; technology; equipments
industrie-afval trade waste All types of waste generated by offices, restaurants, shops, warehouses and other such non-manufacturing sources, and non-processing waste generated at manufacturing facilities such as office and packaging waste. (Source: EED)
industriebond industrial association
industrieel afval industrial waste Waste materials discarded from industrial operations, or derived from manufacturing processes; may be solid, sludge (wet solids) or liquid wastes and may or may not be considered hazardous. (Source: HMD / ISEP)
industrieel afvalwater industrial effluent Materials generally discarded from industrial operations or derived from manufacturing processes. (Source: LANDY)
industrieel afvalwater industrial waste water Waste water that results from industrial processes and manufacturing. It may either be disposed of separately or become part of the sanitary or combined sewage.
industrieel afvalwater wastewater from trade Liquid or waterborne wastes polluted or fouled by commercial operations. (Source: ISEP / DEE)
industrieel afvoergas industrial waste gas Waste gases resulting from manufacturing and other industrial processes which may be treated and released, treated and reused or released without treatment. (Source: ISEP)
industrieel bedrijfsgebouw industrial building A building directly used in manufacturing or technically productive enterprises. Industrial buildings are not generally or typically accessible to other than workers. Industrial buildings include buildings used directly in the production of power, the manufacture of products, the mining of raw materials, and the storage of textiles, petroleum products, wood and paper products, chemicals, plastics, and metals. (Source: JJK)
industrieel beleid industrial policy Course of action adopted by national government to support and promote industrial activities. (Source: GOODa)
industrieel eigendomsrecht industrial property right A justifiable claim granted by government or some other authority that offers protection or excludes others from making, using or selling an invention, a unique design of an article of manufacture or some other creation or discovery. (Source: BLD)
industrieel gebied industrial zoning A system of land use planning that forms zones or boundaries to be used only by manufacturing or business enterprises. (Source: ISEP)
industrieel lawaai industrial noise Noise produced by industrial plants activities.
industrieel materiaal industrial material
industrieel of commercieel industrial or commercial
industrieel product industrial product
industrieel slib industrial sludge Sludge produced as a result of industrial production processes or manufacturing.
industriegebied industrial area Areas allocated for industry within a town-planning scheme or environmental plan. The range of industries accommodated in a plan may include: light industry, service industry, general industry, hazardous, noxious or offensive industry, waterfront industry, extractive industry. Standards are usually defined for industrial areas relating to access and roads, drainage, car parking, aesthetics, landscaping, buffer zones, noise levels, and air and water pollution. (Source: GILP96)
industriegewas industrial plant (organism) Plants employed in industry, e.g. cotton, flax, hemp, peanuts, etc. (Source: RRDA)
industriële activiteit manufacturing activity Activities connected with the processing of raw material into a finished product, especially by means of a large-scale industrial operation. (Source: AMHER)
industriële activiteit industrial activity Operations, functions and processes involved in industrial production. (Source: RRDA)
industriële economie industrial economics The production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services resulting from all manufacturing business. (Source: RHW)
industriële fabricage industrial manufacturing To make or process (a raw material) into a finished product, especially by means of a large-scale industrial operation. (Source: AMHER)
industriële geneeskunde industrial medicine The branch of medicine which deals with the relationship of humans to their occupations, for the purpose of the prevention of disease and injury and the promotion of optimal health, productivity, and social adjustment. (Source: MGH)
industriële gewassen industrial crop Any crop that provides materials for industrial processes and products such as soybeans, cotton (lint and seed), flax, and tobacco. (Source: MGH)
industriële installatie industrial installation A device, system or piece of equipment installed for a particular industry. (Source: CED)
industriële locatie industrial site The location for the individual manufacturing firm. (Source: GOOD)
industriële milieuzorg industrial environmental policy The guiding procedure, philosophy or course of action for the protection of natural resources from pollution generated by manufacturing or business enterprises. (Source: RHW)
industriële omgeving (in het algemeen) industrial environment (in general) Environment where the manifold activities connected with the production of goods and services take place. (Source: RRDA)
industriële ontwikkeling industrial development
industriële planning industrial planning The process of making arrangements or preparations to facilitate the manufacturing, producing and processing of goods or merchandise. (Source: RHW / ODE)
industriële processen industrial process
industriële productie industrial production Any process of converting or transforming raw materials and other resources into goods or services which have value. (Source: ODE)
industriële productiestatistieken industrial production statistics
industriële rook industrial fume Any smokelike or vaporous exhalation from matters or substances, especially of an odorous or harmful nature, which result from trading, commercial or manufacturing processes. (Source: RHW / ALL)
industriële samenleving industrial society A large-scale community with diverse manufacturing sectors and an infrastructure and economy based on the science, technology and instrumental rationality of the modern West. (Source: FUT / RHW)
industriële stortplaats industrial dumping The disposal of any waste generated by a manufacturing or processing process by the agency or body which produced it. (Source: RHW / ERG)
industriële structuur industrial structure
industriële uitrusting industrial equipment Equipment related to industrial activities. (Source: RRDA)
industriële veiligheid industrial safety Measures or techniques implemented to reduce the risk of injury, loss and danger to persons, property or the environment in any facility or place involving the manufacturing, producing and processing of goods or merchandise. (Source: ODE)
industriële vervuiling industrial pollution Pollution as a result of industrial processes and manufacturing. (Source: RRDA)
industriële wetgeving industrial legislation A binding rule or body of rules prescribed by a government to regulate working conditions or the acquisition, processing and disposal of materials by the aggregate of factories, companies and enterprises in one or more manufacturing or technically productive fields. (Source: RHW)
industriële woestenij industrial wasteland Area of land which is no longer usable for cultivation or for any other purpose after having been the site of an industrial plant. (Source: PHCa)
industrie-uitstoot industrial emission Gas-borne pollutants discharged into the atmosphere from smokestacks of industrial plants. (Source: LEE)
industriezone economic zoning A land-use planning design or control where specific types of businesses or private sector investment are encouraged within designated boundaries. (Source: ALL / EEN)
inert afval inert waste Wastes that do not undergo any significant physical, chemical, or biological transformations when deposited in a landfill.
inert makend inertisation The process of waste inertisation includes solidification and stabilisation; stabilisation is the process used for reduction of hazard potential of the waste by converting the contaminants into their least soluble, least immobile, or least toxic form. Solidification physically binds or encapsulates the waste in a monolithic solid of high structural integrity. Thus solidification may be used for powders, liquids or gases. (Source: ENVAR)
infectie met parasitaire zuigwormen schistosomiasis A disease in which humans are parasitized by any of three species of blood flukes: Schistosoma mansoni, S. haematobium, and S. japonicum; adult worms inhabit the blood vessels. (Source: MGH)
informatica informatics Science and technique of data elaboration and of automatic treatment of information. (Source: ZINZAN)
informaticarecht data processing law
informatie information All facts, ideas or imaginative works of the mind which have been communicated, published or distributed formally or informally in any format, or the knowledge that is communicated or received. (Source: CCL / RHW)
informatie information
informatie met geografische componenten geo-referenced information Data delimiting a given object, either physical or conceptual, in terms of its spatial relationship to the land, usually consisting of points, lines, areas or volumes defined in terms of some coordinate system. (Source: GIS)
informatie over wetgeving legislative information Knowledge or a service providing knowledge concerning actual and proposed laws, including approval status, the history and content of deliberative proceedings and the specific language of those laws. (Source: RHW)
informatie, opvoeding, kultuur, milieubewustzijn information, education, culture, environmental awareness
informatiebron information source Generally, any resource initiating and substantiating the reception of knowledge or specifically, the origin of a data transmission. (Source: RHW)
informatie-centrum information centre Any facility devoted to the collection, maintenance and distribution of materials or data compiled to convey knowledge on some subject, often with trained staff persons available to answer questions. (Source: RHW)
informatiedienst information service An organized system of providing assistance or aid to individuals who are seeking information, such as by using databases and other information sources to communicate or supply knowledge or factual data. (Source: RHW / OMD)
informatiedistributiecentrum information clearing-house A central institution or agency for the collection, maintenance, and distribution of materials or data compiled to convey knowledge on some subject. (Source: RHW)
informatieinfrastructuur information infrastructure The basic, underlying framework and features of a communications system supporting the exchange of knowledge, including hardware, software and transmission media. (Source: WIC / RHW)
informatienetwerk information network A system of interrelated persons and/or devices linked to permit the exchange of data or knowledge. (Source: ISEP / RHW)
informatie-overdracht information transfer The communication or conveyance of data or materials for the purpose of enhancing knowledge from one person, place or position to another. (Source: RHW)
informatieset information kit A set or collection of materials compiled to convey knowledge on some subject and usually placed in some type of container. (Source: RHW)
informatiesysteem information system Any coordinated assemblage of persons, devices and institutions used for communicating or exchanging knowledge or data, such as by simple verbal communication, or by completely computerized methods of storing, searching and retrieving information. (Source: MHD)
informatietechnologie information technology The systems, equipment, components and software required to ensure the retrieval, processing and storage of information in all centres of human activity (home, office, factory, etc.), the application of which generally requires the use of electronics or similar technology. (Source: ECHO2)
informatietechnologiesector information technology industry A sector of the economy in which an aggregate of commercial enterprises is engaged in the design, manufacture and marketing of electronic machines designed to accept information or data that is easily manipulated for some result based on a program or some set of instructions, and the technology or materials used with these machines, such as storage devices, terminals and peripheral equipment. (Source: WIC / SIC)
informatie-uitwisseling information exchange A reciprocal transference of data between two or more parties for the purpose of enhancing knowledge of the participants. (Source: RHW)
informatieverwerkend systeem data processing system An assembly of computer hardware, firmware and software configured for the purpose of performing various operations on digital information elements with a minimum of human intervention. (Source: JON)
informatieverwerking information processing A systematic series of actions performed by a person or computer on data elements including classifying, sorting, calculating, summarizing, transmitting, retrieving and receiving. (Source: JON)
informeel overleg informal negotiation
infrageluid infrasound Vibrations of the air at frequencies too low to be perceived as sound by the human ear, below about 15 hertz. (Source: MGH)
infraroodstraling infrared radiation Electron magnetic radiation whose wavelengths lie in the range from 0.75 or 0.8 micrometer to 1000 micrometers. (Source: MGH)
infrastructuur infrastructure The basic network or foundation of capital facilities or community investments which are necessary to support economic and community activities. (Source: LANDY)
ingeademde lucht respiratory air Air volumes inspired and expired through the lungs. (Source: DELFIN)
inham cove 1) A deep recess hollow, or nook in a cliff or steep mountainside, or a small, straight valley extending into a mountain or down a mountainside.2) A valley or portion of lowland that penetrates into a plateau or mountain front. (Source: BJGEO / WHIT)
inheems bos indigenous forest Forests which are native to a given area. (Source: LANDY)
inheemse kennis indigenous knowledge Local knowledge that is unique to a given culture or society, which is the basis for local-level decision making in agriculture, health care, education and other matters of concern in rural communities. (Source: WIK)
inheemse technologie indigenous technology Technologies employed by the native inhabitants of a country and which constitute an important part of its cultural heritage and should therefore be protected against exploitation by industrialized countries; the problem of indigenous knowledge has been discussed during the Rio Conference but it does not receive much protection under the Biodiversity Convention. Article 8 mandates that parties 'respect, preserve and maintain knowledge, innovations and practices of indigenous and local communities embodying traditional life styles… and promote their wider application with the approval and involvement of holders of such knowledge, innovations and practices and encourage the equitable sharing of benefits arising from them'. (Source: RRDA / WRES)
inhoudsregister index A list of record surrogates arranged in order of some attribute expressible in machine-orderable form. (Source: MGH)
inkapseling encapsulation The enclosure of any polluting product with a material that prevents its release in the environment. (Source: RRDA)
inklinking soil settling Compaction involves the close-packing of the individual grains mainly by the elimination of pore-space and expulsion of entrapped water; this is normally brought about by the weight of the overlying sediments. (Source: ECHO2)
inkomen income The gain derived from capital, from labour or effort, or both combined, including profit or gain through sale or conversion of capital. (Source: WESTS)
inkomsten uit afval(herwerking) waste income The total amount of refuse or unusable material that enters a process or system. (Source: RHW)
inkomstenbelasting income tax A tax on the annual profits arising from property, business pursuits, professions, trades or offices. (Source: BLACK)
inkt ink A dispersion of a pigment or a solution of a dye in a carrier vehicle, yielding a fluid, paste, or powder to be applied to and dried on a substrate; writing, marking, drawing, and printing inks are applied by several methods to paper, metal, plastic, wood, glass, fabric, or other substrate. (Source: MGH)
inktverwijdering de-inking Series of processes by which various types of printing inks are removed from paper fibre pulp during the pre-processing and recycling of recovered paper products. Particularly necessary where high quality and whiteness of the finished product are required. (Source: GRAHAW)
inleggerij pickling plant Plant where scale is removed from iron and steel usually by means of immersion in a hot hydrochloric or sulphuric acid bath. Wastes include spent pickling liquor, sludges and rinse water. (Source: PORTa)
inleidende procedure preliminary proceedings Any introductory action in the judicial process designed to determine the need for further court involvement or to expedite a motion that requires immediate attention. (Source: BLD)
inlichtingsplicht obligation to inform
inschatting appraisal An expert or official valuation. (Source: WEBSTE)
inschatting van (natuurlijke) hulpbronnen resource appraisal Assessment of the availability of resources in a given area. (Source: GILP96a)
inschatting van de invloed op het milieu environmental impact assessment Analysis and judgement of the effects upon the environment, both temporary and permanent, of a significant development or project. It must also consider the social consequences and alternative actions. (Source: BRACK)
inschatting van een verontreinigende stof pollutant assessment
inschatting van het risico risk assessment The qualitative and quantitative evaluation performed in an effort to define the risk posed to human health and/or the environment by an action or by the presence or use of a specific substance or pollutant. (Source: LEEa)
insecten insect A class of the Arthropoda typically having a segmented body with an external, chitinous covering, a pair of compound eyes, a pair of antennae, three pairs of mouthparts, and two pairs of wings. (Source: MGH)
insecteneters insectivore Any placental mammal of the order Insectivora, being typically small, with simple teeth, and feeding on invertebrates. The group includes shrews, moles, and hedgehogs. (Source: CED)
insecticide insecticide Any chemical agent used to destroy invertebrate pests. (Source: LBC)
inspectie inspection An official examination and evaluation of the extent to which specified goals, objectives, standards, policies or procedures of an agency, organization, department or unit have been met properly. (Source: DAM)
inspectie van de boeken inspection of records
inspraak active participation The involvement, either by an individual or a group of individuals, in their own governance or other activities, with the purpose of exerting influence. (Source: RHW)
inspraak community participation Involvement in public or private actions, as members or as a member of a particular ethnic, political or social group, with the purpose of exerting influence. (Source: RHW)
installatie die goedgekeurd vereist installation requiring approval The official authorization needed to assemble and place into position any apparatus, facility, military post or machinery. (Source: RHW)
installatie- of apparatenbouw construction of installations
instelling voor milieubeheer environmental administration institution A central government organization that has authority or oversight over government activity relating to the preservation and safeguarding of ecological or natural resources. (Source: BLD / TOE)
institutionalisering institutionalisation The establishment and normalization of a law, custom, usage, practice, system or regulative principle in the activity or purpose of a group or organization. (Source: OED)
institutionele activiteit institutional activity The specific tasks, undertakings or functions that governments, businesses and other organizations perform. (Source: RHW)
institutionele structuur institutional structure An organization's complex system of mutually connected and dependent elements or parts, which make up a definite manner of arrangement. (Source: OED)
instroom inflow 1) Water other than wastewater that enters a sewer system (including sewer service connections) from sources such as, but not limited to, roof leaders, cellars drains, yard drains, area drains, drains from springs and swampy areas, manhole covers, cross connections between storm sewers and sanitary sewers, catch basins, cooling towers, storm waters, surface runoff, street wash waters, or drainage. Inflow does not include, and is distinguished from, infiltration. 2) Action of flowing in; an inflow of effluent into a river. (Source: JJK / PHC)
instrumentatie instrumentation Designing, manufacturing, and utilizing physical instruments or instrument systems for detection, observation, measurement, automatic control, automatic computation, communication, or data processing. (Source: MGH)
instrumentenvervaardiging instrument manufacture
integraal natuurreservaat integral natural reserve Areas allocated to preserve and protect certain animals and plants, or both. They differ from national parks, which are largely a place for public recreation, because they are provided exclusively to protect species for their own sake. Endangered species are increasingly being kept in nature reserves to prevent them from extinction. Nature reserves also serve as a place for more plentiful species to rest, breed or winter. (Source: WRIGHT)
intensieve landbouw intensive farming Farming in which as much use is made of the land as possible by growing crops close together or by growing several crops in a year or by using large amounts of fertilizers. (Source: PHC)
intensieve veehouderij factory farming The technique of capital intensive animal-raising in an artificial environment, used for chicken, egg, turkey, beef, veal and pork production. Animals are restrained in a controlled indoor environment and their food is brought to them. The building take on the appearance of industrial units. (Source: GOOD)
intensieve veehouderij intensive animal husbandry Specialized system of breeding animals where the livestock are kept indoors and fed on concentrated foodstuffs, with frequent use of drugs to control diseases which are a constant threat under these conditions. (Source: PHC)
interbibliothecair leenverkeer inter-library loan The service provided by one library in which a second library's clients are temporarily allowed to use books and other printed materials belonging to the first library; and consequently the system providing rules and infrastructure for this service to a group of libraries. (Source: RHW)
interdisciplinair onderzoek interdisciplinary research The utilisation, combination and coordination of two or more appropriate disciplines, technologies and humanities in an integrated approach toward environmental problems. (Source: UNUN)
intergouvernementeel intergovernmental
internationaal belangrijk ecosysteem internationally important ecosystem Ecosystems whose importance is recognised at international level and which are, in some cases, protected by international conventions. (Source: RRDA)
internationaal conflict international conflict A controversy, disagreement, quarrel or warfare between or among two or more nations or countries, often requiring involvement or monitoring by other members of the global community. (Source: OED / ISEP)
internationaal economisch recht international economic law The recognized rules guiding the commercial relations of at least two sovereign states or private parties involved in cross-border transactions, including regulations for trade, finance and intellectual property. (Source: IEL)
internationaal evenwicht international balance A system in which nations or blocs of nations strive to maintain an equilibrium of power to prevent dominance by any single nation or to reduce conflict or the possibility of war. (Source: IPE)
Internationaal Gerechtshof International Court of Justice Judicial arm of the United Nations. It has jurisdiction to give advisory opinions on matters of law and treaty construction when requested by the General Assembly, Security Council or any other international agency authorised by the General Assembly to petition for such opinion. It has jurisdiction, also, to settle legal disputes between nations when voluntarily submitted to it. (Source: BLACK)
Internationaal Monetair Fonds International Monetary Fund An international organization established in 1944, affiliated with the United Nations that acts as an international bank facilitating the exchange of national currencies and providing loans to member nations. It also evaluates the performance of the economies of the world's countries. (Source: KINGST)
internationaal privaatrecht private international law The part of the national law of a country that establishes rules for dealing with cases involving a foreign element. (Source: DICLAW)
internationaal publiekrecht public international law The general rules and principles pertaining to the conduct of nations and of international organizations and with the relations among them. (Source: BLD)
internationaal recht international law The system of law regulating the interrelationship of sovereign states and their rights and duties with regard to one another. (Source: DICLAW)
internationaal rivierbekken international river basin Land area drained by a river and its tributaries whose waters are situated in and utilized by two or more countries. (Source: TOE / EWP)
internationale betrekkingen international relations The political or diplomatic interaction or dealings between independent nations. (Source: RHW)
internationale concurrentie international competitiveness The ability of firms to strive with rivals in the production and sale of commodities in worldwide markets. (Source: ODE / OED)
internationale conventie international convention Treaties and other agreements of a contractual character between different countries or organizations of states creating legal rights and obligations between the parties. (Source: BLACK)
internationale handel international trade The flow of commodities and goods between nations. (Source: GOOD)
internationale harmonisatie international harmonisation Harmonisation of the interrelationship of sovereign states by the application of general principles recognized by civilized nations. (Source: DICLAWa)
internationale hulp international assistance Economic, military, technical or financial aid or support given to nations or countries in need, often from other governments or international or intergovernmental organizations. (Source: INP)
internationale milieuverhoudingen international environmental relations The political or diplomatic interaction or dealings between independent nations that pertain to ecological concerns. (Source: RHW)
internationale organisatie international organisation An association of independent states, whose representatives gather for the promotion of common interests including defense and trade. (Source: GT2)
internationale overeenkomst international agreement Cooperation in international efforts to support global environmental goals. Solutions to environmental problems such as trans-boundary airborne and waterborne pollution, ozone depletion and climate change require action by all responsible countries. (Source: WRES)
internationale politiek international politics The use of methods, strategy, intrigue, decision making and power by governments and their representatives to achieve goals in policy making or governmental affairs in a worldwide or international arena. (Source: RHW)
internationale samenwerking international co-operation The collaboration between governments, businesses or individuals in which it is agreed to work together on similar objectives or strategies, particularly in research or in setting industrial standards. (Source: ODE)
internationale standaardisatie international standardisation The process of establishing or conforming something to a norm or measure that is recognized beyond the boundaries of a single country or nation. (Source: RHW)
internationale veiligheid international safety Freedom from danger or the quality of averting risk of harm to persons, property or the environment shared across one or more national boundaries; consequently, the combined efforts of more than one nation to achieve or preserve that state. (Source: OED / RHW)
internationale verdeling international distribution The worldwide allocating of resources or dispersing of goods. (Source: ISEP / RHW)
internationale verdeling van werk international division of labour
internationale vergelijking international transaction Any agreement or act involving two or more countries in which business dealings, negotiations or other affairs are settled or concluded. (Source: BLD)
internationale waterweg international watercourse Portions of a geographical area which constitutes a hydrogeological unit as the catchment area for a single river which are under the jurisdiction of two or more countries. (Source: WPRa)
interne aanrekening van externe kosten internalisation of external costs The process of getting those who produce goods or services with adverse effects on the environment or on society to incorporate a knowledge of possible negative repercussions into future economic decisions. (Source: ODE)
interne aanrekening van milieukosten internalisation of environmental costs
Internet Internet A global consortium of local computer networks that uses the TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) protocol to connect machines to each other, providing access to the World Wide Web, Gopher, electronic mail, remote login and file transfer. (Source: WON)
Internetprovider internet service provider A business or organization that supplies connections to a part of the Internet, often through telephone lines. (Source: TWI)
Internetzoekoptie internet search service The provision of special aid by library staff trained to query bibliographic or other information contained on the Internet, a large distributed electronic system, usually to meet the research needs of the library's clients. (Source: RHW / LFS)
interpolatie interpolation A process used to estimate an intermediate value of one (dependent) variable which is a function of a second (independent) variable when values of the dependent variable corresponding to several discrete values of the independent variable are known. (Source: MGH)
interpretatiemethode interpretation method Method employed in the assessment of the meaning and significance of data, results, facts, etc. (Source: RRDA)
interventiefonds intervention fund Money or financial resources set aside to interpose or interfere in any business affair in order to affect an outcome. (Source: OED)
inventaris inventory A detailed list of articles, goods, property, etc. (Source: CED)
inventarisatie stocktaking The counting over of materials or goods on hand, as in a stockroom or store.
inventarisatie van bosschade inventory of forest damage Survey of a forest area to determine forest depletion. The aim of the inventory is to give an overview of the forest conditions. Especially should the inventory aim to detect any changes in the forest conditions, but it should also provide the distribution of the forest damages and find out any relation with site and stand conditions. (Source: DUNSTEa)
inversie inversion A reversal in the usual direction of a process, as in the change of density of water at 4° C. (Source: PITT)
investering investment Any item of value purchased for profitable return, as income, interest or capital appreciation. (Source: IVW / RHW)
investering voor de beheersing van milieuverontreiniging pollution control investment Securities held for the production of income in the form of interest and dividends with the aim of controlling or reducing pollution or substances in the environment deemed harmful to human health and natural resources. (Source: ISEP / EFP)
invloed op het milieu environmental impact Any alteration of environmental conditions or creation of a new set of environmental conditions, adverse or beneficial, caused or induced by the action or set of actions under consideration. (Source: LANDY)
invloed van aquacultuur op het milieu environmental impact of aquaculture Fish farming pollutes the water with nutrients, methane and hydrogen sulphide which threaten both farmed fish and other marine life. Dangerous pesticides have been used to treat infestations of sea lice. (Source: WPR)
invloed van bosbouw op het milieu environmental impact of forestry The world's forestry resources are shrinking at an alarming rate. The need for foreign exchange encourages many developing countries to cut timber faster than forests can be regenerated. This overcutting not only depletes the resource that underpins the world timber trade, it causes loss of forest-based livelihoods, increases soil erosion and downstream flooding, and accelerates the loss of species and genetic resources. (Source: WPR)
invloed van energie op het milieu environmental impact of energy Energy and environmental problems are closely related, since it is nearly impossible to produce, transport, or consume energy without significant environmental impact. The environmental problems directly related to energy production and consumption include air pollution, water pollution, thermal pollution, and solid waste disposal. The emission of air pollutants from fossil fuel combustion is the major cause of urban air pollution. Diverse water pollution problems are associated with energy usage. One major problem is oil spills. In all petroleum-handling operations, there is a finite probability of spilling oil either on the earth or in a body of water. Coal mining can also pollute water. Changes in groundwater flow produced by mining operations often bring otherwise unpolluted waters into contact with certain mineral materials which are leached from the soil and produce an acid mine drainage. Solid waste is also a by-product of some forms of energy usage. Coal mining requires the removal of large quantities of earth as well as coal. In general, environmental problems increase with energy use and this combined with the limited energy resource base is the crux of the energy crisis. An energy impact assessment should compare these costs with the benefits to be derived from energy use. (Source: RAU)
invloed van huishoudens op het milieu environmental impact of households Household impacts on the environment include domestic heating emissions (hot air, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, water vapour and oxide of nitrogen, sulphur and other trace gases); domestic sewage consisting of human bodily discharges, water from kitchens, bathrooms and laundries; the dumping of bulky wastes such as old washing machines, refrigerators, cars and other objects that will not fit into the standard dustbin and which are often dumped about the countryside, etc. (Source: WPR / GILP96)
invloed van industrie op het milieu environmental impact of industry The effects on the environment connected with industrial activities are mainly related to the production of industrial wastes that can be divided into various types: solid waste, such as dust particles or slag from coal; liquid wastes from various processes, including radioactive coolants from power stations; and gas wastes, largely produced by the chemical industry. (Source: RRDA)
invloed van landbouw op het milieu environmental impact of agriculture Agricultural activities have significant impacts on water quality, including increases in stream sedimentation from erosion, and increases in nutrients, pesticides, and salt concentrations in runoff. In certain regions, the misuse of pesticides has led to the development of pesticide-resistant strains of pests, destroyed natural predators, killed local wildlife, and contaminated human water supplies. Improper application of fertilizers has changed the types of vegetation and fish types inhabiting nearby waterways and rivers. (Source: RAU / WPR)
invloed van recreatie op het milieu environmental impact of recreation Recreation and tourism are often accompanied by extensive damage to the environment. Aquatic ecosystems are particularly vulnerable to the effects of an increased tourist trade and the resultant building of hotel accommodations, sewage disposal works, roads, car parks and landing jetties on banks and coastlines; and the increased angling, swimming, water skiing, shooting or use of motor-boats in the water body. These all produce direct deleterious effects when conducted on a massive scale, including shore damage, chemical changes in the water, and sediments and biological changes in the plant and animal communities. (Source: WPR)
invloed van toerisme op het milieu environmental impact of tourism Extensive damage to the environment caused by recreation and tourism, including despoiling of coastlines by construction of tourist facilities; pollution of the sea; loss of historic buildings to make way for tourist facilities; loss of agricultural land for airport development, etc. (Source: WPR)
invloed van vervoer op het milieu environmental impact of transport Impact of transportation-related activities on the environment, in particular, those impacts dealing with air pollution, noise, displacement of people and businesses, disruption of wildlife habitats, and overall growth-inducing effects. (Source: RAU)
invloed van visserij op het milieu environmental impact of fishing Fishing may have various negative effects on the environment: effluent and waste from fish farms may damage wild fish, seals, and shellfish. Fish farmers use tiny quantities of highly toxic chemicals to kill lice: one overdose could be devastating. So-called by-catches, or the incidental taking of non-commercial species in drift nets, trawling operations and long line fishing is responsible for the death of large marine animals and one factor in the threatened extinction of some species. Some fishing techniques, like the drift nets, yield not only tons of fish but kill millions of birds, whales and seals and catch millions of fish not intended. Small net holes often capture juvenile fish who never have a chance to reproduce. Some forms of equipment destroy natural habitats, for example bottom trawling may destroy natural reefs. Other destructive techniques are illegal dynamite and cyanide fishing. (Source: WPR)
invoer import The act of bringing goods and merchandise into a country from a foreign country. (Source: WESTS)
invoerder importer Person or society receiving and buying goods and services from abroad. (Source: CED)
invoervergunning import licence Permission from a government to bring within its borders and sell a product manufactured in a foreign country. (Source: BLD)
ionen ion An electrically charged atom or group of atoms formed by the loss or gain of one or more electrons. (Source: CED)
ionen(uit)wisselaar ion exchanger A permanent insoluble material (usually a synthetic resin) which contains ions that will exchange reversibly with other ions in a surrounding solution. Both cation and anion exchangers are used in water conditioning. The volume of an ion exchanger is measured in cubic liters of exchanger after the exchanger bed has been backwashed and drained, and has settled into place. (Source: WQA)
ionen(uit)wisseling ion exchange The process in which ions are exchanged between a solution and an insoluble solid, usually a resin. (Source: CED)
ioniserende straling ionising radiation Radiation that is capable of energizing atoms sufficiently to remove electrons from them. In this state atoms become more reactive, so that ionizing radiation increases chemical activity and in this way produces biological effects, including effects that involve alterations induced in DNA. X-rays and gamma-rays are the only electromagnetic waves that cause ionization in biological material. (Source: ALL)
ionosfeer ionosphere A region of the earth's atmosphere, extending from about 60 to 1000 kilometers above the earth's surface, in which there is a high concentration of free electrons formed as a result of ionizing radiation entering the atmosphere from space. (Source: CED)
isolatie insulation (process) The process of preventing or reducing the transmission of electricity, heat, or sound to or from a body, device, or region by surrounding it with a nonconducting material. (Source: CED)
isolatiemateriaal sound insulation material Material used to reduce the transmission of sound to or from a body, device, room, etc. (Source: CED)
isolerend materiaal insulating material Material that prevents or reduces the transmission of electricity, heat, or sound to or from a body, device or region. (Source: CED)
isomeer isomer 1) Two or more compounds having the same molecular formula, but a different arrangement of atoms within the molecule.2) One of two or more chemical substances having the same elementary percentage composition and molecular weight but differing in structure, and therefore in properties; there are many ways in which such structural differences occur. (Source: CED / MGH)
ISO-standaard ISO standard Documented agreements containing technical specifications or other precise criteria to be used consistently as rules, guidelines, or definitions of characteristics, to ensure that materials, products, processes and services are fit for their purpose. (Source: ISOCH)
isotoop isotope One or two or more atoms with the same atomic number that contain different numbers of neutrons. (Source: CED)
ivoor ivory The fine-grained creamy-white dentine forming the tusks of elephants, and the teeth or tusks of certain other large animals such as the walrus; it has long been esteemed for a wide variety of ornamental articles. (Source: BJGEO)
jaargetijde season One of the four equal periods into which the year is divided by the equinoxes and solstices, resulting from the apparent movement of the sun north and south of the equator during the course of the earth's orbit around it. These periods (spring, summer, autumn and winter) have their characteristic weather conditions in different regions, and occur at opposite times of the year in the N and S hemispheres. (Source: CED)
jacht hunting The pursuit and killing or capture of wild animals, regarded as a sport. (Source: CED)
jachtgebied hunting reserve Area of land where the pursuit and killing or capture of game and wild animals is permitted. (Source: CED)
jachthaven marina A small port that is used for pleasure rather than trade, often with hotels, restaurants and bars. (Source: CAMB)
jachthuis country lodge A small house or a hut located in the countryside. (Source: HARRIS)
jachtvergunning hunting licence Official permission granted to individuals or commercial enterprises allowing and regulating by time, location, species, size or amount the wild animals or game that can be killed and taken from lands within a particular jurisdiction. (Source: RHW)
jeugdwerk youth work Job opportunities and employment for adolescents, either for financial reward or educational enrichment. (Source: RHW)
jodium iodine A nonmetallic halogen element; the poisonous, corrosive dark plates or granules are readily sublimed; insoluble in water, soluble in common solvents; used as germicide and antiseptic, in dyes, tinctures, and pharmaceuticals, in engraving lithography, and as a catalyst and analytical reagent. (Source: MGH)
jong young
jongere youth The state of being young; the period between childhood and adult age. (Source: ZINZAN)
juridisch systeem van de Europese Gemeenschap Community legal system The directly applicable legislation of the European Community regulating the relations of member states. (Source: CURZONa)
juridische stand legal profession A body of persons whose occupation is concerned with advising clients in matters of law, representing them in court or assisting them through the judicial process, including, in the first instance, lawyers and, by extension, judges, legal assistants and court employees. (Source: OCT / RHW)
jurisprudentie jurisprudence The science or philosophy of law. (Source: CED)
kaart map A representation, normally on a flat medium, that displays the physical and political features of a surface area of the earth, showing them in their respective forms, sizes and relationships according to some convention of representation. (Source: RHW)
kabel cable Strands of insulated electrical conductors laid together, usually around a central core, and wrapped in a heavy insulation. (Source: MGH)
kachel stove A chamber within which a fuel-air mixture is burned to provide heat, the heat itself being radiated outward from the chamber; used for space heating, process-fluid heating, and steel blast furnaces. (Source: MGH)
kaderwetgeving framework legislation A body of rules prescribed by a government, often composed in a series of inter-related parts, to establish or lay the foundation for a new project, agency or organizational structure. (Source: RHW)
kakkerlakken cockroach The most primitive of the living winged insects. It is thought they have been unchanged for more than 300 million years, and are among the oldest fossil insects. Cockroaches are usually found in tropical climates, but a few species, out of the total 3.500 known species, have become pests. They are common household pests in many countries, imported by ship and carried home in grocery bags. Cockroaches eat plant and animal products, including food, paper, clothing and soiled hospital waste, fouling everything they touch with their droppings and unpleasant odour, to which many people are allergic. They are a major health hazard and carry harmful bacteria, protozoan parasites and faunal pathogens, including those that cause typhoid, leprosy and salmonella. Conventional insecticides make little or no impact on the cockroaches population. (Source: WRIGHT / WPR)
kali- en steenzoutmijnbouw rock salt mining Rock salt mining is an underground mining process in which the salt is physically dug out of the ground in an operation involving drilling, blasting and crushing the rock. The major percentage of this output is used for winter road maintenance. (Source: SALINF)
kalk lime Any of various mineral and industrial forms of calcium oxide differing chiefly in water content and percentage of constituent such as silica, alumina and iron. (Source: AMHER)
kalkgehalte calcium content Amount of calcium contained in a solution. (Source: MGHa)
kalksteen limestone A sedimentary rock consisting chiefly of calcium carbonate, primarily in the form of the mineral calcite and with or without magnesium carbonate. Limestones are formed by either organic or inorganic processes, and may be detrital, chemical, oolitic, earthy, crystalline, or recrystallized; many are highly fossiliferous and clearly represent ancient shell banks or coral reefs. (Source: BJGEO)
kamp camp 1) A place where tents, cabins, or other temporary structures are erected for the use of military troops, for training soldiers, etc.2) Tents, cabins, etc., used as temporary lodgings by a group of travellers, holiday-makers, Scouts, Gypsies, etc. (Source: CED)
kampeerterrein camping site A piece of land where people on holiday can stay in tents, usually with toilets and places for washing. (Source: CAMB)
kamperen camping Guarded area equipped with sanitary facilities where holiday-makers may pitch a tent and camp by paying a daily rate. (Source: ZINZAN)
kanaal canal An artificial open waterway used for transportation, waterpower, or irrigation. (Source: MGH)
kanaalsluis canal lock A chamber with gates on both ends connecting two sections of a canal or other waterway, to raise or lower the water level in each section. (Source: MGH)
kanaliseren channelling Any system of distribution canals or conduits for water, gas, electricity, or steam. (Source: MGH)
kanker cancer Any malignant cellular tumour including carcinoma and sarcoma. It encompasses a group of neoplastic diseases in which there is a transformation of normal body cells into malignant ones, probably involving some change in the genetic material of the cells, possibly as a result of faulty repair of damage to the cell caused by carcinogenic agents or ionizing radiation. (Source: KOREN)
kankerverwekkende stof carcinogen A substance that causes cancer in humans and animals. (Source: WRIGHT)
kansarmen underprivileged people A segment of the population that does not have access to the rights or benefits granted to the rest of society, often because of low economic or social status. (Source: RHW)
kantoor office Any room, set of rooms or building used for the administration of government service, business transactions or other work related activities. (Source: RHW)
kantoorstudie desk study
kapitaalbelasting tax on capital A government imposed levy on the wealth or assets gained by an individual, firm, or corporation for the purpose of raising revenue to pay for services or improvements for the general public benefit. (Source: EFP / RHW)
kappen [bosbouw] cutting (forestry) The act or process of felling or uprooting standing trees, in order to produce timber products. (Source: TIM)
kappen van een bos woodland clearance The permanent clear-felling of an area of forest or woodland. On steep slopes this can lead to severe soil erosion, especially where heavy seasonal rains or the melting of snow at higher levels cause sudden heavy flows of water. In the humid tropics it may also lead to a release of carbon dioxide from the soil. (Source: ALL2)
karkasverwerking carcass disposal The disposal of slaughtered animals, other dead animal bodies and animal body parts after removal of the offal products. (Source: ISEP)
karst karst 1) A German rendering of a Serbo-Croat term referring to the terrain created by limestone solution and characterized by a virtual absence of surface drainage, a series of surface hollows, depressions and fissures, collapse structures, and an extensive subterranean drainage network.2) A type of topography that is formed on limestone, gypsum, and other rocks by dissolution, and that is characterized by sinkholes, caves, and underground drainage. Etymology: German, from the Yugoslavian territory Krs; type locality, a limestone plateau in the Dinaric Alps of northwestern Yugoslavia and northeastern Italy. (Source: WHIT / BJGEO)
kartering mapping The process of making a map of an area; especially the field work necessary for the production of a map. (Source: BJGEO)
kartografie cartography The making of maps and charts for the purpose of visualizing spatial distributions over various areas of the earth. (Source: MGH)
Kaspische Zee Caspian Sea
kastanje chestnut Any north temperate fagaceous tree of the genus Castanea, such as Castanea sativa, which produce flowers in long catkins and nuts in a prickly bur. (Source: CED)
katachtigen felid Predatory mammal, including cats, lions, leopards, tigers, jaguars, and cheetahs, typically having a round head and retractile claws. (Source: CED)
katalysator (stof) catalyst A substance whose presence alters the rate at which a chemical reaction proceeds, but whose own composition remains unchanged by the reaction. Catalysts are usually employed to accelerate reactions(positive catalyst), but retarding (negative) catalysts are also used. (Source: ALL)
katalysator (toestel) catalytic converter Catalytic converters are designed to clean up the exhaust fumes from petrol-driven vehicles, which are otherwise the major threat to air quality standards in congested urban streets and on motorways. Converters remove carbon monoxide, the unburned hydrocarbons and the oxides of nitrogen. These compounds are damaging to human health and the environment in a variety of ways. The converter is attached to the vehicle' s exhaust near the engine. Exhaust gases pass through the cellular ceramic substrate, a honeycomb-like filter. While compact, the intricate honeycomb structure provides a surface area of 23.000 square metres. This is coated with a thin layer of platinum, palladium and rhodium metals, which act as catalysts that simulate a reaction to changes in the chemical composition of the gases. Platinum and palladium convert hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide into carbon dioxide and water vapour. Rhodium changes nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons into nitrogen and water, which are harmless. (Source: WRIGHT)
katalyse catalysis A phenomenon in which a relatively small amount of substance augments the rate of a chemical reaction without itself being consumed. (Source: MGH)
kation cation A positively charged atom or group of atoms, or a radical which moves to the negative pole (cathode) during electrolysis. (Source: MGH)
katoen cotton The most economical natural fiber, obtained from plants of the genus Gossypium, used in making fabrics, cordage, and padding and for producing artificial fibers and cellulose. (Source: MGH)
kennis hart-en vaatziekten cardiology The study of the heart. (Source: MGH)
kerk church A building for religious activities. (Source: CAMB)
kernbrandstof nuclear fuel Nuclear fuels are obtained from inorganic minerals extracted by mining. Although they are at least partially consumed when used in nuclear reactors for the production of heat, they differ from fossil fuels in the way they release energy. Burning of fossil fuels, such as coal, oil and gas, is a chemical reaction. Nuclear fuels, such as uranium, are destroyed by a process of spontaneous disintegration, called fission, and prompted by natural radioactivity. If the process is left to occur naturally in uranium-bearing rock, the rate of change is imperceptibly small. In a man-made nuclear reactor the energy-releasing processes of disintegration, which in the natural state happen slowly over thousands of millions of years, are compressed into minutes. The release of energy is harnessed to generate steam which drives electricity generators. (Source: WRIGHT)
kerncentrale nuclear power plant A power plant in which nuclear energy is converted into heat for use in producing steam for turbines, which in turn drive generators that produce electric power. (Source: MGH)
kernenergie nuclear energy Energy released by nuclear fission or nuclear fusion. (Source: MGH)
kernenergiegebruik nuclear energy use Nuclear energy is employed in the industrial sector, in the production of other energy types, in the medical and scientific research field, in transportation, in the production of nuclear weapons, etc. (Source: RRDA)
kernfusie nuclear fusion Combination of two light nuclei to form a heavier nucleus with release of some binding energy. (Source: MGH)
kernfysica nuclear physics The study of the characteristics, behaviour and internal structures of the atomic nucleus. (Source: MGH)
kernongeval nuclear accident An event occurring in a nuclear power plant or anywhere that radioactive materials are used, stored, or transported and involving the release of potentially dangerous levels of radioactive materials into the environment. (Source: FEMAa)
kernontploffing (ongeval) nuclear explosion (accident) An unintentional release of energy from a rapid reaction of atomic nuclei yielding high temperatures and radiation potentially harmful to human health and the environment. (Source: RHW / ISEP)
kernproef nuclear test Test performed to evaluate nuclear weapons. (Source: PHC)
kernreactie nuclear reaction A reaction involving a change in an atomic nucleus, such as fission, fusion, neutron capture, or radioactive decay, as distinct from a chemical reaction, which is limited to changes in the electron structure surrounding the nucleus. (Source: MGH)
kernreactor nuclear reactor Device which creates heat and energy by starting and controlling atomic fission. (Source: PHC)
kernsplitsing nuclear fission The division of an atomic nucleus into parts of comparable mass; usually restricted to heavier nuclei such as isotopes of uranium, plutonium, and thorium. (Source: MGH)
kernwapen nuclear weapon Any bomb, warhead, or projectile using active nuclear material to cause a chain reaction upon detonation. (Source: MGH)
kerosine kerosene A thin oil distilled from petroleum or shale oil, used as a fuel for heating and cooking, in lamps, and as a denaturant for alcohol. (Source: AMHER)
ketenbeheer chain management The administration, organization and planning for the flow of materials or merchandise through various stages of production and distribution, involving a network of vendors, suppliers, manufacturers, distributors, retailers and other trading partners. (Source: MSE)
keuringsdienst inspection service An organization designated to look into, supervise and report upon, the staff members and workings of some institution or department, or the conforming to laws and regulations by a segment of society or other group. (Source: OED)
keuze van technologie selection of technology
kevers beetle Any insect of the order Coleoptera, having biting mouthparts and forewings modified to form shell-like protective elytra. (Source: CED)
kieming germination The beginning or the process of development of a spore or seed. (Source: MGH)
kiemplasma germ plasm The hereditary material transmitted to the offspring via the gametes. (Source: LBC)
kikkers frog Any insectivorous anuran amphibian of the family Ranidae, such as Rana temporaria of Europe, having a short squat tailless body with a moist smooth skin and very long hind legs specialized for hopping. (Source: CED)
kind child A person below the age of puberty. (Source: ISEP)
kindersterfte infant mortality The rate of deaths occurring in the first year of life for a given population. (Source: MED)
klachtrecht petition right A legal guarantee or just claim enabling a citizen or employee to compose and submit a formal written request to an authority asking for some benefit or favor or for intervention and redress of some wrong. (Source: BLD / RHW)
klaring racking The mechanical dewatering of a wet solid by pouring off the liquid without disturbing the underlying sediment or precipitate. (Source: LEE)
klaring van een vloeistof decantation Sizing or classifying particulate matter by suspension in a fluid (liquid or gas), the larger particulates tending to separate by sinking. (Source: ECHO2)
kleding clothing Clothes considered as a group. (Source: AMHER)
kledingindustrie clothing industry
kleefstof adhesive Substance used for sticking objects together, such as glue, cement, or paste. (Source: CED)
klei clay A loose, earthy, extremely fine-grained, natural sediment or soft rock composed primarily of clay-size or colloidal particles and characterized by high plasticity and by a considerable content of clay mineral and subordinate amounts of finely divided quartz, decomposed feldspar, carbonates, ferruginous matter, and other impurities; it forms a plastic, moldable mass when finely ground and mixed with water, retains its shape on drying, and becomes firm, rocklike and permanently hard on heating or firing. (Source: BJGEO)
Kleine Eilanden Small Islands (political geography)
kleine electriciteitscentrale small power station Power station of small size for the generation of energy at local level. (Source: RRDA)
kleine en middelgrote industrieën small and medium sized industry
kleinschalige oven small-scale furnace Small enclosed structures containing a heat source, typically used for the purpose of intense heating. Most are lined with refractory material, the heat source is typically provided by electrical elements or the burning of gas, coke or coal. (Source: GRAHAW)
kleinschalige stroomopwekker small-scale inducer A domestic source introducing small quantities of pollutants into a publicly owned waste-treatment system. (Source: EPAGLOa)
kleur colour An attribute of things that results from the light they reflect, transmit, or emit in so far as this light causes a visual sensation that depends on its wavelengths. (Source: CED)
kleursamenstelling colour composition A remote-sensing term referring to the process of assigning different colours to different spectral bands. The colour picture formed by this process is called a 'colour composite' (a colour image produced through optical combination of multiband images by projection through filters) and is produced by assigning a colour to an image of the Earth's surface recorded in a particular waveband. For a Landsat colour composite, the green waveband is coloured blue, the red waveband is coloured green and the infrared waveband is coloured red. This produces an image closely approximating a false colour photograph. Colour composite images are easier to interpret than separate images recording different wavebands. US national experimental crop inventories are based upon visual interpretation of Landsat colour composites. (Source: RRDA / WHIT)
kleurstof dye A coloring material. (Source: LEE)
klif cliff A steep coastal declivity which may or may not be precipitous, the slope angle being dependent partly on the jointing, bedding and hardness of the materials from which the cliff has been formed, and partly on the erosional processes at work. Where wave attack is dominant the cliff-foot will be rapidly eroded and cliff retreat will take place, especially in unconsolidated materials such as clays, sands, etc., frequently leaving behind an abrasion platform at the foot of the cliff. (Source: WHIT)
klimaat climate The average weather condition in a region of the world. Many aspects of the Earth's geography affect the climate. Equatorial, or low, latitudes are hotter than the polar latitudes because of the angle at which the rays of sunlight arrive at the Earth's surface. The difference in temperature at the equator and at the poles has an influence on the global circulation of huge masses of air. Cool air at the poles sinks and spreads along the surface of the Earth towards the equator. Cool air forces its way under the lower density warmer air in the lower regions, pushing the lighter air up and toward the poles, where it will cool and descend. (Source: WRIGHT)
klimaat climate
klimaatbescherming climate protection Precautionary actions, procedures or installations undertaken to prevent or reduce harm from pollution to natural weather conditions or patterns, including the prevailing temperature, atmospheric composition and precipitation. (Source: DOE / RHW)
klimaatexperiment climatic experiment Experiments conducted to estimate future climatic conditions employing modelling of the physical processes underlying climatic change and variability; also, assessments are required of uncertain future man-made inputs such as increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide and other green-house gases. (Source: YOUNG)
klimaatfactor climatic factor Physical conditions that determine the climate in a given area, e.g. latitude, altitude, ocean streams, etc. (Source: UNUN)
klimaatschommeling climatic alteration The slow variation of climatic characteristics over time at a given place. This may be indicated by the geological record in the long term, by changes in the landforms in the intermediate term, and by vegetation changes in the short term. (Source: WHIT)
klimaattype climate type Weather conditions typical of areas roughly corresponding to lines of latitude. (Source: CEDa)
klimaatverandering climatic change The long-term fluctuations in temperature, precipitation, wind, and all other aspects of the Earth's climate. External processes, such as solar-irradiance variations, variations of the Earth's orbital parameters (eccentricity, precession, and inclination), lithosphere motions, and volcanic activity, are factors in climatic variation. Internal variations of the climate system, e.g., changes in the abundance of greenhouse gases, also may produce fluctuations of sufficient magnitude and variability to explain observed climate change through the feedback processes interrelating the components of the climate system. (Source: GSFC)
klimaatzone climatic zone A belt of the earth's surface within which the climate is generally homogeneous in some respect; an elemental region of a simple climatic classification. (Source: MGH)
klimatologie climatology That branch of meteorology concerned with the mean physical state of the atmosphere together with its statistical variations in both space and time as reflected in the weather behaviour over a period of many years. (Source: MGH)
klimplant [muur] climbing plant (wall) A plant that lacks rigidity and grows upwards by twining, scrambling, or clinging with tendrils and suckers. (Source: CED)
kloof canyon A long deep, relatively narrow steep-sided valley confined between lofty and precipitous walls in a plateau or mountainous area, often with a stream at the bottom; similar to, but largest than, a gorge. It is characteristic of an arid or semiarid area (such as western U.S.) where stream downcutting greatly exceeds weathering. (Source: BJGEO)
knaagdieren rodent Any of the relatively small placental mammals that constitute the order Rodentia, having constantly growing incisor teeth specialized for gnawing. (Source: MGH)
knalpot silencer Any device designed to reduce noise, especially the device in the exhaust system of a motor vehicle. (Source: CED)
kobalt cobalt A metallic element used chiefly in alloys. (Source: MGH)
koelen cooling Setting aside a highly radioactive material until the radioactivity has diminished to a desired level. (Source: MGH)
koelindustrie refrigeration industry
koeling; kunstmatige koeling refrigeration The cooling of substances, usually food, below the environmental temperature for preservative purposes. Refrigeration is responsible for the largest and fastest-growing use of CFCs in the developing world. The industrial countries, and some developing countries, have taken exceptional steps to control and, eventually, ban the production of CFCs and other ozone-depleting materials by the year 2000. However, many developing nations have not signed the Montreal Protocol because they are afraid that the cost of changing over to alternative, ozone-friendly technology will be too high. (Source: MGHa / WRIGHT)
koelkast refrigerator An appliance, a cabinet, or a room for storing food or other substances at a low temperature. (Source: AMHER)
koelmiddel refrigerant A substance that by undergoing a change in phase (liquid to gas, gas to liquid) releases or absorbs a large latent heat in relation to its volume, and thus effects a considerable cooling effect. (Source: MGH)
koelolie cooling oil Oil used as a cooling agent, either with forced circulation or with natural circulation. (Source: ECHO2a)
koeltoren cooling tower A device that aids in heat removal from water used as a coolant in electric power generating plants. (Source: LANDY)
koelwater cooling water Water used to make something less hot, such as the irradiated elements from a nuclear reactor or the engine of a machine. (Source: PHC)
koepelbeleid (verhandelbare emissierechten) bubble policy (emissions trading) EPA policy that allows a plant complex with several facilities to decrease pollution from some facilities while increasing it from others, so long as total results are equal to or better than previous limits. Facilities where this is done are treated as if they exist in a bubble in which total emissions are averaged out. (Source: EPAGLO)
kolentechnologie coal technology The processing of coal to make gaseous and liquid fuels. (Source: ENVAR)
kolonisatie colonisation The successful invasion of a new habitat by a species. (Source: LBC)
kookpunt boiling point The temperature at which the transition from the liquid to the gaseous phase occurs in a pure substance at fixed pressure. (Source: MGH)
kooldioxide carbon dioxide A colourless gas with a faint tingling smell and taste. Atmospheric carbon dioxide is the source of carbon for plants. As carbon dioxide is heavier than air and does not support combustion, it is used in fire extinguishers. It is a normal constituent of the atmosphere, relatively innocuous in itself but playing an important role in the greenhouse effect. It is produced during the combustion of fossil fuels when the carbon content of the fuels reacts with the oxygen during combustion. It is also produced when living organisms respire. It is essential for plant nutrition and in the ocean phytoplankton is capable of absorbing and releasing large quantities of the gas. (Source: UVAROV / GILP96)
koolhydraat carbohydrate Any of the group of organic compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, including sugars, starches and celluloses. (Source: MGH)
koolmonoxide carbon monoxide Colorless, odourless, tasteless, non-corrosive, highly poisonous gas of about the same density as that of air. Very flammable, burning in air with bright blue flame. Although each molecule of CO has one carbon atom and one oxygen atom, it has a shape similar to that of an oxygen molecule (two atoms of oxygen), which is important with regard to it's lethality. (Source: PHYMAC)
koolstof carbon A nonmetallic element existing in the three crystalline forms: graphite, diamond and buckminsterfullerene: occurring in carbon dioxide, coal, oil and all organic compounds. (Source: CED)
koolstofcyclus carbon cycle The cycle of carbon in the biosphere, in which plants convert carbon dioxide to organic compounds that are consumed by plants and animals, and the carbon is returned to the biosphere in inorganic form by processes of respiration and decay. (Source: MGH)
koolwaterstof hydrocarbon A very large group of chemical compounds composed only of carbon and hydrogen. (Source: MGH)
koolwaterstoftank hydrocarbon storage tank A container or a reservoir for the storage of hydrocarbons. (Source: MGH)
koolzuurheffing carbon dioxide tax Compulsory charges levied on fuels to reduce the output of carbon dioxide (CO2), which is a colourless and odourless gas substance that is incombustible. (Source: ODE / RHW)
koop purchase The acquisition or the act of buying something by payment of money or its equivalent. (Source: RHW)
koopvaardij merchant shipping Transportation of persons and goods by means of ships travelling along fixed navigation routes. (Source: ZINZANa)
koper copper A chemical element; one of the most important nonferrous metals; a ductile and malleable metal found in various ores and used in industry, engineering, and the arts in both pure and alloyed form. (Source: MGH)
koppotigen cephalopod Exclusively marine animals constituting the most advanced class of the Mollusca, including squid, octopuses, and Nautilus. (Source: MGH)
koraalrif coral reef Coral reefs have been built up from the skeletons of reef-building coral a small primitive marine animal, and other marine animals and algae over thousands of years. They occur in clear, shallow and sunlit seas. Coral reefs are one of the most productive and diverse ecosystems and are estimated to yield about 12% of the world's fish catch. They are very vulnerable to any change in their environment, especially pollution, because it makes the water opaque. They must have light in order that photosyntesis by the algae can take place. Like trees, corals reflect the environmental conditions in which they grow, indicating marine pollution, sea-surface temperature and other aquatic conditions. (Source: WRIGHT)
koraalriflagune coral reef lagoon A coastal stretch of shallow saltwater virtually cut off from the open sea by a coral reef. (Source: WHIT)
koralen coral The skeleton of certain solitary and colonial anthozoan coelenterates; composed chiefly of calcium carbonate. (Source: MGH)
korstmossen lichen Composite organisms formed by the symbiosis between species of fungi and an algae. They are either crusty patches or bushy growths on tree trunks, stone walls, roofs or garden paths. Because they have no actual roots they get their sustenance from the atmosphere and rainwater. Lichens play an important role in the detection and monitoring of pollution, especially sulphur dioxide, as they are highly sensitive to pollution and different species disappear if pollution reaches specific levels. (Source: WRIGHT)
kosmische straling cosmic radiation Radiations consisting of atomic nuclei, especially protons, of very high energy that reach the earth from outer space. Some cosmic radiations are very energetic and are able to penetrate a mile or more into the Earth. (Source: CED / WRIGHT)
kosten cost In economics, the value of the factors of production used by a firm in producing or distributing goods and services or engaging in both activities. (Source: GREENW)
kosten van de binnenlandse economie national economic costs The amount of money incurred as a result of the financial management of a nation's financial resources. (Source: EFP / RHW)
kosten van milieuverontreiniging pollution cost The amount of money incurred as a result of human-made or human-induced alteration of the physical, biological, chemical, and radiological integrity of air, water, and other media. (Source: EFP / TOE)
kosten-baten cost-benefit Relation between costs of a certain activity and its benefits to a certain community.
kosten-baten analyse cost-benefit analysis The attempt to assess, compare and frequently justify the total price or loss represented by a certain activity or expenditure with the advantage or service it provides. (Source: ODE)
kostentoename cost increase The augmentation or rise in the amount of money incurred or asked for in the exchange of goods and services. (Source: ISEP / EFP)
kostenvermindering cost reduction The lessening or lowering in the amount of money incurred or asked for in the exchange of goods and services. (Source: ISEP / EFP)
koude cold
krachtcentrale op basis van afval waste-fed power station Power station that functions with refuse-derived fuel. (Source: PARCORa)
krediet credit The financial facility or system by which goods and services are provided in return for deferred, instead of immediate, payment. (Source: ODE)
kredietbeleid credit policy An official course of action adopted by a business, financial institution or state to regulate, restrict or increase deferred payment arrangements for goods, services or money. (Source: ODE)
kredietbijstand credit assistance The help and support from banks and other financial institutions in providing money or goods without requiring present payment. (Source: ISEP / OED)
kreeftachtigen crustacean A class of arthropod animals having jointed feet and mandibles, two pairs of antennae, and segmented, chitin-encased bodies. (Source: MGH)
kreek creek A narrow inlet or bay, especially of the sea. (Source: CED)
krijt chalk A soft, pure, earthy, fine-textured, usually white to light gray or buff limestone of marine origin, consisting almost wholly (90-99%) of calcite, formed mainly by shallow-water accumulation of calcareous tests of floating microorganisms (chiefly foraminifers) and of comminuted remains of calcareous algae (such as cocoliths and rhabdoliths), set in a structureless matrix of very finely crystalline calcite. The rock is porous, somewhat friable, and only slightly coherent. It may include the remains of bottom-dwelling forms (e.g. ammonites, echinoderms, and pelecypods), and nodules of chert and pyrite. The best known and most widespread chalks are of Cretaceous age, such as those exposed in cliffs on both sides of the English Channel. (Source: BJGEO)
kringloop [verschijnsel] cycle (phenomenon) A completed series of events that follows or is followed by another series of similar events occurring in the same sequence. (Source: CED)
kringloopnijverheid reclamation industry Industry for the transformation of solid waste into useful products. (Source: GRN)
kringlooppapier recycled paper Paper that has been separated from the solid waste stream for utilization as a raw material in the manufacture of a new product. Not all paper in the waste stream is recyclable. It may be heavily contaminated or otherwise unusable. (Source: LEE)
kringloopplastic recyclable plastic Plastic waste that can be transformed into new products. (Source: RRDA)
kristallografie crystallography The branch of science that deals with the geometric description of crystals and their internal arrangement. (Source: MGH)
kritisch niveau critical level General term referring to the concentration limit beyond which a substance can cause dangerous effects to living organisms. (Source: RRDA)
kritische belasting critical load The maximum load that a given system can tolerate before failing. (Source: GRAHAWa)
krokodillen crocodile Any large tropical reptile of the family Crocodylidae: order Crocodylia. They have a broad head, tapering snout, massive jaws, and a thick outer covering of bony plates. (Source: CED)
kruising hybridisation The act or process of producing hybrids that is an animal or plant resulting from a cross between genetically unlike individuals. Hybrids between different species are usually sterile. (Source: MGH)
kunst art The creation of works of beauty or other special significance. (Source: CED)
kunstmaan artificial satellite Any man-made object placed in a near-periodic orbit in which it moves mainly under the gravitational influence of one celestial body, such as the earth, sun, another planet, or a planet's moon. (Source: MGH)
kunstmatige voortplanting artificial reproductive technique
kunststof synthetic material Material made artificially by chemical reaction. (Source: CEDa)
kunststofverwerkende industrie synthetic materials industry
kunstvezel synthetic textile fibre An artificially produced filament or threadlike strand used by manufacturers to produce clothes or other goods that require weaving, knitting or felting, including polyester, nylon, rayon and other similar material. (Source: INP / RHW)
kunstvezelindustrie synthetic fibres industry
kurk cork The thick light porous outer bark of the cork oak, used widely as an insulator and for stoppers for bottles, casks, etc. (Source: CED)
kust coast A line or zone where the land meets the sea or some other large expanse of water. (Source: CED)
kust(strook) seashore The zone of unconsolidated material that extends landward from the low water-line to where there is marked change in material or physiographic form or to the line of permanent vegetation. (Source: MGH)
kustbeheer coastal management Measures by way of planning, prior approval of works, prohibition of some activities, physical structures, and restoration efforts to protect the coastline against the ravages of nature and haphazard and unplanned developments. (Source: GILP96)
kustbescherming coast protection A form of environmental management designed to allay the progressive degradation of the land by coastal erosion processes. Sea defence works can be undertaken to protect the land from erosion and encroachment by the sea and against flooding. These involve engineering solutions such as groynes, sea walls, bulkheads, revetments and breakwaters. (Source: GOOD)
kustecosysteem coastal ecosystem Marine environments bounded by the coastal land margin (seashore) and the continental shelf 100-200 m below sea level. Ecologically, the coastal and nearshore zones grade from shallow water depths, influenced by the adjacent landmass and input from coastal rivers and estuaries, to the continental shelf break, where oceanic processes predominate. Among the unique marine ecosystems associated with coastal and nearshore waterbodies are seaweed-dominated communities, coral reefs and upwellings. (Source: PARCOR)
kusterosie coastal erosion The gradual wearing away of material from a coast by the action of sea water. (Source: GREMESa)
kustgebied coastal area The areas of land and sea bordering the shoreline and extending seaward through the breaker zone. (Source: BJGEO)
kustmilieu coastal environment The areas where the land masses meet the seas. Coastal environments include tidal wetlands, estuaries, bays, shallow near-shore waters, mangrove swamps, and in-shore reef systems. The critical habitats of these zones are: feeding, breeding, nursery, and resting areas. Coastal areas throughout the world are under enormous environmental stress, which is caused by a wide range of factors, including pollution and the destruction and deterioration of marine habitats. (Source: GILP96 / WRIGHT)
kustontwikkeling coastal development Concentration of human settlements, infrastructures and economical activities along the coasts, being these areas very favourable for trade, communication and marine resources exploitation; the impact of the accelerated population growth and of the industrial and touristic development in these areas has caused the disruption of the ecological integrity of the coastal zones. (Source: DIFIDa / RRDA)
kustvervuiling coastal pollution The presence, release or introduction of polluting substances in or onto the seashore or the land near it. (Source: TOE / DOE / RHW)
kustvisserij coastal fishing Fishing in an area of the sea next to the shoreline. (Source: PHC)
kustwacht coastguard A maritime force which aids shipping, saves lives at sea, prevents smuggling, etc. It also responds to emergencies involving oil spills and other discharges at sea and takes the lead in enforcing the law, including assessing penalties for environmental violations. (Source: CED / PATHUL)
kustwater coastal water Coastal waters are typically characterized by a shallow continental shelf, gently sloping seaward to a continental slope, which drops relatively abruptly to the deep ocean. The proximity of coastal water to land also influences the water circulation. In the vicinity of freshwater inflows, the nearshore circulation is altered by the presence of density-driven motions. Coastal waters are under enormous environmental stress, caused by a wide range of factors including pollution and the destruction and deterioration of marine habitats. (Source: WRIGHT)
kwaliteitsbewaking quality control The inspection, analysis, and other relevant actions taken to provide control over what is being done, manufactured, or fabricated, so that a desirable level of quality is achieved and maintained. (Source: HARRIS)
kwaliteitscertificatie quality certification The formal assertion in writing that a commodity, service or other product has attained a recognized and relatively high grade or level of excellence. (Source: BLD / RHW)
kwaliteitsdoel(stelling) quality objective Any goal or target established for a product, service or endeavor that aspires to attain a relatively high grade or level of excellence. (Source: RHW)
kwaliteitsnorm quality standard
kwaliteitsnorm voor woningen housing quality standard A norm or measure applicable in legal cases and considered to reflect a relatively high grade or level of excellence in the construction, maintenance, operation, occupancy, use or appearance of dwelling units. (Source: BLD)
kwaliteitswaarborg quality assurance
kwekerij; plantenkwekerij nursery (plant breeding) Place where plants are grown until they are large enough to be planted in their final positions. (Source: PHC)
kwel water seepage The slow movement of water through small openings and spaces in the surface of unsaturated soil into or out of a body of surface or subsurface water. (Source: MGH)
kwelwater seepage water Water that moves slowly through small openings of a porous material such as soil or the amount of water that has been involved in seepage. (Source: BJGEO)
kwetsbare soort vulnerable species (IUCN) Species which is likely to become endangered unless protective measures are taken. (Source: PHC)
kwik mercury A heavy silvery-white toxic liquid metallic element occurring principally in cinnabar: used in thermometers, barometers, mercury-vapour lamps, and dental amalgams. (Source: CED)
kwikverontreiniging mercury contamination The presence and release into the air, water and soil of mercury, a naturally occurring heavy metal element, by both natural occurrences such as vaporization and human activities such as burning coal, mining and smelting. (Source: FFD / EEN)
laag debiet low flow Phase of lowest level of a water course. (Source: ZINZAN)
laagvlakte; vlakte plain An extensive, broad tract of level or rolling, almost treeless land with a shrubby vegetation, usually at a low elevation. (Source: MGH)
laagvliegerij low-level flight Flying at low altitude. (Source: RRDA)
laboratorium laboratory A room or building with scientific equipment for doing scientific tests or for teaching science, or a place where chemicals or medicines are produced. (Source: CAMB)
laboratoriumafval laboratory waste Discarded materials produced by analytical and research activities in a laboratory. (Source: ERG)
laboratoriumexperiment laboratory experiment Tests or investigations carried out in a laboratory. (Source: CEDa)
laboratoriumonderzoek laboratory research Research carried out in a laboratory for testing chemical substances, growing tissues in cultures, or performing microbiological, biochemical, hematological, microscopical, immunological, parasitological tests, etc. (Source: PHC)
laboratoriumprocedure laboratory technique
laboratoriumproef laboratory test Tests, examinations or evaluations performed in a laboratory. (Source: KOREN)
ladingsgewijs proces batch process A process that is not in continuous or mass production; operations are carried out with discrete quantities of material or a limited number of items. (Source: MGH)
lagere technologie low-level technology Any relatively unsophisticated technical equipment or method with an amplitude or functionality below what is available in a similar or comparable system. (Source: RHW / APD)
lagune lagoon A body of water cut off from the open sea by coral reefs or sand bars. (Source: CED)
lak lacquer A material which contains a substantial quantity of a cellulose derivative, most commonly nitrocellulose but sometimes a cellulose ester, such as cellulose acetate or cellulose butyrate, or a cellulose ether such as ethyl cellulose; used to give a glossy finish, especially on brass and other bright metals. (Source: MGH)
lak varnish A transparent surface coating which is applied as a liquid and then changes to a hard solid; all varnishes are solutions of resinous materials in a solvent. (Source: MGH)
lamp lamp A device that produces light, such as an electric lamp. (Source: MGH)
land land A specified geographical tract of the Earth's surface including all its attributes, comprising its geology, superficial deposits, topography, hydrology, soils, flora and fauna, together with the results of past and present human activity, to the extent that these attributes exert a significant influence on the present and future land utilization. (Source: WHIT)
land (landschap,aardrijkskunde) land (landscape, geography)
landbedekking land cover Land cover is the physical state of the land surface. It is the combination of vegetation, soil, rock, water and human-made structures, which make up the earth's landscape. The land cover is the interface between the earth's crust and the atmosphere, influencing the exchange of energy and matter in the climatic system and biogeochemical cycles. (Source: BRS)
landbeheer en -inrichting land management and planning Operations for preparing and controlling the implementation of plans for organizing human activities on land. (Source: GOOD)
landbeheerinterventiegebied land-management intervention area Any expanse of land which requires a person or agency with authority to interpose or interfere in how it is used or administrated. (Source: RHW)
landbehoud land conservation The care, preservation and re-use of solid areas of the earth's surface, especially soil regions valued as a natural resource or utilized as an agricultural resource. (Source: TOE)
landbouw agriculture The production of plants and animals useful to man, involving soil cultivation and the breeding and management of crops and livestock. (Source: MGH)
landbouw agriculture
landbouw en milieu agricultural ecology
landbouw en veehouderij agriculture and cattle industry Large scale growing of crops and livestock grazing for profit. (Source: RRDA)
landbouw(huis)dier farm animal Animals reared in farms for working and producing food such as meat, eggs and milk. (Source: CAMB)
landbouw, bosbouw, veeteelt, visserij agriculture, forestry; animal husbandry; fishery
landbouwafval agricultural effluent Any solid, liquid or gas that enters the environment as a by-product of agricultural activities.
landbouwafval agricultural waste Unusable materials, liquid or solid, that result from agricultural practices, such as fertilizers, pesticides, crop residue (such as orchard prunings) and cattle manure. (Source: HMD / MHD)
landbouwbedrijf farm Any tract of land or building used for agricultural purposes, such as for raising crops and livestock. (Source: RHW)
landbouwbeheer agricultural management The administration or handling of soil, crops and livestock. (Source: OED)
landbouwbeleid agricultural policy A course of action adopted by government or some other organization that determines how to deal with matters involving the cultivation of land; raising crops; feeding, breeding and raising livestock or poultry; and other farming issues. (Source: RHW)
landbouweconomie agricultural economics An applied social science that deals with the production, distribution, and consumption of agricultural or farming goods and services. (Source: AGP)
landbouwexploitatie agricultural exploitation
landbouwgebouw agricultural building The buildings and adjacent service areas of a farm. (Source: WEBSTE)
landbouwgrond agricultural land Land used primarily for the production of plant or animal crops, including arable agriculture, dairying, pasturage, apiaries, horticulture, floriculture, viticulture, animal husbandry and the necessary lands and structures needed for packing, processing, treating, or storing the produce. (Source: DUNSTE)
landbouwgrondbezit agricultural real estate Property of agricultural land and anything permanently affixed to the land, such as buildings, fences, etc. (Source: WESTS)
landbouwhydraulica agricultural hydraulics Science and technology involved in the management of water resources, in the control of erosion and in the removal of unwanted water. (Source: ECHO2)
landbouwkunde agronomy The principles and procedures of soil management and of field crop and special-purpose plant improvement, management, and production. (Source: MGH)
landbouwkundig kaderplan agriculture framework plan A formulated or systematic method for the management of soil, crops and livestock. (Source: OED)
landbouwkundige onderwaardering agricultural undervaluation The underrating or diminishing in value of agricultural or farming goods and services. (Source: RHW)
landbouwlandschap agricultural landscape
landbouwmachine agricultural machinery Machines utilized for tillage, planting, cultivation and harvesting of crops. Despite its benefits in increasing yields, mechanisation has clearly had some adverse environmental effects: deep ploughing exposes more soil to wind and water erosion; crop residues can be removed as opposed to ploughing back into the soil; removal of residues can lead to a serious loss of organic content in the soil, which may increase the risk of soil erosion. (Source: MGH / DOBRIS)
landbouwmethode agricultural method Practices and techniques employed in agriculture to improve yields and productivity. Over the last few decades they have undergone big changes: tilling, sowing and harvesting have become increasingly mechanised, and the methods of applying fertilisers and pesticides have become more sophisticated. Many changes within the agricultural system can be summed up by 'intensification'. The result and aim of intensification has been to achieve increases in production, yields and labour productivity in agriculture. (Source: DOBRIS)
landbouwonderneming agricultural holding As defined by the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, an agricultural holding is simply a basic unit for agricultural production. (Source: GOOD)
landbouwongedierte agricultural pest Insects and mites that damage crops, weeds that compete with field crops for nutrients and water, plants that choke irrigation channels or drainage systems, rodents that eat young plants and grain, and birds that eat seedlings or stored foodstuffs. (Source: WRIGHT)
landbouwopslag agricultural storage Any deposit or holdings of farm products, fertilizers, grains, feed and other related supplies in facilities or containers, often to prevent contamination or for times when production cannot meet demand. (Source: AGP)
landbouwplanning agricultural planning The development of plans and measures to achieve greater and more efficient output from agriculture; a sound agricultural policy should be able to reconcile three basic needs: the production of food and agricultural products, the protection of the environment and the maintenance of the socio-economic structure of rural areas. (Source: DOBRISa)
landbouwprijs farm price The amount of money or monetary rate at which agricultural goods and services can be bought or sold. (Source: RHW)
landbouwproduct agricultural product The output of the cultivation of the soil. (Source: RRDA)
landbouwproductie agricultural production
landbouwproductiemiddelen means of agricultural production
landbouwramp agricultural disaster Violent, sudden and destructive change in the environment either affecting or caused by land cultivation or the raising of crops or livestock. (Source: ISEP / APD)
landbouwstructuur agricultural structure The buildings, machinery, facilities, related to agricultural production. (Source: RRDA)
landbouwsysteem agrosystem Ecosystem dominated by the continuous agricultural intervention of man. (Source: ECHO1)
landbouwtechniek agricultural engineering A discipline concerned with developing and improving the means for providing food and fiber for mankind's needs. (Source: MGH)
landbouwtechniek farming technique The business, art, or skill of agriculture. (Source: CED)
landbouwtoerisme agritourism Holidays organized in a farm: meals are prepared with natural products and guests are entertained with handicraft, sporting and agricultural activities. (Source: DIFID)
landbouwuitrusting agricultural equipment Machines utilized for tillage, planting, cultivation, and harvesting of crops. (Source: MGH)
landbouwvervuiling agricultural pollution The liquid or solid wastes from farming, including: runoff from pesticides, fertilizers, and feedlots; erosion and dust from plowing; animal manure and carcasses, crop residues, and debris. (Source: LANDY)
landbouwwaarde agronomic value The monetary or material worth at which buyers and sellers agree to do business for agricultural goods and services. (Source: AGP / RHW)
landbouwwater water for agricultural use Water used in agriculture for irrigation and livestock. Livestock watering is only 1 percent of the total water withdrawal for agricultural use. Of all functional water uses, irrigation is the largest agricultural use of water. (Source: CORBIT)
landbouwwetgeving agricultural legislation Agricultural law is a blend of traditional fields of law including the law of contracts, bailments, torts, criminal, environmental, property, nuisance, wills and estates, and tax law. As such, it is a gathering of statutory and common law. (Source: FREEAD)
landecologie land ecology Study of the relationship between terrestrial organisms and their environment. (Source: PHC)
landgebruik land occupation The use, settlement or possession of solid areas of the earth's surface. (Source: RHW)
landherstel land restoration The treatment of any unusable land usually by filling with refuse or levelling until the land can be brought into productive use. (Source: ALL)
landherstel in bergstreken land restoration in mountain areas Measures adopted to control erosion and degradation phenomena in the mountain regions caused by the loss of forest cover due to acid rain, uncontrolled forest cutting, winter skiing resorts construction, etc. (Source: DIZAMBa)
landinrichting land development Planning of infrastructures, services and industrial settlements in order to promote the socio-economic growth of certain land area. (Source: DIFIDa)
landinrichting land planning The activity of designing, organizing or preparing for the future use of solid areas of the earth's surface, especially regions valued for natural resources, utilized as agricultural resources or considered for human settlement. (Source: RHW)
landinrichting land setup The formulation of regional objectives, plans and programmes and the harmonization of the regional effects of sectorial planning. (Source: ECHO2)
landomgeving terrestrial environment The continental as distinct from the marine and atmospheric environments. It is the environment in which terrestrial organisms live. (Source: WHIT)
landschap landscape The traits, patterns, and structure of a specific geographic area, including its biological composition, its physical environment, and its anthropogenic or social patterns. An area where interacting ecosystems are grouped and repeated in similar form. (Source: EPAGLO)
landschap na mijnbouw landscape after mining The process of mining disfigures the surface of the land, and in the absence of reclamation leads to permanent scars. The process spoils the vital topsoil, disrupts drainage patterns, destroys the productive capacity of agricultural and forest land and impairs their aesthetic and social value. (Source: WPRa)
landschapsarchitectuur landscape architecture The creation, development, and decorative planting of gardens, grounds, parks, and other outdoor spaces. Landscape gardening is used to enhance nature helping to create a natural setting for individual residences and buildings, and even towns, particularly where special approaches and central settings are required. (Source: GILP96)
landschapsbeheer landscape management Measures aiming at preserving landscape or controlling its transformations caused by anthropic activities or natural events. (Source: DIFID)
landschapsbehoud landscape conservation The safeguarding, for public enjoyment, of landscape and of opportunities for outdoor recreation, tourism and similar activities; the concept includes the preservation and enhancement not only of what has been inherited but the provision of new amenities and facilities. (Source: GILP96)
landschapsbehoudbeleid landscape conservation policy
landschapsbescherming landscape protection Elaboration and implementation of strategies and measures for the conservation, preservation, suitable use, and renewal of natural resources and nature or man-made components of landscape, in particular wildlife and natural systems of various standing. (Source: MOSGOV)
landschapsecologie landscape ecology The study of landscapes taking account of the ecology of their biological populations. The subjects thus embraces geomorphology and ecology and is applied to the design and architecture of landscapes. (Source: ALL2)
landschapselement landscape component In visual assessment work, landscapes can be divided into four major elements. a) Form is the perceived mass or shape of an object that appears unified, and which provides a consciousness of its distinction and relation of a whole to the component parts. b) Line is the real or imagined path, border, boundary, or intersection of two planes, such as a silhouette, that the eye follows when perceiving abrupt differences in form, colour or texture. c) Colour is a visual perception that enables the eye to differenciate otherwise identical objects based on the wavelengths of reflected light. d) Texture is the visual feel of a landscape. (Source: DUNSTE)
landschapsgebruik landscape utilisation Using landscape or parts of it for tourism, sports, or agriculture. (Source: RRDA)
landschapsherkenning scene identification A numeric string which uniquely identifies an image component of a geographical information system database. (Source: MTE)
landschapsherstel recovery of landscape Reclamation measures taken to restore the environmental quality level of a landscape to its predisturbed condition. (Source: AQDa)
landschapsherstel van voormalige mijnbouwgebieden mining site restoration Mining is an intensive type of land use with potential for environmental impact over a limited area. When closure occurs, it should address both environmental and safety aspects. Mine reclamation is an ongoing program designed to restore to an acceptable state the physical, chemical and biological quality or potential of air, land and water regimes disturbed by mining. The objective of mine reclamation is to prevent or minimize adverse long-term environmental impacts, and create a self-sustaining ecosystem as near as practicable to what existed before the mining activity. (Source: NRCAN)
landschapsplanning landscape planning The aspect of the land use planning process that deals with physical, biological, aesthetic, cultural, and historical values and with the relationships and planning between these values, land uses, and the environment. (Source: UNUN)
landschapsverandering landscape alteration Landscapes might change through time as a result of human activities or natural processes such as fires or natural disasters. Changes in landscape structure can be documented by using data from aerial photographs or satellite images, and new technologies, such as remote sensing and geographic information systems. (Source: PARCOR)
landschapsverbruik landscape consumption Using parts of landscape in a way that heavily modifies its features. (Source: RRDA)
landsgrens national boundary The line demarcating recognized limits of established political units. (Source: GOOD)
landsverdediging(defensie) en milieu military aspects
landtong headland (geography) A cape or promontory jutting seawards from a coastline, usually with a significant sea cliff. (Source: WHIT)
landvervuiling land pollution The presence of one or more contaminants upon or within an area of land, or its constituents. (Source: Landy)
landvorming land forming
landzoogdier land mammal
langeafstandsverkeer long-distance traffic Traffic moving over extended areas, great distances and usually not subject to frequent stops.
langeafstandsvervoer long-distance transport The conveyance of materials or commodities over land, water or through air in which a great distance is covered. (Source: RHW)
langetermijneffect long-term effect Effects which will last long after the cause has ceased. (Source: RRDA)
langetermijneffect van vervuilende stoffen long-term effect of pollutants
langetermijnexperiment long-term experiment 1) Experiment lasting for a relatively long period of time.2) Experiment whose results become effective after a long period of time. (Source: SHOOXa)
langetermijntrend long-term trend The prevailing tendency or general direction expected for some observed value over a lengthy and extended period of time, often determined by studying and analyzing statistical data. (Source: RHW / APD)
laser laser Acronym for Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation; a device that produces a powerful, highly directional, monochromatic, coherent beam of light. Laser consist of a transparent cylinder with a reflecting surface at one end and a partially reflecting surface at the other. Light waves are reflected back and forth, some of them emerging at the partially reflecting end. The light source may be a ruby, whose chromium atoms are excited by a flash lamp so that they emit pulses of highly coherent light, or a mixture of inert gases that produce a continuos beam, or a cube of treated gallium arsenide which emits infrared radiation when an electric current passes through it. (Source: ALL)
lassen welding Joining two metals by applying heat to melt and fuse them, with or without filler metal. (Source: MGH)
lawaaibeperking noise reduction The reduction in the sound pressure level of a noise, or the attenuation of unwanted sound by any means. (Source: CONFER)
lawaaihinder door bouwactiviteiten construction noise Noise resulting from construction activities such as site preparation, site clearance, demolition of existing buildings, piling, concreting, erection of structures, etc.
lawine avalanche A fall or slide of a large mass, as of snow or rock, down a mountainside. (Source: AMHER)
leder leather The dressed or tanned hide of an animal, usually with the hair removed. (Source: AMHER)
lederindustrie leather industry Industry for the production of leather goods such as garments, bags, etc. (Source: CEDa)
leefbaarheid quality of life Quality of life is largely a matter of individual preference and perception and overlaps the concept of social well-being. Generally the emphasis is on the amount and distribution of impure public goods, such as health care and well-fare services, protection against crime, regulation of pollution, preservation of fine landscapes and hystoric townscapes. (Source: GOOD)
leefmilieu environment (natural environment, anthropic environment)
leefnorm living standard A measurement of the development level in a country or community, gauged by factors such as personal income, education, life expectancy, food consumption, health care, technology and the use of natural resources. (Source: TEX)
leefomgeving living environment External conditions or surroundings in which people live or work. (Source: CED)
leefomgeving van in het wild levende planten en dieren wildlife habitat Suitable upland or wetland areas promoting survival of wildlife. (Source: LANDY)
leefruimte living space Any room, structure or area used as a residence and associated with subsistence activities, including sleeping, relaxing or eating. (Source: RHW)
leeftijd age The period of time that a person, animal or plant has lived or is expected to live. (Source: CED)
leefwijze lifestyle The particular attitudes, habits or behaviour associated with an individual or group. (Source: CED)
leegruimen van land land clearing Removal of trees, undergrowth, etc. in preparation for ploughing, building, etc. (Source: PHC)
leer [wet] doctrine (law) A rule, principle, theory, or tenet of the law, as the doctrine of merger, the doctrine of relation, etc. (Source: WESTS)
leer van het bloed haematology The branch of medical science concerned with diseases of the blood. (Source: CED)
leerplan curriculum The aggregate of courses of study provided in a particular school, college, university, adult education program, technical institution or some other educational program. (Source: RHW)
legering alloy Any of a large number of substances having metallic properties and consisting of two or more elements; with few exceptions, the components are usually metallic elements. (Source: MGH)
legger van het kadaster land register A register or survey of land, containing information on the surface of properties, tenants' names, commencing with the earliest owners through successive ownership and partitions, and such like. (Source: CED / WESTS / HARRIS)
leiding; pijpleiding pipeline A line of pipe connected to valves and other control devices, for conducting fluids, gases, or finely divided solids. (Source: MGH)
lek leakage The accidental, uncontrolled discharge or seepage of liquids, gases and other substances to unintended and unwanted locations, frequently causing risks of damage or harm to persons, property or the environment. (Source: WWC)
lengtegraad (geografisch) longitude Distance in degrees east or west of the prime meridian at 0° measured by the angle between the plane of the prime meridian and that of the meridian through the point in question, or by the corresponding time difference. (Source: CED)
letsel injury A stress upon an organism that disrupts the structure or function and results in a pathological process. (Source: KOREN)
letterkunde literature Written material such as poetry, novels, essays, especially works of imagination characterized by excellence of style and expression and by themes of general or enduring interest. (Source: CED)
letterkundig gegevensbestand literature data bank A fund of information on a particular subject or group of related subjects, divided into discrete documents and usually stored in and used with a computer system. (Source: RHW)
letterkundig onderzoek literature study The identification, description, analysis and classification of books and other materials used or consulted in the preparation of a work. (Source: WEBSTE)
letterkundige evaluatie literature evaluation The action of evaluating or judging the quality or character of written materials such as poetry, essays, novels, biographies and historical writings. (Source: RHW)
leukemie leukaemia A progressive, malignant disease of the blood forming organs; a distorted proliferation and development of leukocytes and their precursors in the blood and bone marrow. (Source: KOREN)
levende toestand living condition An element or characteristic of a habitation considered in light of its ability to sustain and promote the health and general well-being of occupants. (Source: RHW)
levenscyclus life cycle The phases, changes, or stages through which an organism passes throughout its lifetime. (Source: UNUN)
levenscyclus van een product product life cycle A product life cycle includes the following phases: acquisition of raw materials, production, packaging, distribution, use, recyling, and disposal. (Source: HELIOSa)
levenscyclus van materialen material life cycle All the stages involved in the manufacturing, distribution and retail, use and re-use and maintenance, recycling and waste management of materials. (Source: PORT)
levenswetenschappen life science A science based on living organisms collectively. (Source: CED)
libellen dragonfly Any of the insects composing six families of the suborder Anisoptera and having four large, membranous wings and compound eyes that provide keen vision. (Source: MGH)
libellen odonate
lichamelijk gehandicapte disabled person Person lacking one or more physical power, such as the ability to walk or to coordinate one's movements, as from the effects of a disease or accident, or through mental impairment. (Source: CED)
lichamelijke behandeling physical treatment Processes that separate components of a waste stream or change the physical form of the waste without altering the chemical structure of the constituent materials. Physical treatment techniques are often used to separate the materials within the waste stream so that they can be reused or detoxified by chemical or biological treatment or destroyed by high-temperature incineration. (Source: PARCOR)
lichamelijke toestand physical conditions
lichamelijke verandering physical alteration Any change in a body or substance that does not involve an alteration in its chemical composition. (Source: UVAROV)
licht light Electromagnetic radiation that is capable of causing a visual sensation. (Source: CED)
lijkbezorging disposal of the dead
lijm glue A crude, impure, amber-colored form of commercial gelatin of unknown detailed composition produced by the hydrolysis of animal collagen; gelatinizes in aqueous solutions and dries to form a strong, adhesive layer. (Source: MGH)
lijn line Term used in GIS technologies in the vector type of internal data organization: spatial data are divided into point, line and polygon types. In most cases, point entities (nodes) are specified directly as coordinate pairs, with lines (arcs or edges) represented as chains of points. Regions are similarly defined in terms of the lines which form their boundaries. Some vector GIS store information in the form of points, line segments and point pairs; others maintain closed lists of points defining polygon regions. Vector structures are especially suited to storing definitions of spatial objects for which sharp boundaries exist or can be imposed. (Source: YOUNG)
lijnbron line source Line source means a one-dimensional source. An example of a line source is the particular emissions from a dirt road. (Source: LEE)
limnologie limnology The study of bodies of fresh water with reference to their plant and animal life, physical properties, geographical features, etc. (Source: CED)
lineaire geluidsbron linear source of sound Point noise sources placed one after the other one as, for instance, in a row of cars moving on a road. (Source: VALAMB)
lipide lipid One of a class of compounds which contain long-chain aliphatic hydrocarbons and their derivatives, such as fatty acids, alcohols, amines, amino alcohols, and aldehydes; includes waxes, fats, and derived compounds. (Source: MGH)
lipofiele stof lipophilic substance Substances having an affinity for lipids. (Source: CED)
lithosfeer lithosphere The solid portion of the Earth, as compared with the atmosphere and the hydrosphere. (Source: BJGEO)
lithosfeer (bodem,aardkost,geologische processen) lithosphere (soil, geological processes)
litoraal littoral The intertidal zone of the seashore. (Source: LBC)
locatie dat behoort tot het wereldnatuurbezit world heritage site Sites of great cultural significance and geographic areas of outstanding universal value. They include the Pyramids of Egypt, the Grand Canyon of United States, the Taj Mahal of India, the Great Wall of China, etc. (Source: GILP96)
locomotief locomotive A self -propelled engine driven by steam, electricity or diesel power and used for drawing trains along railway tracks. (Source: CED)
lomp rag Discarded textile waste, either post-consumer waste or pre-consumer waste, such as manufacturing process scraps. (Source: ISEP)
longziekte pulmonary disease Any disease pertaining to the lungs. (Source: DELFIN)
lood lead A heavy toxic bluish-white metallic element that is highly malleable; occurs principally as galena and is used in alloys, accumulators, cable sheaths, paints, and as a radiation shield. (Source: CED)
loodgehalte in het bloed lead level in blood A measure of the amount of lead or lead salts absorbed by the body as a possible sign of acute or chronic lead poisoning, which can affect the nervous, digestive or muscular systems. (Source: SMD / MED)
loodsdienst pilotage The service provided by a pilot, one who controls the movements of a ship or aircraft by visual or electronic means. (Source: RHW)
loodverbinding lead compound Lead compounds are present as gasoline additives, in paint, ceramic products, roofing, caulking, electrical applications, tubes, or containers. Lead exposure may be due to air, water, food, or soil. Lead in the air is primarily due to lead-based fuels and the combustion of solid waste, coal, oils, and emissions from alkyl lead manufacturers, wind blown dust volcanoes, the burning of lead-painted surfaces, and cigarette smoke. Lead in drinking water comes from leaching from lead pipes, connectors, and solder in both the distribution system and household plumbing. (Source: KOREN)
loodverontreiniging lead contamination The presence and release into the air, water and soil, of lead, a toxic metal used in plumbing, gasoline and lead-acid batteries. (Source: FFD / EEN)
loodvrije benzine unleaded petrol Petrol with a low octane rating, which has no lead additives in it and therefore creates less lead pollution in the atmosphere. (Source: PHC)
loofboom deciduous tree Tree losing its leaves in autumn and growing new ones in the spring. (Source: CAMB)
loofboom broad-leaved tree Deciduous tree which has wide leaves, as opposed to the needles on conifers. (Source: PHC)
loofbos deciduous forest The temperate forests comprised of trees that seasonally shed their leaves, located in the east of the USA, in Western Europe from the Alps to Scandinavia, and in the eastern Asia. The hardwood of these forests have been exploited since the 16th century. The trees of deciduous forests usually produce nuts and winged seeds. (Source: WRIGHT)
loofverliezend bos deciduous wood
looistof tannin One of a group of complex organic chemicals commonly found in leaves, unripe fruits, and the bark of trees. Their function is uncertain though the unpleasant taste may discourage grazing animals. Some tannins have commercial uses, notably in the production of leather and ink; used in tanning, as a mordant in dyeing, and in ink manufacture. (Source: DICCHE / UVAROV)
loonbeleid pay policy A course of action or procedure regarding compensation or recompensation for work done or services rendered. (Source: RHW)
loonstelsel wage system System which compensates the employees with a fixed sum per piece, hour, day or another period of time, covering all compensations including salary.
lossen van hout wood hauling The process of removing forest produce, particularly timber, fuelwood and bamboos, from its place of growth to some permanent or major delivery point, either for further transport or further manufacture, i.e. secondary conversion, or both. (Source: ECHO2)
lozing van scheepsafval ship waste disposal Discharging of ship waste into the sea.
lozingsregime discharge regime The rate of flow of a river at a particular moment in time, related to its volume and its velocity. (Source: WHIT)
lozingswetgeving discharge legislation
lucht air A predominantly mechanical mixture of a variety of individual gases forming the earth's enveloping atmosphere. (Source: MGH)
lucht air
luchtbeweging air movement Air movements within the Earth's atmospheric circulation; also called planetary winds. Two main components are recognized: first, the latitudinal meridional component due to the Coriolis force (a deflecting motion or force discussed by G.G. de Coriolis in 1835. The rotation of the Earth causes a body moving across its surface to be deflected to the right in the N hemisphere and to the left in the S hemisphere); and secondly, the longitudinal component and the vertical movement, resulting largely from varying pressure distributions due to differential heating and cooling of the Earth's surface. (Source: WHIT)
luchtfoto aerial photograph An image of the ground surface made on a light-sensitive material and taken at a high altitude from an aircraft, spacecraft or rocket. (Source: MHD)
luchtfotografie aerial photography
luchtkwaliteit air quality The degree to which air is polluted; the type and maximum concentration of man-produced pollutants that should be permitted in the atmosphere. (Source: ALL / WRIGHT)
luchtkwaliteitsbeheer air quality management Regulate and plan and work toward the accomplishment of completion of stated goals, objectives and mission pertaining to air quality. (Source: PORT)
luchtkwaliteitscontrole air quality control The measurement of ambient air-pollution concentrations in order to determine whether there is a problem in a given region. (Source: CONFERa)
luchtruimtelijke planning airspace planning The activity of organizing or preparing for transportation through the atmosphere above earth's surface. (Source: RHW)
luchtstromingen atmospheric circulation The general movement and circulation of air, which transfers energy between different levels of the atmosphere. The mechanisms of circulation are very complicated. They involve the transfer of energy between the oceans and the atmosphere, the land and the atmosphere, as well as the different levels of the atmosphere. (Source: WRIGHT)
luchttemperatuur air temperature The temperature of the atmosphere which represents the average kinetic energy of the molecular motion in a small region and is defined in terms of a standard or calibrated thermometer in thermal equilibrium with the air. (Source: MGH)
luchtvaartwetgeving aviation law International rules regulating air transportation. (Source: NDGIUR)
luchtveiligheid air safety Any measure, technique or design intended to reduce the risk of harm posed by either moving vehicles or projectiles above the earth's surface or pollutants to the earth's atmosphere. (Source: AHB / TOE)
luchtverdichter compressor A mechanical device a) to provide the desired pressure for chemical and physical reactions, b) to control boiling points of fluids, as in gas separation, refrigeration, and evaporation, c) to evacuate enclosed volumes, d) to transport gases or vapors, e) to store compressible fluids as gases or liquids under pressure and assist in recovering them from storage or tank cars, and f) to convert mechanical energy to fluid energy for operating instruments, air agitation, fluidization, solid transport, blowcases, air tools, and motors. (Source: LEE)
luchtverkeer air traffic Aircraft moving in flight or on airport runways.
luchtverkeersregelgeving air traffic regulation
luchtverkeerswetgeving air traffic law International rules and conventions relating to air transportation. (Source: DEFRA)
luchtverontreiniger air pollutant Any pollutant agent or combination of such agents, including any physical, chemical, biological, radioactive substance or matter which is emitted into or otherwise enters the ambient air and can, in high enough concentrations, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. (Source: LEE / TOE)
luchtverontreiniging air pollution Presence in the atmosphere of large quantities of gases, solids and radiation produced by the burning of natural and artificial fuels, chemical and other industrial processes and nuclear explosions. (Source: GUNN)
luchtverversing air conditioning A system or process for controlling the temperature and sometimes the humidity and purity of the air in a house, etc. (Source: CED)
luchtverversing ventilation The process of supplying or removing air, by natural or mechanical means, to or from any space; such air may or may not have been conditioned. (Source: HARRIS)
luchtvervoer air transportation The use of aircraft, predominantly airplanes, to move passengers and cargo. (Source: MGH)
luchtvervuiling atmospheric pollution The presence in the air of one or more contaminants in such a concentration and of such duration as to cause a nuisance or to be injurious to human life, animal life or vegetation. (Source: LANDY)
luchtvervuiling binnenshuis indoor air pollution Chemical, physical or biological contaminants in the air inside buildings and other enclosed spaces occupied by humans. This pollution can arise from tobacco smoke, pesticides, cleaning agents, gases released from building materials, rugs, household products, etc. (Source: EED / ISEP)
lucht-water wisselwerking air-water interaction The physical processes at the air-water interface: momentum, heat and mass transfer across the air-water interface, mixing of surface water by wind stress and wave breaking, directional wave spectra and wave forces on offshore structures. The air-water interaction is measured by the turbulence and gas exchanges resulting from the mixing of the water column by wind. (Source: WATER / CEIS)
lymfatisch systeem lymphatic system A system of vessels and nodes conveying lymph in the vertebrate body, beginning with capillaries in tissue spaces and eventually forming the thoracic ducts which empty in the subclavian veins. (Source: MGH)
lysimetrie lysimetry The measurement of the water percolating through soils and the determination of the materials dissolved by the water. (Source: MGH)
maaien mowing The cutting down of grass, crops or grain with a scythe or a mechanical device. (Source: AMHERa / CEDa)
maalrest residue of grinding Dust or other residue left after reducing a material to very small particles. (Source: MHD)
maatregel ter bestrijding van milieuverontreiniging pollution control measure Procedure or course of action taken to curb or reduce human-made or human-alteration of the physical, biological, chemical and radiological integrity of air, water and other media. (Source: RHW / TOE)
maatregelen measure The extent, quantity, amount, or degree of something as determined by measurement or calculation. (Source: CED)
machinefabriek engineering work
machine-industrie machine manufacture The making or production of mechanical apparatuses used for commercial or industrial purposes, such as engines and turbines, elevators and conveying equipment, computers and office equipment, and hoists, cranes and industrial trucks. (Source: RHW / SIC)
machines machinery A group of parts or machines arranged to perform a useful function. (Source: MGH)
machinetrilling mechanical vibration A motion, usually unintentional and often undesirable, of parts of machines and structures. (Source: MGH)
machtiging authorisation An official certification of competence or a transfer of the right and power to act, including permission from government to use state funds for a particular program or project. (Source: BLD / RHW)
macro-economie macroeconomics Modern economic analysis that is concerned with data inaggregate as opposed to individual form such as national income, consumption and investment. (Source: GREENW / CED)
macro-economische doelstelling macroeconomic goal An aim or objective pertaining to the production, distribution and use of income, wealth and commodities in a country, region or other large area, typically concerned with governmental fiscal and monetary policy as it affects employment, consumption, investment and growth levels. (Source: ODE)
macrofyt macrophyte A large macroscopic plant, used especially of aquatic forms such as kelp (variety of large brown seaweed which is a source of iodine and potash). (Source: LBC / PHC)
magneetband magnetic tape A plastic, paper, or metal tape that is coated or impregnated with magnetizable iron oxide particles, used in magnetic recording. (Source: MGH)
magnetisme magnetism A class of physical phenomena associated with moving electricity, including the mutual mechanical forces among magnets and electric currents. (Source: BJGEO)
malaria malaria A group of human febrile diseases with a chronic relapsing course caused by hemosporidian blood parasites of the genus Plasmodium, transmitted by the bite of Anopheles mosquito. (Source: MGH)
malen; vermalen grinding To reduce to powder or small fragments. (Source: LEE)
mandaat mandate A command or authorization to act in a particular way given by an administrator to a subordinate, a court to a lower court or an electorate to its representative. (Source: RHW)
mankracht manpower 1) The power generated by a man working.2) The number of people available for work, service, etc.
man-vrouw vraagstukken gender issue A point, matter or dispute concerning the capabilities, societal roles or other differences and divisions between women and men, especially the relative weight of biological and physical difference versus culture and socialization as a cause of those distinctions. (Source: ISEP / RHW)
marien organisme marine organism Organisms which live in sea water. (Source: PHC)
marien park marine park A permanent reservation on the seabed for the conservation of species. (Source: ALL)
marien reservaat marine reserve Sea area where marine wildlife is protected. (Source: PHC)
marien zoogdier marine mammal Mammals which have adapted to live in the sea, such as whales, dolphins, porpoises, etc. (Source: CED)
mariene biologie marine biology A branch of biology that deals with those living organisms which inhabit the sea. (Source: MGH)
mariene ecologie marine ecology An integrative science that studies the basic structural and functional relationships within and among living populations and their physical-chemical environments in marine ecosystems. Marine ecology focuses on specific organisms as well as on particular environments or physical settings. (Source: PARCOR)
mariene ecosysteem marine ecosystem Any marine environment, from pond to ocean, in which plants and animals interact with the chemical and physical features of the environment. (Source: GILP96)
mariene fauna marine fauna Animals which live in the sea. (Source: PHC)
mariene geologie marine geology That aspect of the study of the ocean that deals specifically with the ocean floor and the ocean-continent border, including submarine relief features, the geochemistry and petrology of the sediments and rocks of the ocean bottom and the influence of seawater and waves on the ocean bottom and its materials. (Source: BJGEO)
mariene milieu marine environment Marine environments include estuaries, coastal marine and nearshore zones, and open-ocean-deep-sea regions. (Source: PARCOR)
marketing marketing A related group of business activities whose purpose is to satisfy the demands for goods and services of consumers, businesses and government. The marketing process includes estimating the demand, producing the product, pricing the product to satisfy profit criteria, and promoting and distributing the product. (Source: GREENW)
markt market Place of commercial activity in which articles are bought and sold. Also purchase and sale. In a limited sense market is the range of bid and asked prices reported by brokers making the market in over-the-counter securities. Also the demand for any particular article. (Source: WESTS)
markt van productiefactoren factor market Significant elements or reasons for an outcome in the buying, selling, and trading of particular goods or services. (Source: OED)
markteconomie market economy A mixed economy that relies heavily on markets to answer the three basic questions of allocation, but with a modest amount of government involvement. While it is commonly termed capitalism, market-oriented economy is much more descriptive of how the economy is structured. (Source: AMOS2)
marktgewas cash crop Crops that are grown for sale in the town markets or for export. They include coffee, cocoa, sugar, vegetables, peanuts and non-foods, like tobacco and cotton. Huge areas of countries in the developing world have been turned over to cash crops. Those countries with no mineral or oil resources depend on cash crops for foreign money, so that they can import materials do develop roads, for construction, or to buy Western consumer goods and, indeed, food. However, critics argue that cash crops are planted on land that would otherwise be used to grow food for the local community and say this is a cause of world famine. Cash crops, such as peanuts, can ruin the land if it is not left fallow after six years of harvests. Moreover, if the best agricultural land is used for cash crops, local farmers are forced to use marginal land to grow food for local consumption, and this has a further dramatic effect on the environment. (Source: WRIGHT)
marktonderzoek market research The systematic gathering, recording, computing, and analysing of data about problems relating to the sale and distribution of goods and services for certain time periods. (Source: GREENW)
marktpreparaat preparation for market The containment, protection, handling and presentation of goods for the market. (Source: RRDA)
marktprijs market price The price actually given in current market dealings; the actual price at which given stock or commodity is currently sold in the usual and ordinary course of trade and competition between sellers and buyers. (Source: WESTS)
marktstudie market study The gathering and studying of data to determine the projection of demand for an item or service. (Source: ISEP / RHW)
marktvorm market form The organizational form or structure of the trade or traffic of a particular commodity. (Source: ISEP / RHW)
marmer marble Metamorphic rock composed of recrystallized calcite or dolomite. (Source: MGH)
Marpol overeenkomst Marpol agreement International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (1973). The first important IMO agreement on controlling pollution from ships, which deals not only with pollution by oil but also chemical, garbage and sewage. (Source: WRIGHT)
marterachtigen mustelid A large, diverse family of low-slung, long-bodied carnivorous mammals including minks, weasels, and badgers; distinguished by having only one molar in each upper jaw, and two at the most in the lower jaw. (Source: MGH)
massamedia mass media The means of communication that reach large numbers of people, such as television, newspapers, magazines and radio. (Source: CED)
massavrijetijdsbesteding mass recreation A pastime, diversion, exercise or other means of enjoyment and relaxation that is shared with or performed by a large number of people. (Source: RHW)
mate waarin iets hergebruikt kan worden recycling potential
materiaal voor de wegenbouw road construction material The aggregation of components used for building streets, highways and other routes, such as asphalt, concrete, brick, sand and gravel. (Source: ROA)
materiaaleigenschappen properties of materials The physical and chemical characteristics of the substances or parts of which a thing or object is made. (Source: RHW)
materiaalkennis materials science The study of the nature, behaviour, and use of materials applied to science and technology. (Source: MGH)
materiaalsterkte strength of materials
materiaaltechnologie materials technology Any technical means or equipment used for the production and optimization of material goods that consist of any of a diverse range of properties, either alone or in combination, such as glass, metal, plastics and ceramics. (Source: APD)
materialen material The substance of which a product is made or composed. (Source: CED)
materialen materials
materieel evenwicht balance of materials
mechanisch materiaal mechanical equipment Machines and tools employed in manual and mechanical labour. (Source: AMHERa)
mededeling van risicogegevens risk communication The exchange of information about health or environmental risks among risk assessors andmanagers, the general public, news media, interest groups, etc. (Source: OPPTIN)
mededingingsregeling restrictive trade practice Business operation or action that confines or limits the free exchange of goods and services within a country or between countries, which may include discrimination, exclusive dealings, collusion agreements or price fixing. (Source: RHW / ODE)
medeschuldenaar joint debtor Persons united in a joint liability or indebtedness. Two or more persons jointly liable for the same debt. (Source: WESTS)
medische wetenschappen medical science The science and art of treating and healing. (Source: MGH)
medium medium The substance or material that acts as a carrier for some compound or chemical, such as food, soil, air and water; or the physical form or container of data, which includes paper, film, disk, magnetic tape and other materials on which information can be recorded. (Source: FFD / RMT)
meer lake An enclosed body of water, usually but not necessarily fresh water, from which the sea is excluded. (Source: WHIT)
meerbekken lake basin 1) The depression in the Earth's surface occupied or formerly occupied by a lake and containing its shore features. 2) The area from which a lake receives drainage. (Source: BJGEO)
meervervuiling lake pollution The direct or indirect human alteration of the biological, physical, chemical or radiological integrity of lake water, or a lake ecosystem. (Source: Landy)
meetinstrument measuring instrument
meetmethode measuring method
meetnet(werk) monitoring network Interconnected group of monitoring stations for the surveillance of pollution. (Source: RRDA)
meetprogramma measuring programme
meetstation monitoring station Station where the presence, effect, or level of any polluting substance in air or water, noise and blasting, radiation, transport movements, land subsidence, or change in the character of vegetation are measured quantitatively or qualitatively. (Source: GILP96)
meetsysteem monitoring system A coordinated body of sensory and communications devices that observes, detects or records the outputs or operations of any natural or artificial system in order to construct a history or future of events. (Source: APD / RHW)
meettechniek monitoring technique Techniques employed in the process of checking, observing and measuring events, processes or physical, chemical, biological and environmental phenomena. (Source: ZINZANa / DUNSTEa)
melk milk The whitish fluid secreted by the mammary gland for the nourishment of the young; composed of carbohydrates, proteins, fats. mineral salts, vitamins, and antibodies. (Source: MGH)
melkveehouderij dairy farm A commercial establishment for processing or selling milk and milk products. (Source: AMHER)
mengbaarheid miscibility The tendency or capacity of two or more liquids to form a uniform blend, that is, to dissolve in each other; degrees are total miscibility, partial miscibility, and immiscibility. (Source: MGH)
mengen; vermengen mixing The intermingling of different materials to produce a homogeneous mixture. (Source: MGH)
mengmest semi-liquid manure
mening opinion Judgement or belief not founded on certainty or proof. (Source: CED)
mens man (society) A member of the human race. (Source: MGH)
menselijk habitat human habitat Any of the conditions in which people live. Also all human settlements in villages, towns or major cities, which require environmental management to provide water, public spaces, remove public wastes, etc. (Source: WRIGHT)
menselijk lichaam human body The entire physical structure of an human being. (Source: CED)
menselijke activiteiten&producten, milieu-effecten human activities and products, effects on the environment
menselijke biologie human biology The study of human life and character. (Source: ZINZAN)
menselijke blootstelling aan vervuilende stoffen human exposure to pollutants
menselijke gezondheid human health The avoidance of disease and injury and the promotion of normalcy through efficient use of the environment, a properly functioning society, and an inner sense of well-being. (Source: KOREN)
menselijke gezondheid human health
menselijke leefomgeving anthroposphere (built environment, human settlements, land setup)
menselijke verrichtingsleer human physiology A branch of biological sciences that studies the functions of organs and tissues in human beings. (Source: OMD / WOR)
menselijke ziekte human disease An interruption, cessation or disorder of human bodily functions, systems or organs resulting from genetic or developmental errors, infection, nutritional deficiency, toxicity, illness or unfavorable environmental factors. (Source: SMD / ISEP)
menselijke ziektenleer human pathology Branch of medicine concerned with the cause, origin, and nature of disease, including the changes occurring as a result of disease. (Source: CED)
mens-en-de-biosfeerprogramma MAB Programme An UNESCO project started in the 1970s. It was launched to further long-term conservation of the Earth's ecosystems, based on sound scientific foundations. MAB results have increased scientific understanding of ecosystems and their inter-relationships. The detailed research opened up new avenues for tropical ecosystems in particular. New species were discovered, and many forest plant species were seen to have potential medicinal benefits. By the 1980' about 25% of Western medicines contained at least one ingredient supplied by the tropical rainforests. (Source: WRIGHT)
mensenrechten human rights The rights of individuals to liberty, justice, etc. (Source: CED)
menswetenschappen human science Group of sciences including sociology, anthropology, psychology, pedagogy, etc. as opposed to the humanistic group. (Source: ZINZAN)
MER (lokaal) EIA (local) The identification, evaluation and appraisal of the ecological consequences of a proposed project or development in a city, town or region, and the measures needed to minimize adverse effects. (Source: ALL)
merkstof marker 1) Small amount of an easily detected substance that can be used to follow and quantify the flow of materials or movement of organisms not otherwise visible or detectable by ordinary means.2) An isotope of an element, a small amount of which may be incorporated into a sample of material in order to follow the course of that element through a chemical, biological, or physical process, and thus also follow the larger sample. The tracer may be radioactive, in which case observations are made by measuring the radioactivity. (Source: ECHO1)
merkstof tracer A minute quantity of radioactive isotope used in medicine or biology to study the chemical changes within living tissues. (Source: KOREN)
MER-richtlijn EIA directive Council Directive of 27 June 1985 on the assessment of the effects of certain public and private projects on the environment (85/337/EEC). The Directive applies to projects which are likely to have significant effects on the environment by virtue of their nature, size or location. (Source: PENEL)
MER-wet EIA law Law concerning the assessment of the effects of certain public and private projects on the environment, based on the EC Directive n. 85/337. (Source: PENELa)
messtof met kalium potassium fertiliser A chemical fertilizer containing potassium. Potassium (K) is required by all plant and animal life. Plants require potassium for photosynthesis, osmotic regulation and the activation of enzyme systems. (Source: AGRIC)
mest manure Animal excreta collected from stables and barnyards with or without litter; used to enrich the soil. (Source: MGH)
mestproductie manure production
meststof fertiliser Substance added to soil for the purpose of promoting plant life, usually containing nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus, e.g. manure, guano, rock phosphates. (Source: BENNET)
meststoffenwet fertiliser law
met het onderzoek belaste commissaris investigating commissioner A government official authorized or appointed to investigate regulated activities to assure compliance with federal, state or municipal laws. (Source: OCT)
met kweldergras begroeide kwelder salt meadow A meadow subject to overflow by salt water. (Source: BJGEO)
metaal smelten metal smelting A metallurgical process in which ore mixtures are heated above melting point to extract or yield a crude metal. (Source: APD)
metaal walsen metal plating Forming a thin, adherent layer of metal on an object. (Source: MGH)
metaalafval metal waste Metal material discarded during manufacturing or processing operations which cannot be directly fed back into the operation; Worn or discarded metal materials removed from service at the end of its useful life. (Source: GMR)
metaalafwerking metal finishing A process in which a chemical or some other substance is applied to metals as a way to clean, protect, alter or modify appearance or physical properties, especially surface properties. (Source: MHD)
metaalbewerking metal working
metaalerts metallic mineral Minerals containing metals, such as bauxite, pyrite, etc. (Source: RRDA)
metaaloxide metal oxide Any binary compound in which oxygen is combined with one or more metal atoms. (Source: MHD)
metaalproduct metal product
metaalproductenindustrie metal products industry Industry related with the primary metal processing and fabricated metal products manufacturing. The most important end uses of the products of the metals industries are automobiles, machinery, appliances, electrical equipment, structures, furniture, and containers. (Source: PZ)
metaalverwerkende industrie metallurgical industry Industry concerned with the extraction, refining, alloying and fabrication of metals. (Source: CED)
meta-informatie metainformation Data assembled to describe or define another body of data, a document or any information element. (Source: WIC)
metalen metal An opaque crystalline material usually of high strength with good electrical and thermal conductivities, ductility and reflectivity. (Source: MGH)
meteorologie voor de landbouw agrometeorology The study of the interaction between meteorological and hydrological factors, on the one hand, and agriculture in the widest sense, including horticulture, animal husbandry and forestry, on the other. (Source: EURMET)
meteorologisch processen atmospheric process Atmospheric processes are distinguished in physical and chemical processes and both types may be operating simultaneously in complicated and interdependent ways. The physical processes of transport by atmospheric winds and the formation of clouds and precipitation strongly influence the patterns and rates of acidic deposition, while chemical reactions govern the forms of the compounds deposited. (Source: PARCOR)
methanisering methanisation The process of deriving methane from any source, including livestock manure, landfills, coal mines, etc. (Source: OED)
methode method A way of proceeding or doing something, especially a systematic or regular one. (Source: CED)
methodiek methodology The system of methods and principles used in a particular discipline. (Source: CED)
meting measuring The ability of the analytical method or protocol to quantify as well as identify the presence of the substance in question. (Source: LEE)
meting monitoring To check regularly in order to perceive change in some quality or quantity. (Source: BRACK)
meting milieuverontreiniging pollution measurement The assessment of the concentration of pollutants for a given time in a given point. (Source: FLGISA)
meting van de stroming stream measurement The quantitative determination of the rate and amount of flow or discharge from a natural body of running water, such as a small river or brook. (Source: DOE / WWD / WRT)
meting van verontreinigende stoffen pollutant monitoring Periodic or continuous determination of the amount of pollutants present in the environment. (Source: LANDY)
metingscriterium monitoring criterion
metro underground train A train for transportation of people, mostly beneath the surface of the ground, in order to lessen the traffic. (Source: CED)
metro underground railway An electric passenger railway operated in underground tunnels. (Source: CED)
metrologie metrology The science of measurement. (Source: MGH)
metselwerk masonry A construction of stone or similar materials such as concrete or brick. (Source: MGH)
meubelindustrie furniture industry
meubels furniture The movable articles in a room or an establishment that make it fit for living or working. (Source: MGH)
microbiële bronnen microbial resource Any available source of supply derived from microbes, which would be used for beneficial purposes, such as for the production of food substances and drugs. (Source: APD)
microbiologie microbiology The science and study of microorganisms, including protozoans, algae, fungi, bacteria, viruses, and rickettsiae. (Source: MGH)
microbiologische analyse microbiological analysis Analysis for the identification of viruses, bacteria, fungi and parasites. (Source: RRDA)
microcomputer microcomputer A microprocessor combined with input/output interface devices, some type of external memory, and the other elements required to form a working computer system; it is smaller, lower in cost, and usually slower than a minicomputer. (Source: MGH)
micro-ecosysteem microecosystem A small-scale, simplified, experimental ecosystem, laboratory- or field- based, which may be: a) derived directly from nature (e.g. when samples of pond water are maintained subsequently by the input of artificial light and gas-exchange); or b) built up from axenic cultures (a culture of an organism that consists of one type of organism only, i.e. that is free from any contaminating organism) until the required conditions of organisms and environment are achieved. Also known as microcosm. (Source: ALL2)
micro-elektronica microelectronics The technology of constructing circuits and devices in extremely small packages by various techniques. Also known as microminiaturization; microsystem electronics. (Source: MGH)
microfiltratie microfiltration The separation or removal from a liquid of particulates and microorganisms in the size range of 0.1 to 0.2 microns in diameter. (Source: WQA)
microgolf microwave An electromagnetic wave which has a wavelength between about 0.3 and 30 centimeters, corresponding to frequencies of 1-100 gigahertz; however there are no sharp boundaries between microwaves and infrared and radio waves. (Source: MGH)
microklimaat microclimate The local, rather uniform climate of a specific place or habitat, compared with the climate of the entire area of which it is a part. (Source: MGH)
microklimatologie microclimatology The study of a microclimate, including the study of profiles of temperature, moisture and wind in the lowest stratum of air, the effects of the vegetation and of shelterbelts, and the modifying effects of towns and buildings. (Source: MGH)
micro-organisme micro-organism A microscopic organism, including bacteria, protozoans, yeast, viruses, and algae. (Source: MGH)
micro-organisme in water aquatic micro-organism Microorganisms having a water habitat. (Source: MGH)
microscopie microscopy The interpretative application of microscope magnification to the study of materials that cannot be properly seen by the unaided eye. (Source: MGH)
microverontreiniging micropollutant Pollutant which exists in very small traces in water. (Source: PHC)
Middellands zeegebied Mediterranean Area The collective islands and countries of the inland sea between Europe, Africa and Asia that is linked to the Atlantic Ocean at its western end by the Strait of Gibraltar and includes the Tyrrhenian, Adriatic, Aegean and Ionian seas. (Source: RHW)
Middellandse Zee Mediterranean Sea The largest inland sea between Europe, Africa and Asia, linked to the Atlantic Ocean at its western end by the Strait of Gibraltar, including the Tyrrhenian, Adriatic, Aegean and Ionian seas, and major islands such as Sicily, Sardina, Corsica, Crete, Malta and Cyprus. (Source: RHW)
Middellandse-zeebos Mediterranean forest Type of forest found in the Mediterranean area comprising mainly xerophilous evergreen trees. (Source: ALL)
Middellandse-zeehout Mediterranean wood A plant formation found in the Mediterranean area comprising mainly lowgrowing, xerophilous evergreen trees and shrubs. It results mainly from the deterioration of the original vegetation by grazing and burning. (Source: ALL)
Middellandse-zeeklimaat Mediterranean climate A type of climate characterized by hot, dry, sunny summers and a winter rainy season; basically, this is the opposite of a monsoon climate. Also known as etesian climate. (Source: MGH)
middenbos coppice with standards A traditional system of woodland management whereby timber trees are grown above a coppiced woodland. It is used in particular as a method of exploiting oakwoods, in which all the trees except a rather open network of tall, well-formed oaks - the standards at about fifty per hectare - are felled, leaving plenty of space for hazels and other underwood to grow and be coppiced at intervals of ten to fifteen years. (Source: GOOD)
midelbaar onderwijs secondary education The years of instruction following elementary school and until the end of high school. (Source: COE)
migratie migration (in general) The act of going from one region, country or place to another. (Source: CED)
migratie van verontreinigende stoffen pollutant migration Uncontrolled movement, caused by percolation or other processes, of liquid or gaseous polluting materials from an original source area into other parts of an ecosystem. (Source: MHD)
mijn mine An opening or excavation in the earth for extracting minerals. (Source: MGH)
mijnbouw mining industry A sector of the economy in which an aggregate of commercial enterprises is engaged in the extraction of minerals occurring naturally, often involving quarrying, well operations, milling, exploration and development. (Source: SIC)
mijnbouw mining The act, process or industry of extracting coal, ores, etc. from the earth. (Source: CED)
mijnbouw - geologie mining geology The study of geologic aspects of mineral deposits, with particular regard to problems associated with mining. (Source: BJGEO)
mijnbouw - technologie mining engineering Engineering concerned with the discovery, development and exploitation of coal, ores, and minerals, as well as the cleaning, sizing and dressing of the product. (Source: MGH)
mijnbouw,gas- en oliewinning op zee offshore mining Oil extraction from platforms situated a short distance from the coast. (Source: RRDA)
mijnbouwafval mining waste Any residue which results from the extraction of raw materials from the earth. (Source: EED / ERG)
mijnbouwproduct mining product
mijnbouwvoorschrift mining regulation A rule or order prescribed by government or management to promote the safety, legality or ecological responsibility of any aspect of the process or industry of ore extraction. (Source: BLD)
mijnbouwwet mining law A binding rule or body of rules prescribed by a government to regulate the potentially harmful activity of enterprises concerned with the extraction and processing of precious or valuable metals. (Source: BLD)
mijnstreek mining district A district where mineral exploitation is performed. (Source: MGH)
mijten mite An order of small Arachnida with rounded bodies. Mites are very abundant in the soil, feeding on plant material and invertebrate animals. Some parasitic mites (e.g. red spider) damage crops and can be serious pests. Others cause diseases in animals. Ticks are blood-suckers, some being vectors of diseases such as Rocky Mountain spotted fever in humans and fowls, and louping ill in cattle and sheep. (Source: ALL)
milieu ecology The study of the interrelationships between living organisms and their environment. (Source: LBC)
milieu environment A concept which includes all aspects of the surroundings of humanity, affecting individuals and social groupings. The European Union has defined the environment as 'the combination of elements whose complex interrelationships make up the settings, the surroundings and the conditions of life of the individual and of society, as they are or as they are felt'. The environment thus includes the built environment, the natural environment and all natural resources, including air, land and water. It also includes the surroundings of the workplace. (Source: GILP96)
milieuaansprakelijkheid environmental liability The penalty to be paid by an organization for the damage caused by pollution and restoration necessary as a result of that damage, whether by accidental spillages from tankers, industrial waste discharges into waterways or land, or deliberate or accidental release of radioactive materials. (Source: WRIGHT)
milieuachtergrond environmental history A systematic and chronological account of past events and conditions relating to the ecosystem, its natural resources or, more generally, the external factors surrounding and affecting human life. (Source: TOE)
milieu-adviseur ecological consultant
milieu-ambtenaar environmental protection officer
milieuanalyse environmental analysis
milieuangst environmental anxiety
milieuaspecten van menselijke nederzettingen environmental aspect of human settlements Human settlements have an adverse impact on many ecosystems and on themselves by the addition of toxic or harmful substances to the outer lithosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere. The major types of environmental pollutants are sewage, trace metals, petroleum hydrocarbons, synthetic organic compounds, and gaseous emissions. Most, if not all, of the additions of potentially harmful substances to the environment are result of the population growth and the technological advances of industrial societies. (Source: PARCORa)
milieubeeld environmental perception An intuitive recognition or understanding of the ecosystem and its natural resources, often based on human experiences or cultural attitudes or beliefs. (Source: RHW / HMO)
milieubeeld concept of environment The development at any level of a general notion of the surrounding ecosystem, its foundational relationship to human life and the need to preserve its integrity. (Source: TOE / RHW)
milieubeheer environmental control Protection of the environment through policies concerning the control of wastes, the improvement of the human-made environment, the protection of heritage values, the institution of national parks and reserves, the protection of fauna and flora, the conservation of forests and landscapes, etc. (Source: GILP96a)
milieubeheer environmental management Measures and controls which are directed at environmental conservation, the rational and sustainable allocation and utilization of natural resources, the optimization of interrelations between society and the environment, and the improvement of human welfare for present and future generations. (Source: UNUN)
milieubeheerindicator indicator of environmental management
milieubehoud environmental conservation Efforts and activities to maintain and sustain those attributes in natural and urban environments which are essential both to human physical and mental health and to enjoyment of life. (Source: UNUN)
milieubeleid environmental policy
milieubeleid environmental policy
milieubeleid (overheid) environmental policy Official statements of principles, intentions, values, and objective which are based on legislation and the governing authority of a state and which serve as a guide for the operations of governmental and private activities in environmental affairs. (Source: UNUN)
milieubeleid van de gemeente municipal environmental policy The guiding procedure, philosophy or course of action regarding the protection of natural resources in local settings, cities or towns. (Source: RHW)
milieubeleidsinstrument environmental policy instrument Technological, economical and legislative measures employed to prevent or control pollution or damage of the environment. (Source: DIZAMB)
milieuberoep environmental occupation Gainful employment or job-related activity pertaining to ecological concerns, including the preservation of natural resources and the integrity of the ecosystem. (Source: TOE)
milieubescherming environmental protection Measures and controls to prevent damage and degradation of the environment, including the sustainability of its living resources. (Source: UNUN)
milieubescherming binnen het bedrijf environmental protection in the enterprise Precautionary actions, procedures or installations undertaken by non-governmental, business or industrial entities to prevent or reduce harm to the ecosystem and human health. (Source: TOE / RHW)
milieubeschermingsadvies environmental protection advice Consultations or recommendations given as a guide of action regarding the preservation of ecological integrity and the defense or shelter of natural resources. (Source: RHW)
milieubeschermingsagentschap environmental protection agency EPA is the US Government's watchdog agency responsible for controlling the pollution of air and water, pesticides, radiation hazards and noise pollution. The agency is also involved in research to examine the effects of pollution. (Source: WRIGHT)
milieubeschermingsbeleid; beschermingsbeleid conservation policy The guiding procedure, philosophy or course of action for preserving and renewing human and natural resources. (Source: RHW / TOE)
milieubeschermingsbevel environmental protection order
milieubeschermingsinstantie environmental protection organisation A government agency, committee or group that is responsible for preserving and safeguarding ecological or natural resources. (Source: TOE)
milieubeschermingskosten environmental protection cost The amount of money incurred in the preservation, defense, or shelter of natural resources. (Source: EFP / OED)
milieubeschermingstechnologie environmental protection technology Technologies that meet environmental objectives by incorporating pollution prevention concepts in their design. Environmental control strategies introduced in the early design stages of a process, rather than an end-of-pipe control option introduced in the later stages, improve the technical and economic performance of a process. (Source: ENVAR)
milieubeschermingsvereniging environmental protection association Associations whose object resides in the protection of natural environment. (Source: RRDA)
milieubeschermingsverordening environmental protection regulation A government or management prescribed rule for the preservation of natural resources and the prevention of damage or degradation of the ecosystem. (Source: BLD / ISEP)
milieubesef environmental awareness The growth and development of awareness, understanding and consciousness toward the biophysical environment and its problems, including human interactions and effects. Thinking 'ecologically' or in terms of an ecological consciousness. (Source: UNUN)
milieubeurs environmental stock exchange The buying, selling, or exchanging of ecological commodities. (Source: OED)
milieubewaking environmental monitoring Periodic and/or continued measuring, evaluating, and determining environmental parameters and/or pollution levels in order to prevent negative and damaging effects to the environment. Also include the forecasting of possible changes in ecosystem and/or the biosphere as a whole. (Source: UNUN)
milieubeweging ecologist movement Grouping of individuals and organizations dedicated to the protection of the environment. (Source: PHC)
milieubewust gedrag environmentally responsible behaviour
milieubewust gedrag environmental citizenship The state, character or behavior of a person viewed as a member of the ecosystem with attendant rights and responsibilities, especially the responsibility to maintain ecological integrity and the right to exist in a healthy environment. (Source: TOE / RHW)
milieuboekhouding environmental accounting
milieuchemie environmental chemistry Science dealing with the physical, chemical and biochemical processes that polluting substances undergo when introduced in the environment. (Source: DIZAMB)
milieucriminaliteit environmental criminality Unlawful acts against the environment, such as water contamination, hazardous waste disposal, air contamination, unpermitted installation of plants, oil spills, etc. (Source: AZENPa)
milieucriterium environmental criterion Standards of physical, chemical or biological (but sometimes including social, aesthetic, etc.) components that define a given quality of an environment. (Source: LANDY)
milieudoelstelling environmental target Environmental elements of recognized importance which can be modified by the completion of a project. (Source: RRDA)
milieudoorlichting environmental auditing An assessment of the nature and extent of any harm or detriment, or any possible harm or detriment, that may be inflicted on any aspect of the environment by any activity process, development programme, or any product, chemical, or waste substance. Audits may be designed to: verify or otherwise comply with environmental requirements; evaluate the effectiveness of existing environmental management systems; assess risks generally; or assist in planning for future improvements in environment protection and pollution control (Source: GILP96)
milieueconomie environmental economics A recognized field of specialization in the discipline of Economics that embraces the issues of pollution control and environment protection, in which costs and benefits are difficult or impossible to estimate, much of the subject matter falling outside the competitive market system. Yet, it is an area in which immense common property resources need to be allocated sensibly to the overall public good. The subject is also very much concerned with ways and means to achieve this sensible allocation such as emission and effluent charges, user charges for the treatment or disposal of waste, environmental taxes, product charges, deposit refunds, tradeable pollution rights, performance bonds, natural resource accounting, and the economic implications of sustainable development. (Source: GILP96)
milieueconomie van ondernemingen environmental economics of firms The use of financial resources for the purpose of incorporating ecological principles in the operations of businesses and companies. (Source: ISEP / RHW)
milieueconomische vraagstukken environmental economy issue A matter of public importance involving both a community's or a country's management of financial resources and its protection of natural resources. (Source: RHW / OED)
milieu-economische waardering environmental economic valuation The assessment, evaluation, or appraisal of business performance in matters involving ecology and finances. (Source: OED)
milieueffectbepaling environmental impact statement A detailed statement which, to the fullest extent possible, identifies and analyses, among other things, the anticipated environmental impact of a proposed action and discusses how the adverse effects will be mitigated. (Source: LANDY)
milieueffectenrapportage environmental impact study Survey conducted to ascertain the conditions of a site prior to the realization of a project, to analyze its possible impacts and compensative measures. (Source: RRDA)
milieuethiek environmental ethics An ecological conscience or moral that reflects a commitment and responsibility toward the environment, including plants and animals as well as present and future generations of people. Oriented toward human societies living in harmony with the natural world on which they depend for survival and well being. (Source: UNUN)
milieuevaluatie environmental assessment The evaluation or appraisal of ecological or natural resources. (Source: RHW)
milieuevaluatiecriterium environmental assessment criterion Principle or standard for the evaluation or appraisal of ecological or natural resources. (Source: ISEP / RHW)
milieu-evenwicht environmental balance Final part of the environmental impact study and assessment which compares environmental costs and benefits on the basis of homogeneous criteria. (Source: AMBPIAa)
milieufonds environmental fund Financial resources set aside for measures involving ecological maintenance or the protection, defense, or shelter of natural resources. (Source: ISEP / OED)
milieugegevens environmental data Information concerning the state or condition of the environment. (Source: RRDA)
milieugeneeskunde environmental medicine The art and science of the protection of good health, the promotion of aesthetic values, the prevention of disease and injury through the control of positive environmental factors, and the reduction of potential physical, biological, chemical, and radiological hazards. (Source: KOREN)
milieugevolgen environmental consequence Resultant of natural or man-made perturbations of the physical, chemical or biological components making up the environment. (Source: LANDY)
milieugiftige eigenschappen ecotoxicity Quality of some substances or preparations which present or may present immediate or delayed risks for one or more sectors of the environment. (Source: GRAHAW)
milieuheffing environmental tax An amount of money demanded by a government to finance clean-up, prevention, reduction, enforcement or educational efforts intended to promote ecological integrity and the conservation of natural resources. (Source: ODE / TOE)
milieuheffingen green fiscal instrument
milieuhygiëne environmental health The art and science of the protection of good health, the prevention of disease and injury through the control of positive environmental factors, and the reduction of potential physical, biological, chemical and radiological hazards. (Source: KOREN)
milieu-index environmental index An index of available environmental articles from 1972 to present; also known as Environmental Abstract Annual. (Source: KOREN)
milieu-indicator environmental indicator A measurement, statistic or value that provides a proximate gauge or evidence of the effects of environmental management programs or of the state or condition of the environment. (Source: EPAGLO)
milieu-industrie environmental industry Industries involved in the development of cleaner technologies, waste and wastewater treatment, recycling processes, biotechnology processes, catalysts, membranes, desulphurisation plants, noise reduction, and the manufacture of other products having an environment protection purpose. (Source: DOBRIS)
milieu-informatica environmental informatics Science and techniques of data elaboration and of computer processing of information concerning ecosystems and ecology. (Source: ISEP / TOE)
milieu-informatie environmental information Knowledge communicated or received concerning any aspect of the ecosystem, the natural resources within it or, more generally, the external factors surrounding and affecting human life. (Source: TOE)
milieu-informatienetwerk environmental information network A system of interrelated persons and devices linked to permit the exchange of data or knowledge concerning natural resources, human health and other ecological matters. (Source: ISEP / TOE)
milieu-informatiesysteem environmental information system A coordinated assemblage of people, devices or other resources designed to exchange data or knowledge concerning any aspect of the ecosystem, the natural resources within or, more generally, the external factors surrounding and affecting human life. (Source: TOE / RHW)
milieu-investering environmental investment Securities held for the production of income in the form of interest and dividends with the aim of benefitting the environment. (Source: ISEP / EFP)
milieukeur(merk) ecolabel A mark, seal or written identification attached or affixed to products that provides specific ecological information allowing consumers to make comparisons with other similar products, or instructions on how to safely use or properly recycle or dispose of both products and packaging. (Source: OPP)
milieukosten environmental cost Expenses incurred as a result of some violation of ecological integrity either by an enterprise that implements a program to rectify the situation, or by society or the ecosystem as a whole when no person or enterprise is held liable. (Source: IEC / ECH)
milieukunde environmental science The interdisciplinary study of environmental problems, within the framework of established physical and biological principles, i.e. oriented toward a scientific approach. (Source: UNUN)
milieukwaliteit environmental quality Properties and characteristics of the environment, either generalized or local, as they impinge on human beings and other organisms. Environmental quality is a general term which can refer to: varied characteristics such as air and water purity or pollution, noise, access to open space, and the visual effects of buildings, and the potential effects which such characteristics may have on physical and mental health. (Source: LANDY)
milieukwaliteitscriterium environmental quality criterion Criteria followed in establishing standards for exposure to pollutants and noise, in respect of pesticides, detergents, composition of effluents, discharge of trade wastes, etc. (Source: GILP96a)
milieukwaliteitsdoelstelling environmental quality objective
milieukwaliteitsindicator indicator of environmental quality Qualitative or quantitative parameter used as a measure of an environmental condition, e.g. of air or water quality. (Source: DIZAMB)
milieukwaliteitsnorm environmental quality standard Normative documents and guidelines for determining the degree of environmental conditions and requirements to avoid negative and damaging effects, influences, and consequences. (Source: UNUN)
milieumarketing ecomarketing The buying, selling, advertising, shipping, and storing of goods in compliance with ecological principles. (Source: ISEP / RHW)
milieumarkt environment market
milieumisdrijf environmental crime Unlawful acts against the environment, such as water contamination, hazardous waste disposal, air contamination, unpermitted installation of plants, oil spills, etc. (Source: AZENPa)
milieumonsterdepot environmental specimen bank Places in which selected specimens (fish, mussels, milk, soil sample and human tissue, etc.) are stored without being allowed to decompose. (Source: AZENP)
milieumuseum ecomuseum A private, non-profit facility where plants and animals can be viewed in a natural outdoor setting. (Source: AGRENV)
milieuonderhoud maintenance of environment
milieuonderneming environmental enterprise Organisations that are specialized in providing advice on environmental matters, for example investigation and remediation of potentially polluted land, water and air, and in the evaluation of environmental impacts; they employ professionals with the qualifications of engineering, geology, chemistry, hydrogeology, landscaping, environmental economics, etc. (Source: GRAHAWa)
milieuonderwijs environmental education The educational process that deals with the human interrelationships with the environment and that utilizes an interdisciplinary problem-solving approach with value clarification. Concerned with education progress of knowledge, understanding, attitudes, skills, and commitment for environmental problems and considerations. The need for environmental education is continuous, because each new generation needs to learn conservation for itself. (Source: UNUN)
milieuonderwijs environmental teaching Instruction, training or the imparting of knowledge about the external conditions affecting the life, development and survival of organisms, including potential dangers to the ecosystem and the means to maintain its integrity. (Source: TOE / RHW)
milieuonderzoek environmental research The study of the environment and its modifications caused by human activities. (Source: DIFID)
milieuongeluk environmental accident An unexpected occurrence, failure or loss, with the potential for harming the ecosystem or natural resources. (Source: TOE / HMD)
milieu-ontwikkeling environmental development The growth, progress or advancement in matters of ecological concern. (Source: ISEP)
milieuonvriendelijk bedrijf environmentally unfriendly firm Firms that do not comply with environmental regulations for the disposal of noxious wastes generated during the production cycle. (Source: RRDA)
milieuoorlogsvoering environmental warfare The direct manipulation or destruction of ecological resources as either a political threat or for actual military advantage. (Source: BAS)
milieu-overtreding offence against the environment Unlawful acts against the environment, such as water contamination, hazardous waste disposal, air contamination, unpermitted installation of plants, oil spills, etc. (Source: AZENPa)
milieuplan environmental plan A formulated or systematic method for the protection of natural or ecological resources. (Source: OED)
milieuplanning environmental planning The identification of desirable objectives for the physical environment, including social and economic objectives, and the creation of administrative procedures and programmes to meet those objectives. (Source: GILP96)
milieuprestatie environmental performance
milieuprogramma environmental programme An organized group of activities and procedures, often run by a government agency or a nonprofit organization, to protect natural or ecological resources and advocate for ecological progress. (Source: RHW)
milieupsychologie environmental psychology A branch of experimental psychology which studies the relationships between behavior and the environmental context in which it occurs. Environmental psychology's primary focus is the influence of the physical environment and, therefore, much of the research in this area deals with the influences of noise, air pollution, climatic changes, etc. (Source: JMU)
milieuramp ecocatastrophe A sudden, widespread disaster or calamity causing extensive damage to the environment that threatens the quality of life for people living in the affected area or region, potentially leading to many deaths. (Source: ALL)
milieurampen(bestrijdings)plan environmental contingency planning The production of an organized, programmatic and coordinated course of action to be followed in the case of some accident, disaster or occurrence threatening an ecosystem and the human health or natural resources within it. (Source: TOE)
milieurapport environmental report An account or statement, usually in writing, describing in detail events, situations or conditions pertaining to the ecosystem, its natural resources or any of the external factors surrounding and affecting human life. (Source: TOE)
milieurapport report on the state of the environment A written account on the level of integrity and conditions of the ecosystem and natural resources in a given region, usually presented by an official person or body mandated to protect human health and the environment in that region. (Source: TOE)
milieurecht environmental law A wide spectrum of options from binding 'hard' laws, such as international treaties and national legislation, to 'soft' laws, covering guiding principles, recommended practices and procedures, and standards. Environmental law also attempts to reconcile international considerations with concerns that focus on very specific problems such as soil degradation, marine pollution or the depletion of non-renewable resources. (Source: WRIGHT)
milieurisico environmental risk Likelihood, or probability, of injury, disease, or death resulting from exposure to a potential environmental hazard. (Source: RRDA)
milieurisicobeoordeling environmental risk assessment Qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the risk posed to the environment by the actual or potential presence and/or use of specific pollutants. (Source: OPPTIN)
milieuschade environmental damage Harm done to the environment, e.g. loss of wetlands, pollution of rivers, etc. (Source: PHC)
milieustatistieken environmental statistics
milieustimuleringsmaatregel environmental incentive
milieustrafrecht environmental criminal law The aggregate of statutory enactments pertaining to actions or instances of ecological negligence deemed injurious to public welfare or government interests and legally prohibited. (Source: RHW)
milieustudie environmental study A document submitted by an applicant in support of an undertaking which identifies the environmental impacts of the proposed undertaking and its alternatives. (Source: LANDY)
milieusubsidie environmental subsidy Payment by a government to assist or improve performance regarding ecological maintenance or the protection, defense, or shelter of natural resources. (Source: ODE)
milieutechniek environmental engineering Branch of engineering concerned with the environment and its proper management. The major environmental engineering disciplines regard water supply, wastewater, stormwater, solid waste, hazardous waste, noise radiology, industrial hygiene, oceanography and the like. (Source: PORT)
milieutechnologie environmental technology
milieuterminologie environmental terminology The vocabulary of technical terms and usage appropriate to community, corporate, governmental and other groups concerned with protecting natural resources, preserving the integrity of the ecosystem and safeguarding human health. (Source: ISEP / TOE)
milieutheorie environmentalism 1) Concern for the environment and its protection. 2) Theory emphasizing the primary influence of the environment on the development of groups or individuals. It stresses the importance of the physical, biological, psychological, or cultural environment as a factor influencing the structure or behaviour of animals, including humans.In politics, this has given rise in many countries to Green Parties, which aim to ' Preserve the planet and its people'.
milieutheorie theory of the environment A structured simulation or explanation based on observation, experimentation and reasoning that seeks to demonstrate, characterize or explain the actions and interactions of the total surrounding conditions of a given system. (Source: APD)
milieutoxicoloog environmental toxicologist An environmental health professional who determines the adverse health effects, and the mechanisms of those effects, resulting from exposure to physical, chemical, and biological aspects in the human environment. (Source: KOREN)
milieutraining environmental training Teaching of specialists and qualified workers who acquire knowledge and skills necessary to solve environmental problems. (Source: UNUN)
milieu-uitgaven van de overheid government environmental expenditure
milieuvandalisme environmental vandalism
milieuveiligheid environmental security Measures taken or policies instituted to protect and promote the safety of external conditions affecting the life, development and survival of an organism. (Source: TOE)
milieuverandering environmental change Changes that may take place in ecosystems, climate, soil, habitats, etc. due to pressures of various origin. (Source: RRDA)
milieuverenigbaarheid environmental compatibility Condition of products or projects of having a reduced impact or burden on the natural environment. (Source: RRDA)
milieuvergunning environmental licence A governmental license or grant that allows and regulates an enterprise's discharge of air pollutants, typically from a commercial or industrial plant. (Source: BLD / TOE)
milieuverklaring (eco-controle) environmental statement (eco-audit) Assessment made by a company or organization of the financial benefits and disadvantages to be derived from adopting a more environmentally sound policy. (Source: PHC)
milieuverontreinigingsnorm pollution norm
milieuverontreinigingsrisico pollution risk Probability of harm to human health, property or the environment posed by the introduction of an undesirable substance into the ecosystem. (Source: TOE)
milieuvervuiling environmental pollution The introduction by man into the environment of substances or energy liable to cause hazards to human health, harm to living resources and ecological systems, damage to structure or amenity, or interference with legitimate uses of the environment. (Source: GRAHAW)
milieuvriendelijk environment friendly Human activities, enterprises or products that reinforce rather than undermine the integrity of the ecosystem. (Source: FLG)
milieuvriendelijk beheer environmentally friendly management Adoption of integrated and preventative management practices aiming at reducing the impacts of industrial and trade activities on the environment; these practices include, among others, life-cycle analysis in the product development cycle, the introduction of clean process technology and measures of waste minimisation. (Source: DOBRIS)
milieuvriendelijk product environmentally friendly product Product that is not harmful to the environment. (Source: PHC)
milieuvriendelijke aankopen environmental friendly procurement The process of obtaining products and services which are favorably disposed toward the environment. (Source: RHW)
milieuvriendelijke architectuur environmental sustainable architecture Environmentally friendly architecture is based on the following five principles: 1) healthful interior environment; 2) energy efficiency; 3) ecologically benign materials; 4) environmental form; 5) good design. (Source: ARCH)
milieuvriendelijke wagen clean air car Vehicles that function without emitting pollutants in the atmosphere. (Source: RRDA)
milieuwetgeving environmental legislation Branch of law relating to pollution control; national parks, wildlife, fauna and flora, wilderness and biodiversity; environmental and occupational health; environmental planning; heritage conservation and a large number of international conventions relating to the environment. (Source: GILP96)
milieuwetgeving met betrekking tot de landbouw environmental legislation on agriculture A binding rule or body of rules prescribed by a government to regulate any aspect of farm and livestock production that poses a threat to ecological integrity and human health, especially the use of pesticides, fertilizers and land. (Source: TOE / BLD)
milieuwetgevingsprocedure environmental legislative process The systematic course of proceedings in which a bill that would preserve or protect ecological resources may be enacted as a law. (Source: ODE)
militair luchtverkeer military air traffic Air traffic of or relating to the armed forces.
militair terrein military zone Area whose utilization is exclusively reserved to the army. (Source: ZINZAN)
militaire activiteiten military activities Actions and movements pertaining to or conducted by the armed forces.
militaire aspecten military aspects
militaire uitrusting military equipment Equipment necessary to the performance of military activities, either combat or noncombat. (Source: RRDA)
minder bedreigde soorten (IUCN) lower risk species (IUCN) Animals, birds, fish, plants or other living organisms that have been deemed as not being in danger of extinction. (Source: OED / TOE)
minder ontwikkelde landen less developed country One of the world's poorest nations, typically small in area and population, with low per capita incomes, literacy levels and medical standards, subsistence agriculture and a lack of exploitable minerals and competitive industries. (Source: UIA)
minderheid minority A group that is different racially, politically, etc. from a larger group of which it is a part. (Source: CED)
mineraalvezel mineral fibre A fiber manufactured from glass, rock, or slag generally for use in fabricating heat insulation. (Source: HARRIS)
mineraalwater mineral water Water containing naturally or artificially supplied minerals or gases. (Source: MGH)
minerale olie mineral oil Oil which derives from petroleum and is made up of hydrocarbons. (Source: PHC)
mineralisatie mineralisation The process of fossilization whereby inorganic materials replace the organic constituent of an organism. (Source: MGH)
mineralogie mineralogy The science which concerns the study of natural inorganic substances called minerals. (Source: MGH)
mini-batterij button-cell battery A tiny, circular battery made for a watch or for other microelectric applications. (Source: LEE)
minimale kostenplanning minimal cost planning The process of making arrangements or preparations to facilitate the production of goods or services at an output that would require the lowest possible expenditure of money, time or labor. (Source: ODE)
ministerie ministry The body of top government administrators or other high ranking public officials that are selected by a head of state to manage certain aspects of a state's affairs, as opposed to civil servants whose tenure is unaffected by public changes resulting from democratic elections or some other process. (Source: BLD)
ministerieel besluit ministerial decree A formal judgment or mandate handed down on a specific issue or concern from a major administrative department of a state, usually under the authority of that department's chief minister, secretary or administrator. (Source: RHW)
ministeriële bevoegdheid minister competence The skill, knowledge, qualification, capacity or authority associated with the chief of an administrative department or other high ranking official selected by the head of state. (Source: RHW)
misbruik van geneesmiddelen drug abuse
misdaad crime Any act done in violation of those duties which an individual owes to the community, and for the breach of which the law has provided that the offender shall make satisfaction to the public. (Source: BLACK)
misdadig gedrag delinquency
misselijkheid nausea
mist fog Water droplets or, rarely, ice crystals suspended in the air in sufficient concentration to reduce visibility appreciably. (Source: MGH)
mist mist Fine water droplets suspended in the air, which reduce visibility. Usually mists form at night, when the temperature falls because the sky is clear. If visibility falls below 1,000 metres, the mist becomes a fog. (Source: PHC)
misvorming malformation Permanent structural change that may adversely affect survival, development or function. (Source: KOREN)
mobiliteit mobility (physical) The ability of groups or individuals to re-locate or change jobs, or to physically move from one place to another. (Source: ODE)
modder mud (sediment) A mixture of clay and/or silt with water to form a plastic mass with a particle size preponderantly below 0.06 mm diameter. It is deposited in low-energy environments in lakes, estuaries and lagoons. It may also be deposited in deep-sea environments. (Source: WHIT)
model model 1) A representation, usually on a smaller scale, of a device, structure, etc. 2) A quantitative or mathematical representation or computer simulation which attempts to describe the characteristics or relationships of physical events. (Source: CED / LEE)
modellering modelling An investigative technique using a mathematical or physical representation of a system or theory that accounts for all or some its known properties. Models are often used to test the effect of changes of system components on the overall performance of the system. (Source: LEE)
moedermelk breast milk Milk from the breast for feeding babies. (Source: CED)
moeilijk te behandelen afval bulky waste Large items of waste material, such as appliances, furniture, large auto parts, trees, branches, stumps, etc. (Source: LANDY)
moeilijk verwerkbaar afval hard-to-dispose-of waste Discarded material, often hazardous or in large volume, for which there is no obvious disposal route. (Source: DHW)
moeras marsh An periodically inundated area of low ground having shrubs and trees, with or without the formation of peat. (Source: BJGEO)
moeras swamp A permanently waterlogged area in which there is often associated tree growth, e.g. mangroves in hot climates. (Source: WHIT)
moeras; veenmoeras bog A commonly used term in Scotland and Ireland for a stretch waterlogged, spongy ground, chiefly composed of decaying vegetable matter, especially of rushes, cotton grass, and sphagnum moss. (Source: WHIT)
moerasgas methane A colourless, odourless, and tasteless gas, lighter than air and reacting violently with chlorine and bromine in sunlight, a chief component of natural gas; used as a source of methanol, acetylene, and carbon monoxide. Also known as methyl hydride. (Source: MGH)
moestuin home garden A plot of cultivated ground adjacent to a dwelling and usually devoted in whole or in part to the growing of herbs, fruits, flowers, or vegetables for household use. (Source: WEBSTE)
mogelijk vervuild gebied area of potential pollution Area which is supposedly causing dangers to human health and environment. (Source: ECHO2)
mogelijkheid tot afvalvermindering waste minimisation potential The capability of measures or techniques that reduce the amount of refuse or unwanted materials that is generated, particularly during industrial production processes. (Source: TOE)
mogelijkheid van langdurige voortzetting (van iets) sustainability Adoption of energy and environmental policies which would not threaten the world environment, yet at the same time allow economic growth. (Source: BRACK)
moleculaire biologie molecular biology The study of the chemical structures and processes of biological phenomena at the molecular level; the discipline is particularly concerned with the study of proteins, nucleic acids, and enzymes, the macromolecules essential to life processes. It seeks to understand the molecular basis of genetic processes. Techniques used include X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy. (Source: GILP96)
molen mill A building where grain is crushed into flour. (Source: CAMB)
monetaire betrekkingen monetary relations The different modes in which countries, nations, etc., are brought together by financial, currency, or pecuniary interests. (Source: OED)
monetaire economie monetary economics The study, policies or system of institutions and procedures by which a country or region's commerce is supplied with notes, coins, bank deposits or other equivalent mediums of exchange. (Source: ODE)
monetaire markt money market A financial market that trades Treasury bills, commercial paper and other short-term financial instruments. This market is often used by businesses when they need short-term funds to bridge the gap between paying operating costs and collecting revenue from product sales. As such, the term 'money' in money market indicates that businesses are using highly liquid instruments to raise the money need for operating expenses. (Source: AMOS2)
monetaire waardebepaling monetary assessment Financial determination, adjustment, estimation, or appraisal for purposes of levying a tax, charge or fine. (Source: OED)
monopolie monopoly The market condition where a particular commodity or service has only one seller, either because the seller has exclusive possession of an essential input or because large economies of scale inhibit the entrance of a competitor into the market. (Source: ODE)
monstername sampling The obtaining of small representative quantities of material for the purpose of analysis. (Source: MGH)
monsternametechniek sampling technique Method of selecting items at random from a set in such a manner that the sample will be representative of the whole. (Source: MGHa)
monument monument An object, especially large and made of stone, built to remember and show respect to a person or group of people, or a special place made for this purpose. (Source: CAMB)
monumentenzorg conservation of monuments Measures adopted for the protection and the maintenance of hystorical and art monuments. (Source: ZINZANa)
morele overreding moral persuasion Appealing to the ethical principles or beliefs of an adversary or the public to convince the adversary to change behavior or attitudes. (Source: MLK)
morfologie morphology The branch of biology concerned with the form and structure of organisms. (Source: CED)
morfologie van de zeebodem submarine morphology That aspect of geological oceanography which deals with the relief features of the ocean floor and with the forces that modify them. (Source: BJGEO)
mos moss Any plant of the class Bryophyta, occurring in nearly all damp habitats. (Source: MGH)
mosselteelt mussel farming Breeding of mussels for sale as food. (Source: PHC)
mossen bryophyte Any plant of the division Bryophyta, having stems and leaves but lacking true vascular tissue and roots and reproducing by spores: includes the mosses and liverworts. (Source: CED)
motor engine A machine in which power is applied to do work by the conversion of various forms of energy into mechanical force and motion. (Source: MGH)
motorbrandstof motor fuel Any gaseous or liquid flammable fuel that burns in an internal combustion engine. (Source: ZINZANa)
motorfiets motorcycle
motorvoertuig motor vehicle A road vehicle driven by a motor or engine, especially an internal-combustion engine. (Source: CED)
motorvoertuigemissies motor vehicle emission The formation and discharge of gaseous and particulate pollutants into the environment chiefly from car, truck and bus exhaust. (Source: DDP)
motorvoertuigenindustrie motor vehicle industry
motorvoertuiguitlaatgassen motor vehicle exhaust gas Gases vented to the atmosphere by internal-combustion-engine driven vehicles.
mozaïek mosaic A composite photograph consisting of separate aerial photographs of overlapping surface areas, producing an overall image of a surface area too large to be depicted in a single aerial photograph. (Source: OED / WHIT)
multifunctioneel beheergebied multiple use management area 1) Coordinated management for the most judicious and harmonious use of the land on a long term basis under the concept of combining two or more uses and/or purposes with attention to sustainability and nonimpairment of the natural resources and land area.2) Use of land for more than one purpose; e.g. grazing of livestock, watershed and wildlife protection, recreation, and timber production. (Source: UNUN / EPAGLO)
multilaterale overeenkomst multilateral agreement Multilateralism stands for a long-held but rarely achieved ideal, namely the voluntary co-operation of nations for peace and development. Multilateral initiatives are undermined or diluted by ultra-nationalist, bilateral and regional initiatives. Multilateralism may be undercut by the uncoordinated decisions of those contributing to it. Multilateralism constitutes the democracy of international society. An enlightened multilateralism enhances the specific interests of states while advancing their common cause. (Source: WPR)
multimedia technologie multimedia technology Any technical means used to combine text, sound, still or animated images and video in computers and electronic products, often allowing audience interactivity. (Source: ENC / WIS)
multinational multinational firm A large business company operating in several countries. (Source: CED)
multispectrale scanner multispectral scanner A remote sensing term referring to a scanning radiometer that simultaneously acquires images in various wavebands at the same time. A multispectral scanner can be carried aboard an aircraft or satellite. The Landsat multispectral scanner records images in four wavebands of visible and near infrared electromagnetic radiation to enable objects with different reflectance properties to be distinguished. (Source: WHIT)
museum museum A place or building where objects of historical, artistic, or scientific interest are exhibited, preserved or studied. (Source: CED)
mutagene stof mutagen An agent that raises the frequency of mutation above the spontaneous rate. An agent that causes changes to plants and animals, particularly to their genetic material and especially at the time of reproduction. Certain chemicals and forms of radiation are powerful mutagens that damage the DNA, or genetic material in the centre of every cell of a living organism. (Source: MGH / WRIGHT)
mutagene stof mutagenic substance Agents that induce a permanent change in the genetic material. (Source: KOREN)
mutageniteit mutagenicity The property of chemical or physical agents of inducing changes in genetic material that are transmitted during cell division. (Source: KOREN)
mutant mutant An individual bearing an allele that has undergone mutation and is expressed in the phenotype. (Source: MGH)
mutatie mutation A change in the chemical constitution of the DNA in the chromosomes of an organism: the changes are normally restricted to individual genes, but occasionally involve serious alteration to whole chromosomes. When a mutation occurs in gametes or gametocytes an inherited change may be produced in the characteristics of the organisms that develop from them. Mutation is one of the ways in which genetic variation is produced in organisms. A somatic mutation is one that occurs to a body cell, and is consequently past on to all the cells derived from it by mitosis. Natural mutations, at this stage of biological evolution, when they occur in the cells of higher animals, almost always produce deleterious characteristics. Both natural and artificial mutations can be brought about by ionizing radiation (hence the genetic and carcinogenic dangers of nuclear weapons) and by certain chemical substances called mutagens. (Source: UVAROV)
muur wall A vertical construction made of stone, brick, wood, etc., with a length and height much greater than its thickness, used to enclose, divide or support. (Source: CED)
muziek music The artistic organization of sounds or tones that expresses ideas and emotions through the elements of rhythm, melody, harmony and tonal color. (Source: RHW)
myceten mycete Nucleated usually filamentous, sporebearing organisms devoid of chlorophyll. (Source: MGH)
mycologie mycology The branch of botany concerned with the study of fungi. (Source: LBC)
mycorrhiza mycorrhiza The symbiotic association of the root of a higher plant with a fungus. In an ectotrophic mycorrhiza (e.g., heath, pine trees) the fungal mycelium covers the outside of the roots; in an endotrophic mycorrhiza (e.g. orchids) the fungus grows inside the cells of the root cortex. (Source: ALL)
mythe myth A traditional or legendary story, usually dealing with supernatural beings, ancestors, heroes or events, that is with or without determinable basis of fact or a natural explanation, but is used to explain some practice, rite or phenomenon of nature, or to justify the existence of a social institution. (Source: RHW)
naaktzadigen gymnosperm Any seed-bearing plant of the division Gymnospermae, in which the ovules are borne naked on the surface of the mega sporophylls, which are often arranged in cones. (Source: CED)
naaldbomen conifer An order of conebearing plants which includes nearly all the present day Gymnospermae. Most are tall evergreen trees with needle-like (e.g., pines), linear (e.g. firs) or scale-like (e.g., cedars) leaves. They are characteristic of temperate zones and the main forest trees of colder regions. They provide timber, resins, tars, turpentine and pulp for paper. (Source: ALL)
naaldboom coniferous tree
naaldbos coniferous forest A forest type characterized by cone-bearing, needle-leaved trees. They are generally, but not necessarily, evergreen and relatively shallow-rooted. Since they grow more rapidly than most broad-leaved trees, conifers are extensively planted as a source of softwood timber and pulp. They are tolerant of wide-ranging climatic conditions, of many different types of soil and of considerable differences in terrain. Thus, they are found from the polar latitudes to the tropics, on most types of soils (especially, thin acid soils) and from mountain summits to coastal environments. (Source: WHIT)
naaldbos coniferous wood
naar grootte sorteren sizing To fix the cross-section of structural components on the basis of statics and material strength. (Source: RRDA)
naar olie boren drilling for oil Boring a hole for extracting oil. (Source: PHC)
nabehandeling post-treatment Treatment of treated water or wastewater to improve the water quality. (Source: LEE)
naburige eigenaar neighbouring owner Person who lives in close proximity to another or owns a contiguous property. (Source: WESTSa)
nat afval wet waste Organic refuse or material left over from a manufacturing process, which is characterized by the presence of moisture. (Source: RHW / GRP)
nat proces wet process Process used to remove particulate matter and/or gaseous pollutants by means of an aqueous stream or slurry. (Source: KORENa)
nationaal park national park Areas of outstanding natural beauty, set aside for the conservation of flora, fauna and scenery, and for recreation, if this does not conflict with the conservation objectives of the parks and their landscapes. Hunting, logging, mining, commercial fishing, agriculture and livestock grazing are all controlled within national parks, as is industrial activity. (Source: WRIGHT)
nationaal reservaat national reserve
nationaal visreservaat national fishing reserve Limited portion of a water body belonging to the State where angling is allowed. (Source: RRDA)
nationale boekhouding national accounting Organised method of recording all business transactions in the national economy.
nationale milieuboekhouding national environmental accounting The collection and processing of financial information regarding the costs for ecological challenges or opportunities for nations or countries. (Source: RHW)
nationale planning national planning The step by step method and process of defining, developing and outlining various possible courses of actions to meet existing or future needs, goals and objectives for a country or a large body of people associated with a particular territory, often sharing similar ethnic backgrounds, customs and language. (Source: RHW / BLD)
nationale wetgeving national legislation A binding rule or body of rules prescribed by the government of a sovereign state that holds force throughout the regions and territories within the government's dominion. (Source: RHW)
nationaleeconomie national economy A nation's financial resources and its financial management, with a view towards its productivity. (Source: ISEP / RHW)
nationalisering nationalisation The transfer of ownership of a private business or other private property to a national government, either through uncompensated seizure (expropriation) or through forced sale at a government-determinedprice. (Source: DUC)
nat-ontstoffer wet scrubber 1) An air cleaning device that literally washes out the dust. Exhaust air is forced into a spray chamber, where fine water particles cause the dust to drop from the air stream. The dust-ladden water is then treated to remove the solid material and is often recirculated.2) Equipment through which a gas is passed to remove impurities (solid, liquid, or gaseous particles) by intimate contact with a suitable liquid, usually an aqueous medium. (Source: LANDY / BRACK / ALL)
natuur nature All natural phenomena and plant and animal life, as distinct from man and his creations. (Source: CED)
natuur, menselijke leefomgeving natural environment, anthropic environment
natuurbeheer management of natural resources Planned use of natural resources, in particular of non-renewable resources, in accordance with principles that assure their optimum long-term economic and social benefits. (Source: MUCKa)
natuurbehoud nature conservation Active management of the earth's natural resources and environment to ensure their quality is maintained and that they are wisely used. (Source: PHC)
natuurbehoudsprogramma nature conservation programme An organized group of activities and procedures, often run by a government agency or a nonprofit organization, to preserve and protect elements of the natural world such as mountains, trees, animals or rivers. (Source: RHW)
natuurbehoudswetgeving nature conservation legislation A binding rule or body of rules prescribed by a government to protect, preserve or renew an area's natural habitats or ecosystem. (Source: BLD / RHW)
natuurbescherming nature protection Precautionary actions, procedures or installations undertaken to prevent or reduce harm to the elements of the material world that exist independently of human activity. (Source: RHW)
natuurgebied natural area An area in which natural processes predominate, fluctuations in numbers of organisms are allowed free play and human intervention is minimal. (Source: LANDY)
natuurgebieden, landschap, ecosystemen natural areas, landscape, ecosystems
natuurgevoel feeling for nature A consciousness, sensibility or sympathetic perception of the physical world and its scenery in their uncultivated state. (Source: RHW)
natuurkunde physics The study of those aspects of nature which can be understood in a fundamental way in terms of elementary principles and laws. (Source: MGH)
natuurkunde, fysica physics
natuurlijk afbreekbare verontreinigende stof biodegradable pollutant A pollutant which can be converted by biological processes into simple inorganic molecules. (Source: RRDA)
natuurlijk afwateringssysteem natural drainage system
natuurlijk bos natural forest A forest area that has developed free from the influence of humans and remains largely unaffected by their activities. The natural forest may include, but is not necessarily equivalent to, an old-growth forest. (Source: DUNSTE)
natuurlijk erfgoed natural heritage Generally, the world's natural resources as handed down to the present generation, and specifically, the earth's outstanding physical, biological and geological formations, and habitats of threatened species of animals and plants and areas with scientific, conservation or aesthetic value. (Source: WHC / OED)
natuurlijk gevaar natural hazard The probability of occurrence, within a specific period of time in a given area of a potentially damaging phenomenon of nature. (Source: GUNN)
natuurlijk landschap natural scenery An area where human effects, if present, are not significant to the landscape as a whole. (Source: DUNSTE)
natuurlijk risico natural risk Probability of harm to human health, property or the environment posed by any aspect of the physical world other than human activity. (Source: APD)
natuurlijke afbraak biodegradation Breaking down of a substance by microorganisms. (Source: MGH)
natuurlijke afbreekbaarheid biodegradability The extent to which a substance can be decomposed - or rotted - by bacteria and fungi.Implies that residues from degradation are nontoxic. One of the most misleading claims in business, because shoppers often assume a biodegradable product to be harmless. Some harmful compounds take much longer to degrade than others and the product can harm the environment while it is rotting. Biodegradation may also be incomplete, sometimes leavingresidues in the environment which are more harmful than the original substance. Accumulation in the environment of nonbiodegradable (or poorly biodegradable) substances, such as some biocides, can cause serious problems. (Source: VCN)
natuurlijke balans balance of nature The condition of equilibrium among the components of a natural community such that their relative numbers remain fairly constant and their ecosystem is stable. Gradual readjustments to the composition of a balanced community take place continually in response to natural ecological succession and to alterations in climatic and other influences. By removing or introducing plants or animals, by polluting the environment, by destroying habitats and by rapidly increasing their own numbers, humans can cause major changes, some of which may be irreversible. (Source: ALL)
natuurlijke drijfkracht natural dynamics
natuurlijke fauna wild fauna Not domesticated animals living independently of man. (Source: CED)
natuurlijke hulpbronnen natural resource A feature or component of the natural environment that is of value in serving human needs, e.g. soil, water, plantlife, wildlife, etc. Some natural resources have an economic value (e.g. timber) while others have a 'noneconomic' value (e.g. scenic beauty). (Source: UNUN)
natuurlijke hulpbronnen; natuurlijke hulpbronn; hulpbronnen; hulpbron natural resources; natural resource; resource; resources Any component of the environment that can be utilized by an organism. (Source: LBC)
natuurlijke materiaal natural material
natuurlijke meststof natural fertiliser Organic material added to the soil to supply chemical elements needed for plant nutrition. (Source: MGH)
natuurlijke omgeving natural environment The complex of atmospheric, geological and biological characteristics found in an area in the absence of artifacts or influences of a well developed technological, human culture. (Source: LANDY)
natuurlijke processen natural dynamics
natuurlijke radioactiviteit natural radioactivity Radiation stemming mainly from uranium, present in small amounts in many rocks, soils, building material, etc. (Source: BRACK)
natuurlijke regeneratie natural regeneration The replacement by an organism of tissues or organs which have been lost or severely injured. (Source: MGH)
natuurlijke rijkdommen van de zee living marine resource
natuurmonument natural monument A natural/cultural feature which is of outstanding or unique value because of its inherent rarity, representative of aesthetic qualities or cultural significance. Guidance for selection of a natural monument is: a) The area should contain one or more features of outstanding significance (appropriate natural features include spectacular waterfalls, caves, craters, fossil beds, sand dunes and marine features, along with unique or representative fauna and flora; associated cultural features might include cave dwellings, cliff-top forts, archaeological sites, or natural sites which have heritage significance to indigenous peoples).; b) The area should be large enough to protect the integrity of the feature and its immediately related surroundings. (Source: AERG)
natuurpark natural park A designation of project lands which preserves natural resources for their scientific, scenic, cultural and/or educational value by limiting development and management practices. Land managed to protect rare and endangered species of flora and fauna will be designed as natural areas. (Source: LANDY)
natuurramp natural disaster Violent, sudden and destructive change in the environment without cause from human activity, due to phenomena such as floods, earthquakes, fire and hurricanes. (Source: Unesco-Unep)
natuurreservaat nature reserve Areas allocated to preserve and protect certain animals and plants, or both. They differ from national park, which are largely a place for public recreation, because they are provided exclusively to protect species for their own sake. Endangered species are increasingly being kept in nature reserves to prevent them from extinction, particularly in India, Indonesia and some African countries. Natural reserves were used once to preserve the animals that landowners hunted, but, in the 19th century, they became places where animals were kept to prevent them from dying out. Special refuges and sanctuaries are also often designated to protect certain species or groups of wild animals or plants, especially if their numbers and distribution have been significantly reduced. They also serve as a place for more plentiful species to rest, breed or winter. Many parts of the world also have marine and aquatic reserves to protect different species of sea or freshwater plant and animal life. (Source: WRIGHT)
natuurreservaat van de staat state biological reserve An area of land and/or of water designated as having protected status for purposes of preserving certain biological features. Reserves are managed primarily to safeguard these features and provide opportunities for research into the problems underlying the management of natural sites and of vegetation and animal populations. Regulations are normally imposed controlling public access and disturbance. (Source: GOOD)
natuursteen natural stone A gemstone that occurs in nature, as distinguished from a man-made substitute. (Source: BJGEO)
natuurvezel natural fibre A textile fiber of mineral, plant or animal origin. (Source: MGH)
natuurwaarde natural value
natuurwetenschappen natural science The branches of science dealing with objectively measurable phenomena pertaining to the transformation and relationships of energy and matter; includes biology, physics, and chemistry. (Source: MGH)
natuurwetenschappen physical science The sciences concerned with nonliving matter, energy, and the physical properties of the universe, such as physics, chemistry, astronomy, and geology. (Source: CED)
naverbranding afterburning An afterburner is a gadget fitted to the exhaust flues of furnaces and also to the exhaust systems of motor vehicles. They remove polluting gases and particles, which are the result of incompletely combusted fuel, by incineration and break down other chemical molecules associated with combustion into inert chemicals. (Source: WRIGHT)
navigatiegevaar navigational hazard Any obstacle encountered by a vessel in route posing risk or danger to the vessel, its contents or the environment. (Source: OED)
nederzetting human settlement Cities, towns, villages, and other concentrations of human populations which inhabit a given segment or area of the environment. Human settlements are associated with numerous and complex environmental, pollution, and living condition problems for planning and management. (Source: UNUN)
nederzetting in het platteland rural settlement A collection of dwellings located in a rural area. (Source: CEDa)
neergeslagen deeltje deposited particulate matter
neerslag atmospheric precipitation The settling out of water from cloud in the form of dew, rain, hail, snow, etc. (Source: ALL)
neerslag precipitation (chemical) The process of producing a separable solid phase within a liquid medium; represents the formation of a new condensed phase, such as a vapour or gas condensing to liquid droplets; a new solid phase gradually precipitates within a solid alloy as a result of slow, inner chemical reaction; in analytical chemistry, precipitation is used to separate a solid phase in an aqueous solution. (Source: MGH)
neerslagbevordering precipitation enhancement Increase of precipitation resulting from changes in the colloidal stability of clouds. This can be either intentional, as with cloud seeding, or unintentional, as with air pollution, which increases aerosol concentrations and reduces sunlight. (Source: PARCOR)
nesten bouwen nesting The building of nests for egg laying and rearing of offspring. (Source: AMHER)
nestgebied nesting area A place where birds gather to lay eggs. (Source: RRDA)
netting-beleid netting policy (emissions trading) All emission sources in the same area that are owned or controlled by a single company are treated as one large source, thereby allowing flexibility in controlling individual sources in order to meet a single emissions standard. (Source: EPAGLO)
netto grondstofvermindering net resource depletion The total decrease in the amount of natural materials available for use by humans and other living beings. (Source: RHW / APD)
neurotoxiciteit neurotoxicity The occurrence of adverse effects on a nervous system following exposure to a chemical. (Source: KOREN)
neutraliseren neutralisation To make a solution neutral by adding a base to an acidic solution, or an acid to a basic solution. (Source: MGH)
nevel haze Reduced visibility in the air as a result of condensed water vapour, dust, etc., in the atmosphere. (Source: CED)
nevenproduct by-product A product from a manufacturing process that is not considered the principal material. (Source: MGH)
niet biologisch afbreekbare verontreinigende stof non-biodegradable pollutant An organic compound, usually synthetic, that is not decomposed or mineralized by microorganisms or other biological processes. (Source: FFD)
niet goed afbreekbare organisch verontreinigende stoffen persistant organic pollutant Organic pollutants that do not break down chemically and remain in the environment. Pollutants with higher persistence may produce more harmful environmental effects. (Source: LANDYa)
niet in mijn achtertuin-houding NIMBY aptitude Not In My BackYard: phrase used to describe people who encourage the development of agriculture land for building houses or factories, provided it is not near where they themselves are living. (Source: PHC)
niet verontreinigde deel van de atmosfeer clean air area Areas where significant reductions in ozone forming pollutants have been achieved throughindustrial initiatives to control and/or prevent pollution, through implementation of transportation improvement plans, national efforts to reduce automobile tailpipe emissions and lower the volatility (evaporation rate) of gasoline. (Source: CIHUNT)
niet-conventionele energie non-conventional energy Energy that is renewable and ecologically safe, such as tidal power, wind power, etc. (Source: PHC)
niet-gouvernementele organisatie non-governmental organisation Private, voluntary, non-profit organisations, acting as pressure groups. Throughout the world there are more than 5.000 international NGOs which are concerned with the environment and development, with millions of supporters. (Source: WRIGHT)
niet-hernieuwbare energiebronnen non-renewable energy resource Non-renewable resources have been built up or evolved over a geological time-span and cannot be used without depleting the stock and raising questions of ultimate exhaustibility, since their rate of formation is so slow as to be meaningless in terms of the human life-span. (Source: GOOD)
niet-hernieuwbare hulpbronnen non-renewable resource A natural resource which, in terms of human time scales, is contained within the Earth in a fixed quantity and therefore can be used once only in the foreseeable future (although it may be recycled after its first use). This includes the fossil fuels and is extended to include mineral resources and sometimes ground water, although water and many minerals are renewed eventually. (Source: ALL)
niet-ioniserende straling non-ionising radiation Radiation that does not change the structure of atoms but does heat tissue and may cause harmful biological effects. (Source: LEE)
niet-metalen non-metal A nonmetallic element, such as arsenic or silicon, that has some of the properties of a metal. (Source: CED)
niet-metallisch mineraal non-metallic mineral Minerals containing non-metals, such as quartz, garnet, etc. (Source: RRDA)
niet-vervuilende brandstof non-polluting fuel Clean fuel that does not release polluting emissions in the environment, such as methane. (Source: RRDA)
niet-vervuilende energiebron non-polluting energy source Energy that is ecologically safe and renewable. The most widely used source is hydroelectric power, which currently supplies some 6.6% of the world's energy needs. Other non-polluting sources are solar energy, tidal energy, wave energy and wind energy. Most non-polluting energy sources require a high capital investment but have low running costs. (Source: GILP96 / UVAROV)
niet-vluchtige stof non-volatile substance Substance that is not capable of changing from a solid or liquid form to a vapour. (Source: CEDa)
nieuw materiaal new material Novel high-performance materials obtained through the interdisciplinary research of chemistry, applied chemistry, chemical engineering, and mechanical engineering. (Source: CMKYUa)
nieuw voedingsmiddel novel food Genetically engineered foods. Novel foods, including those altered using biotechnology, should not differ 'significantly' from thefoods they are to replace. Labels should not be misleading, but must make clear any differences between the novel food and its 'conventional' alternative, and must say how that difference was achieved. Foods containing a genetically modified living organism, such as a live yogurt made with an altered culture, would always be labelled. Any food whose modification might raise moral or health worries to consumers would also have to carry a label. This would include genes from an animal considered unclean by some religions, or from a plant that might cause allergic reactions. However, foods which, although made using novel methods, are identical to conventional foods, would nothave to be labelled. (Source: MOND)
nieuwe gemeenschap new community A sociopolitical, religious, occupational or other group of common characteristics and interests formed as an alternative to social, and often residential, options currently available. (Source: RHW)
nieuwe gemeente new town Any of several recent urban developments that constitute small and essentially self-sufficient cities with a planned ordering of residential, industrial, and commercial development. (Source: WEBSTE)
nieuwe installatie new installation A device, system, or piece of equipment that has been recently installed. (Source: CED)
nieuwe technologie new technology Electronic instruments and devices which have recently been developed and are been introduced into industry. New technologies have been introduced often in almost total ignorance or disregard of the biological and ecological systems that they subsequently disturb, and of the dynamic and evolving nature of living systems. (Source: PHC / WPR)
nieuwsbrief newsletter A printed periodical bulletin circulated to members of a group. (Source: CED)
nieuwsgroep newsgroup A discussion group on a specific topic maintained on a computer network, frequently on the Internet. (Source: ISEP / WIC)
nijverheid, industrie industry
nikkel nickel A malleable ductile silvery-white metallic element that is strong and corrosion-resistant, occurring principally in pentlandite and niccolite: used in alloys, especially in toughening steel, in electroplating, and as a catalyst in organic synthesis. (Source: CED)
nitraat nitrate Any salt or ester of nitric acid, such as sodium nitrate. (Source: CED)
nitrieten nitrite A salt or ester of nitric acid, included in compounds such as potassium nitrite, sodium nitrite and butyl nitrite. (Source: RHW)
nitrificatie nitrification The process by which ammonia compounds, including man-made fertilizer and the humus provided by organic matter or plant and animal origin, are converted into nitrites and then nitrates, which are then absorbed as a nutrient by crops. Excess nitrate can be leached into surface waters and groundwaters, causing pollution. Excess nitrate may also be converted by microbes back into gaseous nitrogen, which is an important greenhouse gas, and released back into the atmosphere. The ultimate source of nitrogen in the ecosystem is the molecular nitrogen in the atmosphere. To a very limited extent, some dissolves in water. However, none is found in rock. (Source: WRIGHT)
nitrosamine nitrosamine Any one of a class of neutral, usually yellow oily compounds containing the divalent group = NNO. (Source: CED)
NOEL NOEL Acronym for No Observed Effects Level. (Source: KOREN)
nomade nomad 1) A member of a people or tribe who move from place to place to find pasture and food.2) Nomads include gypsies, desert tribes such as the Bedouin and the many primitive tribes in the Americas, Asia and Australia. Herding survives as a way of life around the Sahara, in the Middle East, in Asia as far east as western India, and in the Asian parts of the USSR. The end of pastoral nomadism would be regrettable not merely on account of the independence and distinctiveness of this way of life but because this type of economy may be a more rational means of raising large numbers of animals under arid conditions than is capital-intensive ranching. (Source: CED / WPR)
nomenclatuur nomenclature A system of names or terms, particularly those related to a specific area of science or art, or the assignment of names to things. (Source: OED)
non-ferro metaalnijverheid non-ferrous metal industry Industry that deals with the processing of metals other than iron and iron-base alloys. (Source: MGH)
non-ferro metalen non-ferrous metal Any metal other than iron and its alloys. (Source: MGH)
noodhulp emergency relief Money, food or other assistance provided for those surviving a sudden and usually unexpected occurrence requiring immediate action, especially an incident of potential harm to human life, property or the environment. (Source: RHW)
noodhulpmaatregel emergency relief measure
noodonderkomen emergency shelter Shelter given to persons who are deprived of the essential needs of life following a disaster. (Source: GUNNa)
noodplan emergency plan Program of procedures to be undertaken in the event of a sudden, urgent and usually unexpected occurrence requiring immediate action, especially an incident of potential harm to human life, property or the environment. (Source: RHW)
noodwet emergency law
Noord- en Zuid-Amerika Americas The landmasses and islands of North America, South America, Mexico, and Central America included in the Western Hemisphere. (Source: AMHER)
Noord-Afrika North Africa A geographic region of the African continent south of Europe and the Mediterranean Sea, and north of Africa's tropical rain forest, including Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya and the Egyptian region west of the Suez Canal, and also the Sahara Desert and Atlas Mountains. (Source: RHW / INP)
Noord-Amerika North America A continent in the northern half of the western hemisphere, bounded by the Arctic Ocean in the north, by the Pacific Ocean and the Bering Sea in the west, and by the Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico in the east, connected to South America by the Isthmus of Panama, and including the United States, Canada, Mexico and several small island nations. (Source: INP)
Noordatlantische Oceaan North Atlantic Ocean The northern part of the Atlantic Ocean, extending northward from the equator to the Arctic Ocean. (Source: AMHER)
Noordelijke Stille Oceaan North Pacific Ocean An ocean north of the equator between the eastern coast of Asia and the western coasts of the Americas, extending northward to the arctic region, with principal arms including the Gulf of Alaska, the Sea of Okhotsk, the Sea of Japan and the Bering, Yellow, East China, South China and Philippine seas, and islands including the Aleutian, Midway, Marshall and Hawaiian islands, the Japanese island arc and the Malay Archipelago. (Source: INP)
Noord-Zuidbetrekkingen North-South relationship The connections, associations or involvement of developed nations, found predominantly in the Northern Hemisphere, with developing nations, found predominantly in the Southern Hemisphere. (Source: UIA)
norm norm An established standard, guide, or regulation. A principle or regulation set up by authority, prescribing or directing action or forbearance; as the rules of a legislative body, of a company, court, public office, of the law, of ethics. (Source: WESTS)
norm standard 1) Something considered by an authority or by general consent as a basis of comparison.2) An object regarded as the most common size or form of its kind.3) A rule or principle that is used as a basis for judgment.4) An average or normal quality, quantity, or level.
normalisatie normalisation
nucleair gevaar nuclear risk A risk connected to the functioning of nuclear power plants, by the storage or transportation of radioactive materials and involving the release of potentially dangerous levels of radioactive materials into the environment. (Source: FEMAa)
nucleair onderzoekscentrum nuclear research centre A facility in which scientists and other researchers study the behavior and characteristics of atomic nuclei through testing and other forms of experimentation, often to invent new technology with scientific, medical and industrial purposes. (Source: RAD / MHD)
nucleaire installatie nuclear facility A place, including buildings, where all the activities relating to nuclear research are performed. (Source: CAMB)
nucleaire veiligheid nuclear safety Measures and techniques implemented to reduce the possibility of incidence and the potential harm posed by radioactive substances used as an energy source, a test material or in weaponry. (Source: MHD)
nucleïnezuur nucleic acid Any of several organic acids combined with proteins (DNA or RNA) which exist in the nucleus and protoplasm of all cells. (Source: PHC)
nutriënt nutrient Chemical elements which are involved in the construction of living tissue and which are needed by both plant and animal. The most important in terms of bulk are carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, with other essential ones including nitrogen, potassium, calcium, sulphur and phosphorus. (Source: WRIGHT)
nutriëntenkringloop nutrient cycle A biogeochemical cycle, in which inorganic nutrients move through the soil, living organisms, air and water or through some of these. (Source: ALL2)
nutsbedrijf public service An enterprise concerned with the provision to the public of essentials, such as electricity or water. (Source: CED)
nutsbedrijf public utility An enterprise concerned with the provision to the public of essentials, such as electricity or water. (Source: CED)
nutsbedrijven services The carrying out of work for which there is a constant public demand by the provision of labor and the utilization of tools. (Source: OED)
nutsfunctie public function Activity carried out for the benefit of the community. (Source: NDGIUR)
nuttig organisme beneficial organism Any pollinating insect, or any pest predator, parasite, pathogen or other biological control agent which functions naturally or as part of an integrated pest management program to control another pest. (Source: LEE)
observatiepost observatory (in general) Any building or structure providing an extensive view of its surroundings. (Source: CED)
observatiesatelliet observation satellite Man-made device that orbits the earth, receiving, processing and transmitting signals and generating images such as weather pictures. (Source: PHC)
oceaan ocean The mass of water occupying all of the Earth's surface not occupied by land, but excluding all lakes and inland seas. (Source: WHIT)
oceaancirculatie ocean circulation Water current flow in a closed circular pattern within an ocean. (Source: MGH)
oceaanklimaat oceanic climate A regional climate which is under the predominant influence of the sea, that is, a climate characterized by oceanity; the antithesis of a continental climate. (Source: MGH)
oceaanmonding ocean outfall The mouth or outlet of a river, drain, sewer or any other place at which drainage or wastewater is discharged into a body of oceanic water. (Source: OED)
oceaanstroming ocean current A net transport of ocean water along a definable path. (Source: MGH)
oceaantemperatuur ocean temperature A measure, referenced to a standard value, of the heat or coldness in a body of oceanic water. (Source: RHW)
Oceanië Oceania The islands of the southern, western and central Pacific Ocean, including Melanesia, Micronesia, and Polynesia. The term is sometimes extended to encompass Australia, New Zealand, and the Malay Archipelago. (Source: AMHER)
oceanografie oceanography The scientific study and exploration of the oceans and seas in all their aspects. (Source: MGH)
oceanografie riviermonding estuarine oceanography The study of the physical, chemical, biological and geological characteristics of a semi-enclosed coastal body of water which has a free connection with the open sea and within which sea water is measurably diluted with fresh water. (Source: MHE / APD)
octrooi patent A grant of right to exclude others from making, using or selling one's invention and includes right to license others to make, use or sell it. (Source: BLACK)
oerbos primary forest Forest which originally covered a region before changes in the environment brought about by people. (Source: PHC)
oestercultuur oyster farming There are two types of oyster farming: suspension culture, in which oysters are grown off bottom, in floating trays, is a labor-intensive form of cultivation that requires continuous tending and cleaning of both gear and shellfish, and bottom culture, which is similar to conventional crop farming on land; it involves selecting areas of the sea floor that provide a natural food supply, necessary currents, minimum exposure to predators, and proper temperature and then 'seeding' the bottom with shellfish stock that are left to grow to market size. Then they are harvested with a bottom drag from a boat. Both suspension culture and bottom culture depend on natural food supplies for growing the shellfish being raised. (Source: MSTF)
oevervegetatie; rivieroevervegetatie riverside vegetation Plants growing in areas adjacent to rivers and streams. (Source: EPAGLO)
officiële hoorzitting official hearing Proceedings of relative formality, with definite issues of fact or of law to be tried, in which witnesses are heard and parties proceeded against have right to be heard. (Source: WESTS)
olfactometrie olfactometry The testing and measurement of the sensitivity of the sense of smell. (Source: WEBSTE)
olie- en vettenindustrie oil and fat industry Industry for the production and processing of edible oils and fats. (Source: RRDA)
olie in kleilagen oil shale A kerogen-bearing, finely laminated brown or black sedimentary rock that will yield liquid or gaseous hydrocarbons on distillation. (Source: BJGEO)
oliebezinksel olive oil mill wastewater Aqueous residue deriving from the process of oil extraction from olives; it is composed of the olive-combined water and of the water used in the extraction and washing processes. It also contains a certain percentage of mineral compounds and of organic substances that are only partially biodegradable. (Source: UIB / FLGISAa)
oliebindende stof oil binding agent Highly absorbent agents used for physically removing spilled oil in case of leakages and oil accidents occurring in water bodies, industry, work-shops, on roads, etc. Materials that have been found useful for this service vary from simple, naturally occurring materials such as straw, sawdust, and peat to synthetic agents, such as polyurethane foam and polystyrene powder. (Source: FUNKE / PZ)
olieboringen op zee offshore oil drilling The act or process of extracting petroleum from deposits underlying the floor of the ocean or some other large body of water. (Source: ENC)
olielozing oil spill The accidental release of oil, or other petroleum products usually into freshwater or marine ecosystems, and usually in large quantities. It can be controlled by chemical dispersion, combustion, mechanical containment, and absorption. (Source: RRDA / LANDYa)
olie-opslagterrein tank farm Storage space for containers of liquids or gases. (Source: RRDA)
oliepijpleiding oil pipeline A line of pipe connected to valves and other control devices, for conducting oil. (Source: MGH)
olieproductie oil production (chain) The petroleum industry is a complex industry utilizing complex combination of interdependent operations engaged in the storage and transportation, separation of crude molecular constituents, molecular cracking, molecular rebuilding and solvent finishing to produce petrochemical products. Treatment may involve oil separation, precipitation, adsorption, and biological treatment. The refining operations can be divided into four major steps: separation, conversion, treating, and blending. The crude oil is first separated into selected fractions (gasoline, kerosine, fuel oil, etc.). Some of the less valuable products such as heavy naphtha, are converted to products with a greater sale value such as gasoline. The final step is the blending of the refined base stocks with each other and various additive to meet final product specifications. The major pollutants emitted are sulphur oxides, nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and malodorous materials. (Source: PZ)
olieraffinaderij oil refinery System of process units used to convert crude petroleum into fuels, lubricants, and other petroleum-derived products. (Source: MGH)
olieraffinage oil refining The separation of petroleum mixtures into their component parts. (Source: ZINZAN)
olietanker oil tanker A very large ship which carries crude oil or other petroleum products in big tanks. (Source: MGH)
olievervuiling oil pollution Contamination of any ecosystem, but usually of freshwater or marine ecosystems, by oil or other petroleum products. (Source: ISEP)
omgekeerde osmose reverse osmosis A method of obtaining pure water from water containing a salt, as in desalination. Pure water and the salt water are separated by a semipermeable membrane and the pressure of the salt water is raised above the osmotic pressure, causing water from the brine to pass through the membrane into the pure water. This process requires a pressure of some 25 atmospheres, which makes it difficult to apply on a large scale. (Source: DICCHE)
omgevingsgeluid environmental noise The sound and the characteristics of sounds from all sources in the surrounding environment. (Source: CONFER)
omgevingsgeluid neighbourhood noise General noise from a local source (such as the noise of a factory) which is disturbing to people living in the area. (Source: PHC)
omgewaaide bomen windfall 1) Falling of old trees in a forest caused by a storm or strong wind. It plays an important role in the spontaneous regeneration of forest ecosystems.2) A plot of land covered with trees blown down by the wind. (Source: RAMADE / CED)
omkeringslaag inversion layer The atmosphere layer through which an inversion occurs. (Source: MGH)
omzetting richtlijn transposition of directive
onbebouwd gebied non-built-up area Areas which are not intensely developed for housing, commerce, industry, etc. (Source: LANDY)
onbehandeld water raw water Water that has not been treated. (Source: PHC)
onbepaald rechtsbegrip indefinite legal concept A condition or extent of time in a government enforced contract, instrument or agreement that lacks precision, distinguishing characteristics or fixed boundaries. (Source: BLD)
onchocerciasis onchocerciasis Infection with the filaria Onchocerca volvulus; results in skin tumours, papular dermatitis, and ocular complications. (Source: MGH)
oncologie oncology The study of the causes, development, characteristics, and treatment of tumors. (Source: MGH)
onder druk staand gebied area under stress Areas that are flooded by rising number of tourists or other kinds of pressure and suffer from insufficient or inappropriate planning and management. Damage frequently arises from a lack of understanding or interest of the value of such sites. (Source: WPR)
onder toezicht staande jachtzone controlled hunting zone An administered geographic area in which the pursuit, capture and killing of wild animals for food or sport, is allowed, often with certain restrictions or regulations. (Source: ISEP / RHW)
onderbelasting van een elektriciteitscentrale power station derating The process by which a power plant is finally taken out of operation. (Source: ECHO1a)
onderdak lodging Provision of accommodation for rest or for residence in a room or rooms or in a dwelling place. (Source: OED)
onderdeel van de atmosfeer atmospheric component The Earth's atmosphere consists by volume of nitrogen (79,1%), oxygen (20,9%), carbon dioxide (about 0,03%) and traces of the noble gases (argon, krypton, xenon, helium) plus water vapour, traces of ammonia, organic matter, ozone, various salts and suspended solid particles. (Source: ALL)
onderdrukking repression The act, as by power or authority, of arresting or inhibiting the communication of ideas or facts as expressed in a practice, movement, publication or piece of evidence in a court proceeding. (Source: OED)
ondergrond subsoil Soil underlying surface soil, devoid of plant roots. (Source: MGH / ZINZAN)
ondergrondse groeve underground quarry Quarry located below the surface of the earth. (Source: CAMB)
ondergrondse lozing underground disposal The discharge, dumping or emission of wastes below the surface of the soil. (Source: RHW)
ondergrondse opslag underground storage Storage located underground designed to hold gasoline or other petroleum products or chemical solutions. (Source: LEE)
ondergrondse opslag underground dump Any subterranean or below-ground site in which solid, or other, waste is deposited without environmental controls. (Source: TOE)
onderhandelbare heffingen negotiable charge
onderhoud (technisch) maintenance (technical) The upkeep of industrial facilities and equipment. (Source: MGH)
onderneming undertaking business Any commercial activity, position or site associated with the preparation of the dead for burial and the management and arrangement of funerals. (Source: RHW)
ondernemingen firm A commercial partnership of two or more persons, especially when incorporated. (Source: AMHER)
ondernemingsbeleid company policy Official guidelines or set of guidelines adopted by a company for the management of its activity. (Source: RRDA)
ondernemingsbeleid business policy The guiding procedure, philosophy or course of action for an enterprise or company organized for commercial purposes. (Source: RHW)
ondernemingsstructuur company structure The type of organization of a company. Three kinds of structure are usually recognized: centralized, formal or hierarchical. (Source: ECONSK)
onderverdeling van de zeebodem benthic division The bottom of a body of water often occupied by benthos. (Source: GILP96)
ondervoeding malnutrition Defective nutrition due to inadequate intake of nutrients or to their faulty digestion, assimilation or metabolism. (Source: MGH)
onderwater uitlaat underwater outlet Point of water disposal located below the sea surface. (Source: LANDYa)
onderwerp subject
onderwijs education The act or process of imparting or acquiring knowledge or skills. (Source: RHW)
onderwijs teaching The act of imparting knowledge or skill. (Source: RRDA)
onderwijsbeleid education policy A course of action adopted and pursued by government or some other organization, which promotes or determines the goals, methods and programs to be used for training, instruction or study that leads to the acquisition of skills or knowledge, or the development of reasoning and judgment. (Source: RHW)
onderwijsinstelling educational institution An organization or establishment devoted to the act or process of imparting or acquiring knowledge or skills. (Source: RHW)
onderwijsmateriaal teaching material An article or device used to facilitate the learning process in an instructional setting. (Source: RHW)
onderwijsmethode teaching method A procedure, technique or system with definite plans for instruction or imparting knowledge. (Source: RHW)
onderwijsplanning educational planning The process of making arrangements or preparations to facilitate the training, instruction or study that leads to the acquisition of skills or knowledge, or the development of reasoning and judgment. (Source: RHW)
onderwijssysteem educational system Any formulated, regular or special organization of instruction, training or knowledge disclosure, especially the institutional structures supporting that endeavor. (Source: ISEP / OED)
onderzees submarine
onderzoek research Scientific investigation aimed at discovering and applying new facts, techniques and natural laws. (Source: MGH)
onderzoek research
onderzoek aan het ecosysteem ecosystem research Study of the ways in which plants, animals, and microbes interact with each other and with their physical environment and of the processes involving the circulation, transformation and accumulation of both matter, especially nutrient materials, and energy. (Source: CULTER / PARCORa)
onderzoek aan uitgestoten gassen waste gas examination Qualitative and quantitative analysis of exhaust gases emitted from vehicles, industrial plants, etc. in order to asses their composition. (Source: RRDA)
onderzoek effect op miliehygiëne environmental health impact assessment Assessment of impacts caused by an action on the health conditions of a population. (Source: RRDA)
onderzoek naar de bereidheid tot betalen willingness-to-pay analysis
onderzoek naar de effecten research of the effects Investigation carried out to assess the results deriving from an action or condition; general term applying to many different fields. (Source: RRDA)
onderzoek naar het algemene nut (van …) public benefit inquiry An investigation, especially a formal one conducted into a matter of public utility by a body constituted for that purpose by a government, local authority, or other organization. (Source: CED)
onderzoek, wetenschappen research, sciences
onderzoeksbeleid research policy
onderzoekscentrum research centre Place where systematic investigation to establish facts or principles or to collect information on a subject is performed. (Source: CEDa)
onderzoeksproject research project Proposal, plan or design containing the necessary information and data for conducting a specific survey. (Source: CEDa)
ondoordringbaar struikgewas maquis A low evergreen shrub formation, usually found on siliceous soils in the Mediterranean lands where winter rainfall and summer drought are the characteristic climate features. It consists of a profusion of aromatic species, such as lavender, myrtle, oleander and rosemary and often includes abundant spiny shrubs. It has been suggested that the maquis is a secondary vegetation, occupying the lands cleared of their natural evergreen oak forests by human activity. (Source: WHIT)
ongecontroleerde storting uncontrolled dump Place where waste is left on the ground and not buried in a hole. (Source: PHC)
ongedierte vermin Small animals and insects that can be harmful and which are difficult to control when they appear in large numbers. (Source: CAMB)
ongeval accident An unexpected occurrence, failure or loss with the potential for harming human life, property or the environment. (Source: TOE / HMD)
ongewervelde dieren invertebrate Any animal lacking a backbone, including all species not classified as vertebrates. (Source: CED)
onkruid weed Any plant that grows wild and profusely, especially one that grows among cultivated plants, depriving them of space, food, etc. (Source: CED)
onkruidbestrijding weed control Freeing an area of land from weeds by several means, such as herbicides, tillage, burning, mowing, and crop competition. (Source: RRDA)
on-linedienst(verlening) on-line service Service providing an active connection with a communications network. (Source: DBMDE)
onomkeerbaarheid van het verschijnsel irreversibility of the phenomenon That quality of a process that precludes a prior state from being attained again. (Source: MICHa)
onoplosbare stof insoluble substance Substance incapable of forming a solution, especially in water. (Source: CED)
onrechtmatige daad wrongful act An act contrary to the rules of natural or legal justice. (Source: CURZON)
onrechtmatige overheidsdaad wrongful government act A deed performed by a government official or agent in exercise of police, constitutional, legislative, administrative or judicial powers that infringes upon the rights of another and causes damage, without protecting an equal or superior right. (Source: BLD)
ontbossing deforestation The removal of forest and undergrowth to increase the surface of arable land or to use the timber for construction or industrial purposes. Forest and its undergrowth possess a very high water-retaining capacity, inhibiting runoff of rainwater. (Source: GILP)
ontbossing forest cover destruction Destruction of forests is carried out in many countries in order to provide new land for agricultural or livestock purposes. It is often done without factors such as climate and topography having been sufficiently studied and on lands where slope nature of the soil or other physiographic characteristics clearly indicate that the land involved is suitable only for forest. Although these practices may lead to a temporary increase in productivity, there are also many indications that in the long run there is usually a decrease in productivity per unit of surface and that erosion and irreversible soil deterioration often accompany this process. Many factors contribute to forest cover destruction: timber production, clearance for agriculture, cutting for firewood and charcoal, fires, droughts, strip mining, pollution, urban development, population pressures, and warfare. (Source: WPR)
ontchloring dechlorination Removal of chlorine from a substance. (Source: MGH)
onteigening expropriation To deprive an owner of property, especially by taking it for public use. (Source: CED)
ontgassing van een afvalstortplaats landfill degasification Landfill gas is highly dangerous as methane is highly explosive; therefore it must be controlled at all operational landfill sites, whether by active or passive ventilation or both especially in the case of deep sites. There exist venting systems for shallow and deep sites respectively. (Source: PORT)
ontgifting detoxification The act or process of removing a poison or the toxic properties of a substance in the body. (Source: MGH)
ontginning van de landbouwgrond cultivation of agricultural land Cultivation of land for the production of plant crops. Agricultural land may be employed in an unimproved state with few, if any, management inputs (extensive rangeland), or in an intensively managed state with annual inputs of fertilizer, pest, control treatments, and tillage. (Source: DUNSTE)
ontharden softening Reduction of the hardness of water by removing hardness-forming ions (chiefly calcium and magnesium) by precipitation or ion exchange, or sequestering them as by combining them with substances such as certain phosphates, that form soluble but non-ionized salts. (Source: BJGEO)
ontheemde displaced person Persons who, for different reasons or circumstances, have been compelled to leave their homes. (Source: GUNN)
ontogenese ontogenesis The entire sequence of events involved in the development of an individual organism. (Source: CED)
ontploffing explosion A violent, sudden release of energy resulting from powders or gases undergoing instantaneous ignition or from some other means of detonation, often accompanied by a force producing great amounts of heat, major structural damages, shock waves and flying shrapnel. (Source: HMD)
ontsmetting decontamination The removing of chemical, biological, or radiological contamination from, or the neutralizing of it on a person, object, or area. (Source: LANDY)
ontsmetting disinfection The complex of physical, chemical or mechanical operations undertaken to destroy pathogenic germs. (Source: CED / ZINZAN)
ontsmetting fumigation The use of a chemical compound in a gaseous state to kill insects, nematodes, arachnids, rodents, weeds, and fungi in confined or inaccessible locations; also used to control weeds, nematodes, and insects in the field. (Source: MGH)
ontsmettingsmiddel disinfectant An agent, such as heat, radiation, or a chemical, that disinfects by destroying, neutralizing, or inhibiting the growth of disease-carrying microorganisms. (Source: AMHER)
ontspanning recreation Activities that promote refreshment of health or spirits by relaxation and enjoyment. (Source: CED)
ontspanning, recreatie,toerisme recreation, tourism
ontspanningsterrein recreational area A piece of publicly owned land, especially in a town, used for sports and games. (Source: CAMB)
ontsteking infection The entry and development or multiplication of an infectious agent in the body of a living organism. (Source: KOREN)
onttrekking van voedingsstoffen nutrient removal Elimination of nutrients as, for example, from sewage in order to prevent eutrophication of water in reservoirs. (Source: PHCa)
ontvetten degreasing 1) Removing grease from wool with chemicals. 2) Removing grease from hides or skins in tanning by tumbling them in solvents. 3) Removing grease, oil, or fatty material from a metal surface with fumes from a hot solvent. (Source: MGH)
ontwaterd slib dehydrated sludge Sludge whose water content has been reduced by physical means. (Source: LEEa)
ontwerp design (project) A graphic representation, especially a detailed plan for construction or manufacture. (Source: AMHER)
ontwerp project The complex of actions, which have a potential for resulting in a physical change in the environment. (Source: LANDY)
ontwerpwetgeving draft legislation An initial unsigned agreement, treaty, or piece of legislation which is not yet in force. (Source: DICLAW)
ontwikkelde landen developed country A nation possessing a relatively high degree of industrialization, infrastructure and other capital investment, sophisticated technology, widespread literacy and advanced living standards among its populations as a whole. (Source: UIA)
ontwikkeling development Increasing the capacity to meet human needs and improve the quality of human life. (Source: JCU)
ontwikkeling van de waterkant waterside development Any physical extension of, or changes to, the uses of land in waterfront areas. (Source: RHW)
ontwikkeling waterbronnen water resources development
ontwikkelingsgebied development area Area which has been given special help from a government to encourage business and factories to be set up there. (Source: PHC)
ontwikkelingsgraad status of development The extent to which a society promotes human well-being in all dimensions of existence by forming people's capabilities, expanding choices and increasing opportunities. (Source: POP)
ontwikkelingshulp development aid The economic assistance or other types of support provided to developing countries to promote or encourage advancement in living standards, institutions, infrastructure, agricultural practices and other aspects of an economy, and to resolve problems typically associated with developing countries. (Source: ODE)
ontwikkelingslanden developing country A country whose people are beginning to utilize available resources in order to bring about a sustained increase in per capita production of goods and services. (Source: GREENW)
ontwikkelingsmodel development model A description, representation, or conception of the economic advancement process of a region or people. (Source: ISEP / OED)
ontwikkelingspatroon development pattern The combination of qualities, structures, acts and tendencies characterizing the economic and social growth of a community or human group. (Source: RHW)
ontwikkelingsplan development plan The statement of local planning policies that each local planning authority is required by statute to maintain, and which can only be made or altered by following the procedures prescribed for that purpose, which include obligations to consult widely and to hold a public local inquiry into objections. The development plan includes: 1) the structure plan for the area (normally prepared by the country council); 2) an area-wide development plan for each district council area. (Source: GRAHAW)
ontwikkelingsplanning development planning The act or process of formulating a course of action that promotes the economic advancement of a region or people, particularly in countries known to have low levels of economic productivity and technological sophistication. (Source: OED / WBG)
ontwikkelingssamenwerking development co-operation
ontzilting desalination Removal of salt, as from water or soil. (Source: MGH)
ontzilting van water water desalination Any mechanical procedure or process where some or all of the salt is removed from water. (Source: LEE)
ontziltingsinstallatie desalination plant 1) Plants for the extraction of fresh water from saltwater by the removal of salts, usually by distilling.2) Parts of the world with severe water shortages are looking to desalination plants to solve their problems. Desalination of water is still nearly four times more expensive than obtaining water from conventional sources. However technology is improving and costs are likely to decrease slightly in the future. There is now more interest in building distillation plants beside electric installations so that the waste heat from power generation can be used to drive the desalination process. (Source: ALL / WRIGHT)
ontzouting van zeewater sea water desalination Removing salt from ocean or brackish water. (Source: LEE)
ontzwaveling desulphurisation The removal of sulphur, as from molten metals or petroleum oil. Sulphur residues in fuels end up as sulphur dioxide when the fuel is burned causing acid rain. (Source: MGH)
onvruchtbaar gebied arid land Lands characterized by low annual rainfall of less than 250 mm, by evaporation exceeding precipitation and a sparse vegetation. (Source: LBC)
onweersbui thunderstorm A storm caused by strong rising air currents and characterized by thunder and lightning and usually heavy rain or hail. (Source: CED)
onwettelijke vestiging squatter settlement Settlement on land or property to which there is no legal title. (Source: CEDa)
oogst harvest The amount or measure of the crop gathered in a season. (Source: AMHER)
oogst yield (agricultural) The accumulated volume or biomass remaining from gross production after accounting for losses due to respiration during production, herbivory, litterfall, and other factors that decrease the remaining available biomass. (Source: DUNSTE)
oorlog war A conflict or a state of hostility between two or more parties, nations or states, in which armed forces or military operations are used. (Source: RHW)
oorlogsslachtoffer war victim A person that suffers from the destructive action undertaken as a result of an armed conflict between two or more parties, particularly death, injury, hardship, loss of property or dislocation. (Source: RHW)
oorwurmen earwig Any of various insects of the order Dermaptera, especially Forficula auricularia, which typically have an elongated body with small leathery forewings, semicircular membranous hindwings, and curved forceps at the tip of the abdomen. (Source: CED)
oorzaak van een ongeluk accident source The cause or origin of an unexpected occurrence, failure or loss with the potential for harming human life, property or the environment. (Source: OED / HMD)
oorzaak-gevolg relatie cause-effect relation The relating of causes to the effects that they produce. (Source: UVAROV)
Oost-Afrika East Africa A geographic region of the African continent that includes Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania, Uganda, Ethiopia and Somalia, and also Mt. Kilimanjaro and Lake Victoria. (Source: ENA / CIA)
Oost-Azië Eastern Asia A geographic region of the Asian continent bordered by the Pacific Ocean in the east that includes China, Japan, Korea, Macao, Taiwan and Siberia. (Source: RHW)
Oost-Europa Eastern Europe A geographic region of the European continent west of Asia and east of Germany and the Adriatic Sea, traditionally consisting of countries that were formerly part of the Soviet Union, such as Poland, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Romania, Serbia, Croatia and Bulgaria. (Source: INP / CIA)
Oost-West handel East-West trade Trade between countries and companies of the Western hemisphere with those of the Eastern hemisphere (usually referring to former Communist countries of Eastern Europe).
Oost-West verhoudingen East-West relations
op maat gemaakt chemisch product speciality chemical Various fine chemical products like glue, adhesives, resins, rubber, plastic compounds, selective herbicide, etc. (Source: ICBT)
op olie gebaseerde energie oil-based energy Energy produced using oil as fuel. (Source: PHCa)
opbergen kernafval nuclear power plant disposal
opberging te land land disposal The discharge, deposit or injection of any waste onto or into the soil or other land surfaces. (Source: ISEP)
opbrengst yield (economy) Profit or income created through an investment or a business transaction.
open zee open sea The high seas lying outside the exclusive economic zones of states. All states have equal rights to navigate, to overfly, to lay submarine cables, to construct artificial islands, to fish, and to conduct scientific research within the high seas. (Source: GOOD)
openbaar public The community or people in general or a part or section of the community grouped because of a common interest or activity. (Source: CED)
openbaar bad public bath A place having baths for public use. (Source: CED)
openbaar gebouw public building A building to which there is free access by the public and which is available for the use of a community. (Source: HARRISa / CEDa)
openbaar ministerie public prosecutor's office A government agency for which an elected or appointed attorney or staff of attorneys is vested with the authority by a constitution or statute to try cases on the government's behalf, to represent public interest or to take legal action against persons violating federal, state or local laws. (Source: USC / LTM)
openbaar onderzoek public inquiry An investigation, especially a formal one conducted into a matter of public utility by a body constituted for that purpose by a government, local authority, or other organization. (Source: CED)
openbaar park public park Park with big trees, ornamental plants, alleys bordered by trees or bushes, fountains and statues situated in a town and whose access is free. (Source: ZINZAN)
openbaar slachthuis; slachthuis; abattoir slaughterhouse A place where animals are butchered for food. (Source: CED)
openbaar vervoer public transport The act or the means of conveying people in mass as opposed to conveyance in private vehicles. (Source: GOOD)
openbaar vervoersmiddel public transport vehicle Vehicle for conveying large numbers of paying passengers from one place to another. (Source: RRDA)
openbaar zeegebied public maritime domain eas or ocean areas owned by the state as opposed to individuals or corporations. (Source: BLD / RHW)
openbaarheid right of access
openbare aanklager public prosecutor An officer of government whose function is the prosecution of criminal actions, or suits partaking of the nature of criminal actions. (Source: WESTS)
openbare administratieve instelling public institution of administrative nature Public institution for the management of administrative issues. (Source: ZINZANa)
openbare discussie public discussion Consideration, commentary by argument or informal debate on some issue that is open and of concern to the general populace. (Source: RHW)
openbare hoorzitting public hearing Right to appear and give evidence and also right to hear and examine witnesses whosetestimony is presented by opposing parties. (Source: BLACK)
openbare instelling public institution Institution for the management of public issues. (Source: ZINZAN)
openbare instelling op commercieel en industrieel gebied public institution of industrial and commercial nature Public institution for the management of industrial and commercial issues. (Source: ZINZANa)
openbare sector public sector Segment of the economy run to some degree by government, including national and local governments, government-owned firms and quasi-autonomous non-government organizations. (Source: ODE)
openbare waterwegen public waterways domain Rivers, canals and lakes owned by the state as opposed to individuals or corporations. (Source: BLD / RHW)
openbare werken public works Structures, as roads, dams, or post offices, paid for by government funds for public use.
opgeloste organische koolstof dissolved organic carbon The fraction of total organic carbon (all carbon atoms covalently bonded in organic molecules) in water that passes through a 0.45 micron pore-diameter filter. (Source: WQA)
opgeloste zuurstof dissolved oxygen The amount of oxygen dissolved in a stream, river or lake is an indication of the degree of health of the stream and its ability to support a balanced aquatic ecosystem. The oxygen comes from the atmosphere by solution and from photosynthesis of water plants. The maximum amount of oxygen that can be held in solution in a stream is termed the saturation concentration and, as it is a function of temperature, the greater the temperature, the less the saturation amount. The discharge of an organic waste to a stream imposes an oxygen demand on the stream. If there is an excessive amount of organic matter, the oxidation of waste by microorganisms will consume oxygen more rapidly than it can be replenished. When this happens, the dissolved oxygen is depleted and results in the death of the higher forms of life. (Source: PORT)
opheffing (geologisch) rising (geological) The slow vertical instability of the earth crust involving up-and-down movements as in the volcanic district west of Naples, Italy. (Source: BJGEO)
opiniepeiling public opinion polling The canvassing of a representative sample of a large group of people on some question in order to determine the general opinion of a group. (Source: CED)
opiniepeiling opinion survey The canvassing of a representative sample of a large group of people on some question in order to determine the general opinion of a group. (Source: CED)
opinietrend trend of opinion The general movement, drift or direction of change in a viewpoint collectively and purportedly held by a significant number of people. (Source: RHW)
opleiding training The process of bringing a person or a group of persons to an agreed standard of proficiency, by practice and instruction. (Source: CED)
opleidingscentrum training centre Place where people are prepared for a specific purpose. (Source: CEDa)
opleidingsniveau level of education A position along a scale of increasingly advanced training marking the degree or grade of instruction either obtained by an individual, offered by a some entity or necessary for a particular job or task. (Source: RHW)
oplosbaarheid solubility The ability of a substance to form a solution with another substance. (Source: MGH)
oplosmiddel solvent Substance, generally a liquid, capable of dissolving another substance. (Source: CED)
oplossing dissolution Dissolving of a material. (Source: MGH)
opname incorporation
opname van verontreinigende stoffen pollutant absorption The process by which a pollutant is physically incorporated into another substance or body. (Source: FFD)
oppervlaktebehandeling surface treatment Any method of treating a material (metal, polymer, or wood) so as to alter the surface, rendering it receptive to inks, paints, lacquers, adhesives, and various other treatments, or resistant to weather or chemical attack. (Source: MGH)
oppervlaktewater surface water All waters on the surface of the Earth found in streams, rivers, ponds, lakes, marshes or wetlands, and as ice and snow. (Source: LANDY / BJGEO)
oppervlaktewaterbeheer surface water management The administration or handling of water naturally open to the atmosphere (rivers, lakes, reservoirs, ponds, streams, seas, etc.). (Source: RHW / TOE)
opruimingsoperatie bij rampen disaster cleanup operation A course or procedure of activity designed to clear the debris or remove harmful substances left by an ecological calamity, natural or human in origin, in a given area. (Source: ISEP / TOE)
opruimingsschip; olieopruimingsschip recovery vessel; oil recovery vessel Boats used for recovering oil spilled at sea from oil tankers. The recommended procedure is to contain and physically recover the spill with or without the use of adsorbents. This approach entails three processes: a) confinement of the spill by spill booms; b) recovery of the spill by sorbing agents; c) physical removal of the contained oil by oil pick-up devices. (Source: JBFENV / PZ)
opslag storage (process) A series of actions undertaken to deposit or hold goods, materials or waste in some physical location, as in a facility, container, tank or dumping site. (Source: RHW)
opslag van warmte heat storage Keeping heat created during a period of low consumption until a peak period when it is needed. (Source: PHC)
opsporing detection The act or process of discovering evidence or proof of governmental, legal or ethical violations. (Source: RHW)
opsporingstechniek voor radioactieve straling radioactive tracer technique
opstapeling van verontreinigende stoffen pollutant accumulation The process by which concentrations of pollutants progressively increase in the tissues of living organisms in environments where these pollutants are present. (Source: FFD)
optimalisering van installaties installation optimisation Adjustments made to a building or to a mechanical or electrical system or apparatus in order to maximize its functionality and efficiency. (Source: OED)
opvoeding upbringing
orde order 1) A direction or command of a court. In this sense it is often used synonymously with judgment. 2) The document bearing the seal of the court recording its judgment in a case. (Source: DICLAW)
orde van de Chiroptera [vliegende zoogdieren] chiropteran Order of placental mammals comprising the bats having the front limbs modified as wings. (Source: CED)
orgaan organ A fully differentiated structural and functional unit, such as a kidney or a root, in an animal or plant. (Source: CED)
organisatie organisation (law) Term used in commercial law, including a corporation, government or governmental subdivision or agency, business trust, estate, trust, partnership or association, two or more persons having a joint or common interest, or any other legal or commercial entity. (Source: BLACK)
organisatie van het onderwijs organisation of teaching A group or association of persons united to address the concerns, methods and professional status of instructors or educators. (Source: RHW)
organisatie van het rechtsstelsel organisation of the legal system The specific manner, form and institutions by which a government's ability to make, enforce and interpret laws are brought together into a coordinated whole. (Source: RHW)
organisatie voor natuurbehoud nature conservation organisation
organisch afval organic waste Waste containing carbon compounds; derived from animal and plant materials. (Source: PUE)
organisch gebonden koolstof organic carbon Carbon which comes from an animal or plant. (Source: PHC)
organisch gebonden stikstof organic nitrogen Essential nutrient of the food supply of plants and the diets of animals. Animals obtain it in nitrogen-containing compounds, particularly aminoacids. Although the atmosphere is nearly 80% gaseous nitrogen, very few organisms have the ability to use it in this form. The higher plants normally obtain it from the soil after microorganisms have converted the nitrogen into ammonia or nitrates, which they can then absorb. This conversion of nitrogen, known as nitrogen fixation, is essential for the formation of amino acids which, in turn, are the building blocks of proteins. (Source: WRIGHT)
organisch oplosmiddel organic solvent Organic materials, including diluents and thinners, which are liquids at standard conditions and which are used as dissolvers, viscosity reducers, or cleaning agents. (Source: LEE)
organische chloorverbinding organochlorine compound Organic compounds containing a C-Cl bond. (Source: RRDA)
organische fosforverbinding organophosphorous compound Pesticides that contain phosphorous; short-lived, but some can be toxic when first applied. (Source: EPAGLO)
organische halogeenverbinding organohalogen compound Organic compounds containing a C-halogen bond. (Source: RRDA)
organische metaalverbinding organometallic compound Molecules containing carbon-metal linkage; a compound containing an alkyl or aryl radical bonded to a metal. (Source: MGH)
organische scheikunde organic chemistry A branch of chemistry dealing with the study of composition, reaction, properties, etc. of organic compounds. (Source: LEE)
organische silicoonverbinding organosilicon compound Any natural substance composed of two or more unlike atoms held together by chemical bonds and containing silicon, a non-metallic element often found in rocks or minerals. (Source: RHW)
organische stikstofverbinding organonitrogen compound Organic compounds having a C-N bond. (Source: RRDA)
organische stof organic matter Plant and animal residue that decomposes and becomes a part of the soil. (Source: KOREN)
organische stoffen organic substance Chemical compounds, based on carbon chains or rings and also containing hydrogen with or without oxygen, nitrogen, or other elements. (Source: MGH)
organische tinverbinding organotin compound Chemical compounds used in anti-foulant paints to protect the hulls of boats and ships, buoys and pilings from marine organisms such as barnacles. (Source: EPAGLO)
organische vervuilende stof organic pollutant A plant- or animal-produced pollutant containing mainly carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. (Source: ERG)
organische vervuiling organic pollution Pollution caused by animal or plant material derived from living and dead organisms that may contain pathogenic bacteria and negatively influences the environment. (Source: GILP96a)
organische zuurstofverbinding organooxygen compound Compounds, both aliphatic and aromatic, which have a C-O bond, including alcohols, aldehydes, etc. (Source: RRDA)
organische zwavelverbinding organosulphur compound One of a group of substances which contain both carbon and sulfur. (Source: MGH)
organisme in water aquatic organism Organisms which live in water. (Source: PHC)
organisme waarvoor bestrijdingsmiddelen niet bedoeld zijn non-target organism A plant or animal other than the one against which the pesticide is applied. (Source: JJK)
organismen (taxonomie) organism An individual constituted to carry out all life functions. (Source: MGH)
organismen vrijlaten release of organisms The release of organisms in the environment creates the risk that once released they may exhibit some previously unknown pathogenicity, might take over from some naturally occurring bacteria or pass on some unwanted trait to such indigenous bacteria. (Source: WPR)
organoleptische eigenschappen organoleptic property Properties that can be perceived by sense organs. (Source: RRDA)
orkaan hurricane A tropical cyclone of great intensity; any wind reaching a speed of more than 73 miles per hour (117 kilometers per hour) is said to have hurricane force. (Source: MGH)
osmose osmosis The passage of a solvent through a semipermeable membrane separating two solutions of different concentrations. A semipermeable membrane is one through which the molecules of a solvent can pass but the molecules of most solutes cannot. There is a thermodynamic tendency for solutions separated by such a membrane to become equal in concentration, the water (or other solvent) flowing from the weaker to the stronger solution. Osmosis will stop when the two solutions reach equal concentration, and can also be stopped by applying a pressure to the liquid on the stronger-solution side of the membrane. The pressure required to stop the flow from a pure solvent into a solution is a characteristic of the solution, and is called the osmotic pressure. Osmotic pressure depends only on the concentration of particles in the solution, not on their nature. (Source: DICCHE)
oud papier waste paper Newspapers, magazines, cartons and other paper separated from solid waste for the purpose of recycling.
oud stort voor gevaarlijk afval old hazardous site Abandoned or disused dumps and refuse tips, stockpiles and landfill sites, disused petrol service stations, closed-down coking plants and former industrial and commercial premises, etc., from which considerable risks not only to the soil and to the groundwater, but also to humans and nature, can arise. (Source: AZENP)
oude afzetting old landfill site Landfill that has been filled and covered with topsoil and seeded. The most common end use for landfills is open spaces with no active recreation taking place over the completed landfill. The obvious reason for this use is that the completed surface is steeply sloped to provide rapid runoff. Also, no irrigation of the cover grasses should be allowed. It is very unlikely to think that commercial or industrial buildings will be constructed on a completed landfill. If the end use is such that the public will be walking on the site, it is important that all manholes be properly secured, leachate lagoons fenced, and other potential hazards eliminated. (Source: CORBITa)
oude banden scrap tyre Recyclable material from discarded motor vehicle tyres. (Source: APD)
oude installatie antiquated plant Old installation that do not respond to new rules for the prevention of environmental pollution and whose redevelopment requires investments for adopting technologies related to the protection of waterways, waste management, noise reduction and emission control. (Source: RRDA)
oudheid ancient times
oven furnace A structure or apparatus in which heat is produced by the combustion of fuel, often to warm houses, melt metals, produce steam and bake pottery. (Source: RHW)
overbelasting overburden The material such as soil and rock lying above a mineral deposit that must be removed in order to work the deposit. (Source: GILP96)
overbevissing overfishing Taking out of the sea more than natural population growth can sustain. Overfishing has a number of causes, the most ruthless being 'chronic over capacity' of modern fishing fleets to effectively take far more fish than can be replaced. (Source: WPR)
overbevolking overcrowding An excess of people gathered together in a confined space. (Source: ZINZAN)
overbevolking overpopulation A population density that exceeds the capacity of the environment to supply the health requirements of the individual organism. (Source: LANDY)
overbeweiding overgrazing Intensive grazing by animals, for example cattle, sheep or goats, on an area of pasture. It has become a serious threat to the world's rangelands and grasslands. Several factors have led to overgrazing, which leads to the soil being degraded and becoming liable to erosion by wind and rain, and even to desertification. The main pressures leading to widespread overgrazing have been the need to increase the size and numbers of herds to produce more food for an increasing human population, and the transformation of traditional pasture land into plantations to grow cash crops. Throughout the dry tropics, where traditionally herds ranged over vast areas, intensive livestock-rearing schemes have taken over, mostly to provide meat for the export market. Well-digging operations have also led to heavy concentrations of animals in small areas. (Source: WRIGHT)
overbrenging transport (physics) Transfer of mass, momentum, or energy in a system as a result of molecular agitation, including such properties as thermal conduction and viscosity. (Source: PITT)
overeenkomst contract An agreement between two or more persons which creates an obligation to do or not to do a particular thing. Its essential are competent parties, subject matter, a legal consideration, mutuality of agreement, and mutuality of obligation. (Source: WESTS)
overeenkomst convention International agreement on a specific topic. (Source: RRDA)
overeenkomst (administratieve) agreement (administrative) A coming together of minds; a coming together in opinion or determination; the coming together in accord of two minds on a given proposition. In law, a concord of understanding and intention between two or more parties with respect to the effect upon their relative rights and duties, of certain past or future facts or performances. The consent of two or more persons concerning respecting the transmission of some property, right, or benefits, with the view of contracting an obligation, a mutual obligation. The union of two or more minds in a thing done or to be done; a mutual assent to do a thing. (Source: WESTS)
overeenkomst (contract) agreement (contract) An agreement, convention, or promise of two or more parties, by deed in writing, signed, and delivered, by which either of the parties pledges himself to the other that something is either done, or shall be done, or shall not be done, or stipulates for the truth of certain facts. (Source: WESTS)
overeenkomst (wettige/wettelijke) agreement (legal) The coming together in accord of two minds on a given proposition. In law, a concord of understanding and intention between two or more parties with respect to the effect upon their relative rights and duties, of certain past or future facts or performances. The consent of two or more persons concerning respecting the transmission of some property, right, or benefits, with the view of contracting an obligation, a mutual obligation. (Source: WESTS)
overexploitatie overexploitation The use of raw materials excessively without considering the long-term ecological impacts of such use. (Source: WPR)
overgangselementen transition element One of a group of metallic elements in which the members have the filling of the outermost shell to 8 electrons interrupted to bring the penultimate shell from 8 to 18 or 32 electrons; includes elements 21 through 29 (scandium through copper), 39 through 47 (yttrium through silver), 57 through 79 (lanthanum through gold), and all known elements from 89 (actinium) on. (Source: MGH)
overgangsregeling transitional arrangement Rules, guidelines or an agreement on the process of changing the administration, structure or constitution of a government or organization. (Source: RHW)
overgebleven hoeveelheid water residual amount of water Amount of water left in a water course after it has fed a hydropower plant in order to maintain a satisfactory dry-weather-flow for allowing the survival of biotic communities. (Source: RRDA)
overheid administration
overheid, beheer,beleid,politiek,instellingen,plan administration, management, policy, politics, institutions, planning
overheidsaansprakelijkheid government liability A public body's debt or other legal obligation arising out of transactions in the past which must be liquidated, renewed or refunded at some future date. (Source: EFP)
overheidsadviesorgaan government advisory body
overheidsbeleid government policy Any course of action adopted and pursued by a ruling political authority or system, which determines the affairs for a nation, state or region. (Source: RHW)
overheidscontract government contracting
overheidsfinanciën public finance The theory and practice of governmental money matters, including taxation, spending, transfer and property incomes, borrowing, debt and revenue management. (Source: ODE)
overheidsfinanciering public financing The act of obtaining or furnishing money or capital for a program, purchase or enterprise from the general population of a community or state, usually through government allocation of tax revenues. (Source: RHW)
overheidsgebouw government building Building for the offices of the main departments of government. (Source: HARRIS)
overheidsgebouw ministry building Any structure or edifice occupied by a body of top government administrators or other high ranking public officials selected or appointed by a head of state to manage certain aspects of a state's affairs. (Source: BLD)
overheidsopdracht public procurement The governmental process of purchasing supplies, equipment and services, or purchasing contracts to secure the provision of supplies, equipment and services, which are often sold by the private sector. (Source: OED / RHW)
overheidsopracht public contract Any contract in which there are public funds provided though private persons may perform the contract and the subject of the contract may ultimately benefit private persons.
overheidsschuld public debt The total amount of all government securities outstanding. This is also frequently termed government debt. (Source: AMOS2)
overheidssteun public aid Government aid in the form of monies or food stamps to the poor, disabled, aged or to dependent children. (Source: RHW)
overheidsuitgaven public expenditure Spending by national or local government, government-owned firms or quasi-autonomous non-government organizations. (Source: ODE)
overleg consultation Any meeting or inquiry of concerned persons or advisors for the purpose of deliberation, discussion or decision on some matter or action. (Source: BLD)
overleg over kernenergie nuclear debate The ongoing, public discussion and dispute over the uses of energy. (Source: ISEP / MHD)
overleving survival The act or fact of surviving or condition of having survived. (Source: CED)
overloop overflow (outlet) Any device or structure that conducts excess water or sewage from a conduit or container. (Source: MGH)
overmatige hoogte van schoorstenen excessive height of chimney stacks
overmatige planktongroei (zee) green tide A proliferation of a marine green plankton toxic and often fatal to fish, perhaps stimulated by the addition of nutrients. (Source: RRDA)
overschot surplus The extent to which assets exceed liabilities, especially the profits remaining after operating expenses, taxes, interest and insurance costs are subtracted. (Source: IVW)
oversteekplaats crossing place A place, often shown by markings, lights, or poles, where a street, railway, etc. may be crossed. (Source: CED)
overstromen overflow (process)
overstroming flood An unusual accumulation of water above the ground caused by high tide, heavy rain, melting snow or rapid runoff from paved areas. (Source: ALL)
overstroming flooding A general and temporary condition of partial or complete inundation of normally dry land areas from the overflow of inland and/or tidal waters, and/or the unusual and rapid accumulation or runoff of surface waters from any source. A great flow along a watercourse or a flow causing inundation of lands not normally covered by water. (Source: LANDY)
overstromingsbeheersing flood control Measures taken to prevent or reduce harm caused by an unusual accumulation of water above the ground, often involving the construction of reservoirs and channeling structures. (Source: ALL / WWC)
overstromingsvoorspelling flood forecast The hydrological processes generating river floods have been studied extensively and several modelling concepts have been proposed. The standard procedure for flood forecasting consists of calibrating the parameters of the model of a particular river basin on a representative set of historical hydrometric data and subsequently applying this calibrated model in a real-time environment. (Source: YOUNG)
overtreding infraction A breach, violation, or infringement; as of a law, a contract, a right or duty. (Source: BLACK)
overwintering; laten overwinteren; overwinteren overwintering To spend winter in a particular place. (Source: CED)
oxidatie oxidation A chemical reaction that increases the oxygen content of a compound. (Source: MGH)
oxidatie-reductie oxidation-reduction An oxidizing chemical change, where an element's positive valence is increased (electron loss), accompanied by a simultaneous reduction of an associated element (electron gain). (Source: MGH)
oxiden oxide Binary chemical compound in which oxygen is combined with a metal or nonmetal. (Source: MGH)
oxydatiebed bacterial bed A device that removes some suspended solids from sewage. Air and bacteria decompose additional wastes filtering through the sand so that cleaner water drains from the bed. (Source: LEE)
oxydeerbare stof oxidisable material Substance that can undergo a chemical reaction with oxygen. (Source: CEDa)
oxyderende stof oxidising agent Compound that gives up oxygen easily, removes hydrogen from another compound, or attracts negative electrons. (Source: MGH)
ozon ozone An allotropic form of oxygen containing three atoms in the molecule. It is a bluish gas, very active chemically, and a powerful oxidizing agent. Ozone is formed when oxygen or air is subjected to a silent electric discharge. It occurs in ordinary air in very small amounts only. (Source: UVAROV)
ozonisatie ozonisation The process of treating, impregnating or combining with ozone. (Source: MGH)
ozonlaag ozone layer The general stratum of the upper atmosphere in which there is an appreciable ozone concentration and in which ozone plays an important part in the radiative balance of the atmosphere. (Source: MGH)
paaiplaats spawning ground Area of water where fish come each year to produce their eggs. (Source: PHC)
paard horse A large animal with four legs which people ride on or use for carrying things or pulling vehicles. (Source: CAMB)
paardachtigen equine Animals belonging to the family of Equidae. (Source: ZINZAN)
pad gevolgd door verontreinigende stoffen pollutant pathway The retraceable route of a pollutant, from its source, through its interactions with the environment, and finally to its effect upon a target ecosystem or target organisms. (Source: ISEP)
padden toad Any anuran amphibian of the class Bufonidae, such as Bufo bufo of Europe. They are similar to frogs but are more terrestrial, having a drier warty skin. (Source: CED)
paddestoel fungus Nucleated usually filamentous, sporebearing organisms devoid of chlorophyll. (Source: MGH)
paddestoel mushroom A family of Basidiomycetes that are characterized by the production of spores on gills. (Source: ALL)
pakijs ice pack Large areas of floating ice, usually occurring in polar seas, consisting of separate pieces that have become massed together. (Source: CED)
paleo-ecologie palaeoecology The application of ecological concepts to fossil and sedimentary evidence to study the interactions of Earth surface, atmosphere, and biosphere in former times. (Source: ALL)
paleoklimatologie palaeoclimatology The study of paleoclimates throughout geologic time, and of the causes of their variations, on either a local or a worldwide basis. It involves the interpretation of glacial deposits, fossils and sedimentologic and other types of data. (Source: BJGEO)
paleontologie palaeontology The study of life in past geologic time, based on fossil plants and animals and including phylogeny, their relationship to existing plants, animals, and environments, and the chronology of the Earth's history. (Source: BJGEO)
papier paper Felted or matted sheets of cellulose fibers, formed on a fine-wire screen from a dilute water suspension, and bonded together as the water is removed and the sheet is dried. (Source: MGH)
papierindustrie paper industry Industrial production of paper: pulp is produced by mechanically or chemically processing wood or other vegetative materials to extract usable cellulosic fibers as an aqueous slurry. The pulp slurry may be used directly in paper making or it may be shipped elsewhere for processing into paper products. The fundamental industrial operations are divided into two major categories: pulp mill and paper mill. The pulp mill operation includes wood preparation, pulping, deinking, pulp washing, screening and thickening, and bleaching. The paper mill operations include stock preparation, paper machine operation and finishing. (Source: PZ)
parameters parameter 1) A quantity in an equation which must be specified beside the independent variables to obtain the solution for the dependent variables. 2) A quantity which is constant under a given set of conditions, but may be different under other conditions. (Source: LEE / MGH)
parasiet parasite Organism which lives and obtains food at the expense of another organism, the host. (Source: ALL)
parasitologie parasitology A branch of biology which deals with those organisms, plant or animal, which have become dependent on other living creatures. (Source: MGH)
parkeerplaats; autoparkeerplaats car park Area of ground or a building where there is space for vehicles to be parked. (Source: CAMB)
parkeervoorziening parking provision Area where a vehicle can be left for a period of time. (Source: CAMBa)
parlement Parliament An assembly of elected representatives, typically controlled by a political party and constituting the legislative and, in some cases, the executive power of a state. (Source: CIV / APS)
parlementair debat parliamentary debate Formal discussion or dispute on a particular matter among the members of the parliament. (Source: ZINZANa)
parlementair verslag parliamentary report A written account describing in detail observations or the results of an inquiry into an event or situation and presented to an official, deliberative body with legislative powers. (Source: RHW)
parlementslid member of Parliament
pasta-achtig afval paste-like waste Waste deriving from various activities having a pasty consistency. (Source: RRDA)
pathogeen pathogen Any disease-producing agent or microorganism.
pathogeen organisme pathogenic organism Agents producing or capable of producing disease. (Source: MGH)
pathologie pathology The branch of medicine concerned with the causes, origin, and nature of disease, including the changes occurring as a result of disease. (Source: CED)
pathologisch effect pathologic effect
patrimoniaal beheer patrimonial management A type of leadership and management style attempting to gain the loyalty and support of subordinates by excessively providing for their needs and interests.
patroonherkenning pattern recognition A remote sensing term referring to an automated process through which unidentified patterns can be classified into a limited number of discrete classes through comparison with other class-defining patterns or characteristics. Pattern recognition is an essential part of the classification of remotely sensed images and is used as an aid to image interpretation. (Source: WHIT)
pedagogie pedagogy The principles, practice, or profession of teaching. (Source: CED)
pedosfeer pedosphere That shell or layer of the Earth in which soil-forming processes occur. (Source: BJGEO)
peil plantegroei vegetation level A subdivision of vegetation characteristic of a certain altitude above sea level at a given latitude. (Source: ECHO2)
pelsdier fur animal Animals bred and slaughtered for their fur. (Source: WPR)
pendelen commuting
pendelen buiten de spits off-peak commuting Traveling back and forth regularly over some distance, outside of the hours of maximum traffic frequency. (Source: RHW)
penitentiair recht law relating to prisons Binding rules and regulations pertaining to the construction, use and operation of jails, penitentiaries and other places of legal confinement and punishment. (Source: BLD)
pentachloorfenol pentachlorophenol One of the universally toxic phenolic compounds, is a general purpose agent that is used as a fungicide, herbicide and molluscicide, particularly in Egypt where it is used to control snails that carry the larval human blood flukes that cause schistosomiasis. It is also used in wood preservatives and is very poisonous. (Source: WRIGHT)
perchooretheen perchloroethylene Stable, colorless liquid, nonflammable and nonexplosive, with low toxicity; used as a dry-cleaning and industrial solvent, in pharmaceuticals and medicines, and for metal cleaning. (Source: MGH)
percolatiewater percolating water Subsurface water that passes, under the force of gravity, through rocks or soil along the line of least resistance. (Source: WWC)
periode van hoogconjunctuur in de olie-industrie oil boom A floating device used to contain oil on a body of water. Once the boom has been inflated, it is towed downwind of the oil slick and formed into a U-shape; under the influence of wind, the oil becomes trapped within the boom. Skimming equipment travels into the boom enclosure and the oil is pumped into containers. (Source: EPAGLO / GILP)
periphyton periphyton A plant or animal organism which is attached or clings to surfaces of leaves or stems of rooted plants above the bottom stratum. (Source: MGH)
permanente ijslaag permafrost ecosystem The interacting system of the biological communities and their nonliving environmental surroundings in a climatic region where the subsoil is perennially frozen. (Source: TOE / DOE)
peroxyacetylnitraat peroxyacetylnitrate A pollutant created by the action of sunlight on hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides in the air. An ingredient of smog. (Source: LANDY)
pers press Printed matter as a whole, especially newspapers and periodicals.
persen pressing The application of a pressure to squeeze out the juice or contents of a fruit, seed, etc. (Source: WEBSTE)
persmededeling press release An official statement or announcement distributed to members of the media by a public relations firm, government agency or some other organization, often to supplement or replace an oral presentation. (Source: WOR)
personeel personnel
personenvervoer passenger transport The conveyance of people over land, water or through air by automobile, bus, train, airplane or some other means of travel. (Source: RHW)
personenvervoer private transport Transport performed with private means. (Source: ECHO2)
personenwagen private car Transportation mean belonging to an individual person. (Source: RRDA)
persoonlijke verantwoordelijkheid personal responsibility
pest pest Any organism that damages crops, injures or irritates livestock or man, or reduces the fertility of land. (Source: CED)
petrochemisch petrochemical Chemicals manufactured from the products of oil refineries, based largely on ethylene, propylene and butylene produced in the cracking of petrol fractions. (Source: GILP96)
petrochemische industrie petrochemical industry The production of materials derived from petroleum or natural gas. (Source: MGH)
pijp pipe A tube made of metal, clay, plastic, wood, or concrete and used to conduct a fluid, gas, or finely divided solid. (Source: MGH)
plaag pest infestation 1) The occurrence of one or more pest species in an area or location where their numbers and impact are currently or potentially at intolerable levels. 2) A sudden increase in destructiveness or population numbers of a pest species in a given area. (Source: DUNSTE)
plaats waar milieuverontreiniging in de bodem doordringt pollution sink Vehicle for removal of a chemical or gas from the atmosphere-biosphere-ocean system, in which the substance is absorbed into a permanent or semi-permanent repository, or else transformed into another substance. A carbon sink, for example, might be the ocean (which absorbs and holds carbon from other parts of carbon cycle) or photosynthesis (which converts atmospheric carbon into plant material). Sinks are a fundamental factor in the ongoing balance which determines the concentration of every greenhouse gas in the atmosphere. If the sink is greater than the sources of a gas, its concentration in the atmosphere will decrease; if the source is greater than the sink, the concentration will increase. (Source: GLOCHA)
plaatsbescherming site protection Precautionary actions, procedures or installations undertaken to prevent or reduce harm to the environmental integrity of a physical area or location. (Source: RHW)
plaatselijk openbaar vervoer local passenger service Passenger transport system for a limited local area. (Source: RRDA)
plaatselijk verkeer local traffic Traffic moving within a city, town, or area and subject to frequent stops, as distinguished from long distance traffic.
plaatselijke bosaanplanting local afforestation The planting of trees in an area, or the management of an area to allow trees to regenerate or colonize naturally, in order to produce a forest. (Source: ALL)
plaatselijke bouwmaterialen local building material
plaatselijke financiën local finance The theory and practice of all public money matters pertaining to city, town or small district governments. (Source: ODE / RHW)
plaatselijke ontwikkeling local development A stage of growth or advancement in any aspect of a community that is defined by or restricted to a particular and usually small district or area. (Source: RHW / ISEP)
plaatselijke overheid local government An administrative body or system in which political direction and control is exercised over the community of a city, town or small district. (Source: RHW)
plaatselijke vrijetijdsbesteding local recreation A pastime, diversion, exercise or other means of enjoyment and relaxation that is carried out in a particular city, town or small district. (Source: RHW)
plaatselijke warmtevoorziening local heat supply The provision of heating fuel, coal or other heating source materials, or the amount of heating capacity, for the use of a specific local community. (Source: ISEP)
plaatsherstel site rehabilitation The restoration of the ecological quality of an area or location. (Source: ISEP / RHW)
plaatskeuze site selection The process of choosing or picking a location or area for some designated purpose. (Source: RHW)
plan plan A scheme of action, a method of proceeding thought out in advance. (Source: GOOD)
plan met betrekking tot blootstelling aan lawaai noise exposure plan A formulated or systematic method to prevent the effects of being subjected to loud or harsh sounds. (Source: OED)
plankton plankton Small organisms (animals, plants, or microbes) passively floating in water. (Source: LANDY)
planning planning The act of making a detailed scheme for attaining an objective. (Source: CED)
planning van de kustzone coastal zone planning The objective of coastal management and planning is the preservation of coastal resources whilst simultaneously satisfying the sometimes conflicting interests and requirements of protection, development, usage and conservation. (Source: TELFO)
plannings- en begrotings systeem Planning-Programming-Budgeting System A system to achieve long-term goals or objectives by means of analysis and evaluation of the alternatives. PPB is designed to solve problems by finding the most effective and most efficient solution on the basis of objective criteria. (Source: GREENW)
planologische maatregel planning measure A procedure or course of action taken to design, organize or prepare for the future. (Source: RHW)
plantaardig afval vegetable waste Waste, comprised mainly of vegetable matter, which is capable of being decomposed by microorganisms. (Source: BHE)
plantaardige hulpbronnen plant resource
plantaardige olie vegetable oil An edible, mixed glyceride oil derived from plants (fruit, leaves, and seeds), including cottonseed, linseed, tung, and peanut; used in food oils, shortenings, soaps, and medicine, and as a paint drying oil. (Source: MGH)
plantaardige textielvezels plant textile fibre Natural textile fibres of vegetal origin. (Source: RRDA)
plantegroei vegetation 1) The plants of an area considered in general or as communities, but not taxonomically; the total plant cover in a particular area or on the Earth as a whole. 2) The total mass of plant life that occupies a given area. (Source: ALL / MGH)
planten planting The establishment of trees by planting seedlings, transplants, or cuttings. (Source: DUNSTE)
planten plant (biology) Any living organism that typically synthesizes its food from inorganic substances, possesses cellulose cell walls, responds slowly and often permanently to a stimulus, lacks specialized sense organs and nervous system, and has no powers of locomotion. (Source: CED)
plantendeel plant component The constituent parts of a plant. (Source: CEDa)
plantendek vegetation cover Number of plants growing on a certain area of land. (Source: PHC)
plantenecologie plant ecology Study of the relationships between plants and their environment. (Source: LBC)
plantenencyclopedie flora (document) A work systematically describing the flora of a particular region, listed by species and considered as a whole. (Source: RHW)
planteneter herbivore An animal that feeds on grass and other plants. (Source: CED)
plantenfysiologie plant physiology The study of the function and chemical reactions within the various organs of plants. (Source: UVAROV)
plantengemeenschap plant community Any group of plants belonging to a number of different species that co-occur in the same habitat or area and interact through trophic and spatial relationships; typically characterized by reference to one or more dominant species. (Source: ALL2)
plantengenetica plant genetics The scientific study of the hereditary material of plants for purposes such as hybridization, improved food resources and increased production. (Source: EEN)
plantenkunde plant biology The scientific study of the natural processes of plants. (Source: CAMBa)
plantenleven plant life
plantenopbrengst plant production
plantenselectie plant selection The selection by man of particular genotypes in a plant population because they exhibit desired phenotypic characters. (Source: LBC)
plantensociologie phytosociology The study of vegetation, including the organization, interdependence, development, geographical distribution and classification of plant communities. (Source: LBC)
plantensoorten plant species Species belonging to the plant kingdom. (Source: RRDA)
plantenstand plant population The number of plants in an area. (Source: PHC)
plantentuin nursery garden
plantenveredeling plant breeding Raising a certain type of plant by crossing one variety with another to produce a new variety where the desired characteristics are strongest. (Source: PHC)
plantenziektekunde phytopathology The study of plant diseases and their control. (Source: ZINZAN)
planteziekte plant disease
plantkunde botany A branch of the biological sciences which embraces the study of plants and plant life. (Source: MGH)
plasma technologie plasma technology 1) Common name for a number of industrial applications of plasma, such as: etching of semiconductor chips, deposition of silicon for solar cell production, deposition of silicon dioxide for passivation of surfaces, activation of surfaces, melting and welding with plasma arcs as well as plasma chemistry. 2) Plasma technology consists of minute gas-filled cells, which emit light when an electric current is channelled through them. (Source: IEAP / Z2Z)
plastic plastic A polymeric material (usually organic) of large molecular weight which can be shaped by flow; usually refers to the final product with fillers, plasticizers, pigments, and stabilizers included (versus the resin, the homogeneous polymeric starting material); examples are polyvinyl chloride, polyethylene, and urea-formaldehyde. (Source: MGH)
plasticafval plastic waste Any discarded plastic (organic, or synthetic, material derived from polymers, resins or cellulose) generated by any industrial process, or by consumers. (Source: APD)
platina platinum A ductile malleable silvery-white metallic element very resistant to heat and chemicals. It occurs free and in association with other platinum metals, especially in osmiridium; used in jewellery, laboratory apparatus, electrical contacts, dentistry, electroplating, and as a catalyst. (Source: CED)
platteland rural area Area outside the limits of any incorporated or unincorporated city, town, village, or any other designated residential or commercial area such as a subdivision, a business or shopping center, or community development. (Source: LEE)
plattelandsarchitectuur rural architecture
plattelandsbeheer en planning rural management and planning The activity or process of overseeing and preparing for the future physical arrangement and condition of any agricultural or pastoral area, which may involve protecting and developing natural and human resources that affect an area's economic vitality. (Source: RHW / NPH)
plattelandsbevolking rural population The total number of persons inhabiting an agricultural or pastoral region. (Source: RHW)
plattelandsomgeving rural environment Environment pertaining to the countryside. (Source: GOOD)
plattelandsontwikkeling rural development Any course destined to promote economic growth, modernization, increase in agricultural production and the creation of a framework in which to fulfill primary needs, such as education, health and supply of water in the rural areas. The attainment of such objectives depends in general on the type of administrative systems proposed for the various programmes and on the national political situation as regards, for instance land tenure, agrarian reform, the disbursement of assistance and food policy. (Source: GREMES)
plattelandsrecht rural law A binding rule or body of rules prescribed by a government pertaining to matters of importance to residents of sparsely populated regions, especially agricultural and other economic issues. (Source: RUR)
plattelandswatervoorziening rural water supply
plechtige verklaring (eed) statutory declaration A declaration made in a prescribed form before a justice of the peace, notary public, or other person authorized to administer an oath. (Source: DICLAW)
plein square An open area in a town, sometimes including the surrounding buildings. (Source: CED)
pleziervaart pleasure cruising The activity of rowing, sailing or using a boat over a particular region of water, for amusement or enjoyment. (Source: RHW)
pluimvee poultry Domesticated fowl grown for their meat and eggs. (Source: MGH)
pluimveefokkerij poultry farming One of the commonest of agricultural occupations. Many urban households and many farms maintain some chickens for both meat and eggs. (Source: LOGIE)
plutonium plutonium A highly toxic metallic transuranic element. It occurs in trace amounts in uranium ores and is produced in a nuclear reactor by neutron bombardment of uranium-238. The most stable and important isotope, plutonium-239, readily undergoes fission and is used as a reactor fuel in nuclear power stations and in nuclear weapons. (Source: CED)
polaire ecosystemen polar ecosystem The interacting systems of the biological communities and their nonliving environmental surroundings located in the regions where the air temperature is perennially below 10° Celsius, usually at and near the North and South Poles. (Source: TOE / DOE / EOC)
polder polder A generally fertile tract of flat, low-lying land (as in Netherlands and Belgium) reclaimed and protected from the sea, a lake, a river, or other body of water by the use of embankments, dikes, dams, or levees. The term is usually reserved for coastal areas that are at or below sea level and that are constantly protected by an organized system of maintenance and defense. (Source: BJGEO)
politie police Branch of the government which is charged with the preservation of public order, the promotion of public health and safety, and the prevention, detection, and punishment of crimes.
politiek politics The theory and practice of acquiring and exercising the power to govern in a society in order to arbitrate values, allocate resources and establish and enforce rules. (Source: APS)
politiek van een grondgebied territorial policy A course of action adopted and pursued by government, business or some other organization, which determines the present and future use of each parcel of land in an area. (Source: DOE)
politieke doctrine political doctrine A policy, position or principle advocated, taught or put into effect concerning the acquisition and exercise of the power to govern or administrate in society. (Source: RHW)
politieke ecologie political ecology
politieke geografie political geography The study of the effects of political actions on human geography, involving the spatial analysis of political phenomena. (Source: GOOD)
politieke ideologie political ideology A belief system that explains and justifies a preferred economic and governmental order for society, offers strategies for its maintenance or attainment and helps give meaning to public events, personalities and policies. (Source: APS)
politieke macht political power The might, ability or authority of governments, citizens groups and other interested parties in enacting change or in influencing or controlling the outcome of governmental or public policies affecting a nation, region or municipality. (Source: BLD)
politieke organisatie political organisation A group of persons organized to seek or exercise power in governmental or public affairs, by supporting candidates for office or by lobbying for action and mobilizing support for bills or governmental policies. (Source: CIV / BLD)
politieke partij political party An organized group that has as its fundamental aim the attainment of political power and public office for its designated leaders. Usually, apolitical party will advertise a common commitment by its leaders and its membership to a set of political, social, economic and/or cultural values. (Source: DUC)
politieke raadgeving political counselling
politiemacht police power
politieverordening police law A binding rule or body of rules prescribed by a government to regulate the employment and tactics of police or other civil agents organized to maintain order, prevent and detect crimes and promote obedience to civil regulations and authority. (Source: RHW)
polybroombifenyl polybrominated biphenyl A chemical substance the composition of which, without regard to impurities, consists of brominated biphenyl molecules. (Source: KOREN)
polychloorbifenyl polychlorinated biphenyl PCBs are a family of chemical compounds which do not exist in nature but which are man-made. Commercial mixtures are clear, pale yellow liquids, manufactured by the replacement of hydrogen atoms on the biphenyl molecule by chlorine. Because of their physical properties, PCBs are commonly found in electrical equipment which requires dielectric fluid such as power transformers and capacitors, as well as in hydraulic machinery, vacuum pumps, compressors and heat-exchanger fluids. Other uses include: lubricants, fluorescent light ballasts, paints, glues, waxes, carbonless copy paper, inks including newspapers, dust-control agents for dirt roads, solvents for spreading insecticides, cutting oils. PCBs are stable compounds and although they are no longer manufactured they are extremely persistent and remain in huge quantities in the atmosphere and in landfill sites. They are not water-soluble and float on the surface of water where they are eaten by aquatic animals and so enter the food chain. PCBs are fat-soluble, and are therefore easy to take into the system, but difficult to excrete. (Source: PZ / PHC)
polychloordibenzofuraan polychlorinated dibenzofuran A family containing 135 individual, colorless compounds known as congeners with varying harmful health and environmental effects. They are produced as unwanted compounds during the manufacture of several chemicals and consumer products such as wood treatment chemicals, some metals, and paper products; also produced from the burning of municipal and industrial waste in incinerators, from exhaust of leaded gasoline, heat, or production of electricity. They are hazardous to the respiratory system, gastrointestinal system, liver, musculoskeletal system, skin and nervous system; and are toxic by inhalation, ingestion, and contact. Symptoms of exposure include frequent coughing, severe respiratory infections, chronic bronchitis, abdominal pain, muscle pain, acne rashes, skin color changes, unexpected weight loss, nonmalignant or malignant liver disease. (Source: KOREN)
polychloordibenzo-p-dioxine polychlordibenzo-p-dioxin PCDD are formed (along with variants including furans) when compounds containing chlorine are burnt at low temperature in improperly operated/designed domestic refuse and industrial waste incinerators where PCDDs can be found in both the flue gases and the fly ash. (Source: PORT)
polychloorterfenyl polychlorinated terphenyl Compounds consisting of three benzene rings linked to each other in either ortho, meta or para positions and substituted with chlorine atoms. (Source: RRDA)
polycyclische aromatische koolwaterstof polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon Hydrocarbons containing two or more closed rings of atoms. (Source: CED)
polycyclische koolwaterstof polycyclic hydrocarbon Hydrocarbon molecule with two or more nuclei; examples are naphtalene, with two benzene rings side by side, or diphenyl, with two bond-connected benzene rings. Also known as polynuclear hydrocarbon. (Source: MGH)
polyethyleentereftalaat polyethylene terephtalate 1) A thermoplastic polyester resin made from ethylene glycol and terephthalic acid; melts at 265°C; used to make films or fibers.2) Type of plastic used to make artificial fibres and plastic bottles, which can be recycled. (Source: MGH / PHC)
polymeer polymer Substance made of giant molecules formed by the union of simple molecules (monomers). (Source: MGH)
polymerisatie polymerisation 1) The bonding of two or more monomers to produce a polymer. 2) Any chemical reaction that produces such a bonding. (Source: MGH)
polyvinylchloride polyvinyl chloride Polymer of vinyl chloride; tasteless, odourless; insoluble in most organic solvents; a member of the family of vinyl resins. (Source: MGH)
pomp pump A machine that draws a fluid into itself through an entrance port and forces the fluid out through an exhaust port. (Source: MGH)
pompen pumping The removal of gases and vapors from a vacuum system. (Source: MGH)
poolgebied polar region Area relating to the earth's poles or the area inside the Arctic or Antarctic Circles. (Source: CED)
populatie (ecologisch) population (ecological) A group of organisms of one species, occupying a defined area. (Source: LBC)
populatie-ecologie population ecology The study of the interaction of a particular species or genus population with its environment. (Source: ALL2)
populatiestatistieken over in het wild levende planten en dieren wildlife population statistics The numerical facts or data collected through various methodologies, such as sighting surveys, which represent or estimate the size of any wildlife species for purposes such as analyzing population trends. (Source: RHW / EEN)
posidonia (soort schaaldier) posidonia Plant with elongated, planar, green leaves which measure up to 1,5 m. The flowers come out in the autumn but not every year. The fruits are dark balls, which one often finds washed up on beaches after storms. The same happens with the leaves which wilt and separate from the plant at the end of summer. It grows on sandy substrates, and has a rhizome from which several plants grow. The compact form of its growths retains the sediments pulled by the currents along the sea bed. Neptunegrass forms extensive prairies, always on the continental shelf. The plant's presence, apart from constituting an excellent refuge and food reserve for many species, gives an indication of the maturity and good condition of the whole marine ecosystem. (Source: DDGI)
potas potash Any of several compounds containing potassium, especially soluble compounds such as potassium oxide, potassium chloride, and various potassium sulfates, used chiefly in fertilizers. (Source: AMHER)
prehistorie prehistory Human history in the period before recorded events, known mainly through archaeological discoveries.
pretpark amusement park An open-air entertainment area consisting of stalls, side shows etc. (Source: CED)
preventieve informatie preventive information Data communicated or received concerning the recommended means of averting risk of an accident, disaster or other undesirable and avoidable incident. (Source: RHW)
preventieve maatregel op het gebied van de gezondheid preventive health measure
prijs price The amount of money paid per unit for a good or service. (Source: ODE)
prijsbeleid prices policy The guiding procedure, philosophy, or course of action for decisions regarding the monetary rate or value for goods and services. (Source: RHW)
prijzenbeleid inzake grondstoffen pricing policy of resources The guiding procedure or philosophy for decisions regarding the monetary rate or value of a country or region's resources, including natural resources, human resources and capital, or man-made goods. (Source: RHW / ODE)
prikbordsysteem bulletin board system An assemblage of computer hardware and software that can be linked by computer modem dialing for the purpose of sharing or exchanging messages or other files. (Source: WIC)
primair energieverbruik primary energy consumption Consumption of energy used in the same form as in its naturally occurring state, for example crude oil, coal, natural gas, e.g. before it is converted into electricity. (Source: BRACK)
primair onderwijs primary education The first five or six years of instruction in elementary schools. (Source: COE)
primaire behandeling primary treatment Removal of floating solids and suspended solids, both fine and coarse, from raw sewage. (Source: MGH)
primaire sector primary sector That part of a country's or region's economy that makes direct use of natural resources, including agriculture, forestry, fishing and the fuel, metal and mining industries. (Source: ODE)
primaten primate Order of mammals containing monkeys, apes, and human beings. (Source: PHC)
prioriteit op milieugebied environmental priority
privaat bos private forest
privaat domein private domain Generally, land and water owned by individuals or corporations as opposed to the state; in French civil law, any government property capable of being owned by non-public entities, which cannot be seized and which is restricted to the stipulated ownership and use. (Source: BLD / ADM)
privaatrecht private law The branch of law dealing with such aspects of relationships between individuals that are of no direct concern to the state. (Source: DICLAW)
private sector private sector Segment of the economy not run by government, including households, sole traders, partnerships and companies. (Source: ODE)
privatisering privatisation The transfer of ownership or control of a government enterprise or other governmental property to a non-public, non-official company, organization or individual, either through sale or through the establishment of a special enterprise outside direct government control. (Source: RHW)
Procaryota procaryote Organisms (i.e. prokaryotes) whose genetic material (filaments of DNA) is not enclosed by a nuclear membrane, and that do not possess mitochondria or plastids. Bacteria and cyanophyta are the only prokaryotic organisms. (Source: ALL)
procedure procedure A prescribed step or manner of proceeding in any action or process. (Source: RHW)
procedure bij het verstrekken van vergunningen licencing procedure Procedures performed by administrative agencies in conjunction with issuance of various types of licences. (Source: BLACK)
procesanalyse process analysis
procesrecht procedural law Law which prescribes method of enforcing rights or obtaining redress for their invasion. Laws which fix duties, establish rights and responsibilities among and for persons, natural or otherwise, are 'substantive laws' in character, while those which merely prescribe the manner in which such rights and responsibilities may be exercised and enforced in a court are 'procedural laws'. (Source: BLACK)
procestechnologie mechanical engineering The branch of engineering concerned with the design, construction, and operation of machines. (Source: CED)
procestechnologie process technology Any technical strategies, methods or tools used for the conception, design, development or implementation of any system. (Source: APD / SCP)
procesvoering litigation A judicial contest, a judicial controversy, a suit at law. (Source: BLACK)
proceswater process water Water used in a manufacturing or treatment process or in the actual product manufactured. Examples would include water used for washing, rinsing, direct contact, cooling, solution make-up, chemical reactions, and gas scrubbing in industrial and food processing applications. In many cases, water is specifically treated to produce the quality of water needed for the process. (Source: WQA)
productaansprakelijkheid product liability 1) The legal liability of manufacturers and sellers to compensate buyers, users, and even bystanders, for damages or injuries suffered because of defects in goods purchased.2) A tort which makes a manufacturer liable if his product has a defective condition that makes it unreasonably dangerous to the user or consumer. (Source: BLACK)
producten product Something produced by human or mechanical effort or by a natural process. (Source: AMHER)
producten, materialen products, materials
productevaluatie product evaluation
productidentificatie product identification Attaching a notice to a product or container bearing information concerning its contents, proper use, manufacturer and any cautions or hazards of use. (Source: KOREN)
productie production The use of resources to make or manufacture goods or services that have exchange value. (Source: ODE)
productiebeleid production policy Measures and activities promoted by governments aiming at the structural definition of the productive apparatus. (Source: NDGIUR)
productiebeperking restriction of production Any decision, action or policy which limits or constrains the making of valued goods or services. (Source: ODE)
productiviteit productivity The amount of output or yield per unit of input or expenditure achieved by a company, industry or country. (Source: ODE)
productiviteitstrend productivity trend The general direction or tendency in the measurement of the production of goods and services having exchange value. (Source: ISEP / RHW)
productreklame product advertising The creation and dissemination of paid announcements or public notices to draw attention to goods, services or events offered by some entity, usually for purchase. (Source: RHW)
productstandaard product standard A standard which prescribes aspects of the physical or chemical composition of products which have potential for causing environmental damage or the handling, presentation and packaging of products, particularly those which are toxic. (Source: GRAHAW)
productvergelijking product comparison Comparison of products or processes to identify those having reduced environmental impacts. (Source: DIZAMBa)
productvoorlichting product information Factual, circumstantial and, often, comparative knowledge concerning various goods, services or events, their quality and the entities producing them. (Source: RHW)
proefdier test animal Animals on which experiments are conducted in order to provide evidence for or against a scientific hypothesis, or to prove the efficacy of drugs or the reaction to certain products. (Source: CEDa)
proefhoofd impactor Instrument which samples atmospheric suspensoids by impaction; such instruments consist of a housing which constrains the air flow past a sensitized sampling plate. (Source: MGH)
proefinstallatie pilot plant A small version of a planned industrial plant, built to gain experience in operating the final plant. (Source: MGH)
proefproject pilot project A small scale experiment or set of observations undertaken to decide how and whether to launch a full-scale project. (Source: CED)
proefschrift thesis A dissertation on a particular subject, in which original research has been done, usually by a candidate for a diploma or degree, or a proposition put forward for consideration, to be discussed and proved or maintained against objections. (Source: RHW)
programma programme
programma voor het behoud van soorten species conservation programme An organized group of activities and procedures, often run by a government agency or a nonprofit organization, to preserve and protect living organisms designated as being at risk. (Source: RHW / TOE)
programma's programmes
programmering programming Preparing a detailed sequence of operating instructions for a particular problem to be run on a digital computer. (Source: MGH)
proteïnerijk voedsel high protein food
protocol protocol 1) The original draft of a document.2) An international agreement of a less formal nature than a treaty. It is often used to amend treaties. (Source: DICLAW)
Protocol van Geneve Geneva Protocol Protocol of Geneva Convention concerning the control of emissions of nitrogen oxides and the reduction of sulphur emissions or their transboundary fluxes by at least 30%. (Source: UNTERM)
Protocol van Montreal Montreal Protocol An international agreement reached in 1988 by over 30 countries, aimed at protecting the ozone layer by controlling the emissions of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and halons. Under the agreement, initiated by UNEP, CFC consumption is to be progressively reduced worldwide, being phased out completely by 1996. The consumption of halons was not to be allowed to increase above the levels of 1988. The protocol followed the Convention for the protection of the ozone layer (the Vienna convention) adopted in 1985. By the mid-1990s, the Third World continued to provide a substantial market for ozone-damaging chemicals made, but not sold, elsewhere. (Source: GILP96)
protozoa protozoan A diverse phylum of eukaryotic microorganisms; the structure varies from a simple uninucleate protoplast to colonial forms, the body is either naked or covered by a test, locomotion is by means of pseudopodia or cilia or flagella, there is a tendency toward universal symmetry in floating species and radial symmetry in sessile types, and nutrition may be phagotrophic or autotrophic or saprozoic. (Source: MGH)
provinciaal gezag provincial/regional authority (D) The power of a government agency or its administrators to administer and implement laws and government policies applicable to a specific political subdivision or geographical area within the state. (Source: BLD)
provinciale wetgeving provincial/regional law (D)
provincie county An area comprising more than one city and whose boundaries have been designed according to some biological, political, administrative, economic, demographic criteria. (Source: LANDYa)
provincie province A geographic area of some considerable extent, smaller than a continent but larger than a region, which is unified by some or all of its characteristics and which can therefore be studied as a whole. A faunal province, for example, has a particular assemblage of animal species, which differs from assemblages in different contemporaneous environments elsewhere. (Source: WHIT)
psychisch effect psychic effect A result or consequence stemming from mental processes that create or influence human consciousness and emotions. (Source: RHW / SMD)
psychologie psychology The science that deals with the functions of the mind and the behaviour of an organism in relation to its environment. (Source: MGH)
psychologisch effect mental effect
psychologisch effect psychological effect
psychologische stress psychological stress Strain or disequilibrium of the mind especially in its affective or cognitive functions, or the physical or mental stimulus, agent or experience that causes such an imbalance. (Source: SMD / MED)
psychosomatische klachten psychosomatic illness Illness arising from or aggravated by a mind-body relationship. (Source: GILP96)
public relations public relations The methods and activities employed by an individual, organization, corporation, or government to promote a favourable relationship with the public.
publiek toegang tot terreinen public access to land The right or permission for all persons of a community to use government owned geographic areas such as parks, campgrounds and historical sites. (Source: RHW)
publieke actie public action A measure or provision taken on behalf and with the consent of the general populace. (Source: RHW)
publieke opinie public opinion The purported, collective view of the public on some issue or problem, typically formulated by selective polling or sampling, and frequently used as a guide to action or decision. (Source: RHW / ISEP)
publieke opkomst public attendance
publiek-private samenwerking public-private partnership A joint venture between corporations and government or between community members and government or business beyond the course of normal interaction. (Source: NTL)
publiekrecht public law A general classification of law, consisting generally of constitutional, administrative, criminal and international law, concerned with the organization of the state, the relations between the state and the people who compose it, the responsibilities of public officers to the state, to each other, and to private persons, and the relations of states to one other. The branch or department of law which is concerned with the state in its political or sovereign capacity, including constitutional and administrative law, and with the definition, regulation, and enforcement of rights in cases where the state is regarded as the subject of the right or object of the duty, - including criminal law and criminal procedure, - and the law of the state, considered in its quasi private personality, i.e., as capable of holding or exercising rights, or acquiring and dealing with property, in the character of an individual. (Source: WESTS)
publiekrechtelijk bedrijfsorgaan statutory public body An association, supported in whole or part by public funding, that is established to operate programs for the public, often with little interference from government in day-to-day business. (Source: BLD / ODE)
pulp pulp The cellulosic material produced by reducing wood mechanically or chemically and used in making paper and cellulose products. Also known as wood pulp. (Source: MGH)
pulpindustrie pulp industry A sector of the economy in which an aggregate of commercial enterprises is engaged in manufacturing and selling the soft, moist, slightly cohering mass deriving from wood that is used to produce paper sheets, cardboard and other paper products. (Source: RHW)
punt point A position on a reference system determined by a survey. (Source: WHIT)
puntbron point source Pollution from a discrete source, such as a septic tank, a sewer, a discharge type, a landfill, a factory or waste water treatment works discharging to a watercourse; stack emission from an industrial process; or spillage from an underground storage tank leaching into groundwater. (Source: GRAHAW)
purine purin Any of a number of nitrogenous bases, such as guanine and adenine, that are derivatives of purine and constituents of nucleic acids and certain coenzymes. (Source: CED)
pyraleen pyralene Chemical compound belonging to the polychlorinated biphenyls family, used in the production of electrical equipment which requires dielectric fluid such as power transformers and capacitors, as well as in hydraulic machinery, vacuum pumps, compressors and heat-exchanger fluids. (Source: PZ)
pyrolyse pyrolysis The breaking apart of complex molecules into simpler units by the use of heat. (Source: MGH)
pyschosomatisch effect psychosomatic effect Any result pertaining to the influence of the mind or higher functions of the brain upon the operations of the body, particularly bodily disorders or diseases. (Source: SMD)
raad advice An official notice, opinion, counsel or recommendation that is optional or at the receiver's discretion. (Source: BLD)
raap(zaad) rape (plant) A Eurasian cruciferous plant, Brassica napus, that is cultivated for its seeds, which yield a useful oil, and as a fodder plant. (Source: CED)
radar radar A system using beamed and reflected radiofrequency energy for detecting and locating objects, measuring distance or altitude, navigating, homing, bombing and other purposes. (Source: MGH)
radio radio The process, equipment or programming involved in transmitting and receiving sound signals by electromagnetic waves. (Source: MHD)
radioactief afval radioactive waste Any waste that emit radiation in excess of normal background level, including the toxic by-products of the nuclear energy industry. (Source: GRAHAW)
radioactief element radioelement An element that is naturally radioactive. (Source: CED)
radioactieve afvalstortplaats radioactive dumping Waste generated by the emission of particulate or electromagnetic radiation resulting from the decay of the nuclei of unstable elements. (Source: KOREN)
radioactieve besmetting radioactive contamination Contamination of a substance, living organism or site caused by radioactive material. (Source: FLGISA)
radioactieve merkstof radioactive tracer A radioactive isotope which, when injected into a biological or physical system, can be traced by radiation detection devices, permitting determination of the distribution or location of the substance to which it is attached. (Source: MGH)
radioactieve neerslag fallout The descent of airborne solid or liquid particles to the ground, which occurs when the speed at which they fall due to gravity exceeds that of any upward motion of the air surrounding them. (Source: ALL)
radioactieve neerslag radioactive fallout The material that descends to the earth or water well beyond the site of a surface or subsurface nuclear explosion. (Source: MGH)
radioactieve ontsmetting radioactive decontamination The removal of radioactive contamination which is deposited on surfaces or may have spread throughout a work area. Personnel decontamination is also included. Decontamination methods follow two broad avenues of attack, mechanical and chemical. (Source: PARCOR)
radioactieve stof radioactive substance Any substance that contains one or more radionuclides of which the activity or the concentration cannot be disregarded as far as radiation protection is concerned. (Source: ECHO2)
radioactieve uitstoot radioactive emission The release of radioactive substances into the environment deriving from nuclear installations and from mining, purification and enrichment operations of radioactive elements. (Source: FLGISA)
radioactieve vervuiler radioactive pollutant A substance undergoing spontaneous decay or disintegration of atomic nuclei and giving off radiant energy in the form of particles or waves, often associated with an explosion of a nuclear weapon or an accidental release from a nuclear power plant, holding facility or transporting container. (Source: DEE / ISEP)
radioactiviteit radioactivity The property possessed by some atomic nuclei of disintegrating spontaneously, with loss of energy through emission of a charged particle and/or gamma radiation. (Source: BRACK)
radionucleïde radionuclide A nuclide that exhibits radioactivity. (Source: MGH)
radioprogramma radio programme A performance or production transmitted in sound signals with electromagnetic waves. (Source: MHD)
radon radon A radioactive gaseous element emitted naturally from rocks and minerals where radioactive elements are present. It is released in non-coal mines, e.g. tin, iron, fluorspar, uranium. Radon is an alpha particle emitter as are its decay products and has been indicted as a cause of excessive occurrence of lung cancer in uranium miners. Concern has been expressed at radon levels in some housing usually adjacent to granite rocks or old tin mining regions. (Source: PORT)
raffinaderij refinery A factory for the purification of some crude material such as ore, sugar, oil, etc. (Source: CED)
raffineren refining The processing of raw material to remove impurities. (Source: PHC)
raming van de schade damage assessment The evaluation or determination of losses, harm and injuries to persons, property or the environment. (Source: TOE)
ramp catastrophe A sudden, widespread disaster or calamity that greatly exceeds the resources of an area or region. (Source: HMD)
rampen disaster The result of a vast ecological breakdown in the relations between man and his environment, a serious and sudden event (or slow, as in drought) on such a scale that the stricken community needs extraordinary efforts to cope with it, often with outside help or international aid. (Source: GUNN)
rampen(bestrijdings)dienst disaster control service Work done or agency established to analyze, plan, assign and coordinate available resources in order to prepare for, respond to, mitigate and recover from damage caused by an ecological calamity, natural or human in origin. (Source: ISEP / PPB)
rampen, ongevallen, gevaren, risico disasters, accidents, risk
rampenparaatheid disaster preparedness The aggregate of measures to be taken in view of disasters, consisting of plans and action programmes designed to minimize loss of life and damage, to organize and facilitate effective rescue and relief, and to rehabilitate after disaster. Preparedness requires the necessary legislation and means to cope with disaster or similar emergency situations. It is also concerned with forecasting and warning, the education and training of the public, organization and management, including plans, training of personnel, the stockpiling of supplies and ensuring the needed funds and other resources. (Source: GUNN)
rampenplan disaster contingency plan An anticipatory emergency plan to be followed in an expected or eventual disaster, based on risk assessment, availability of human and material resources, community preparedness, local and international response capability, etc. (Source: ECHO1)
rampenplan risk exposure plan A scheme or method of acting that takes effect if the probability of harm to an area or its population increases beyond a normal level. (Source: ISEP / HMD)
rampenpreventie disaster prevention The aggregate of approaches and measures to ensure that human action or natural phenomena do not cause or result in disaster or similar emergency. It implies the formulation and implementation of long-range policies and programmes to eliminate or prevent the occurrence of disasters. (Source: GUNN)
rampgebied disaster zone Zone that has been stricken by a disaster and where measures must be taken to reduce the severity of the human and material damage caused by it. (Source: GUNN)
rangeerterrein shunting yard Area where a car or a train can be shoven or turned off or moved from one track to another. (Source: MGH)
rapporteringsproces reporting process
raster raster One of the two major types of internal data organization used in GIS. Raster systems superimpose a regular grid over the area of interest and associate each cell-or pixel, to use the image term- with one or more data records. The values associated with each grid cell may represent either real values or any scalar or nominal data values associated with the cell coordinates. Among the strengths of the raster method is its ability to accept data directly from remote sensing systems and to represent transitional information. Raster systems tend to be relatively storage-intensive and this imposes practical limits on the area of coverage, the resolution, or both of these. Capacity constraints are, however, becoming less significant as computer memory and storage become more powerful and as data compression techniques become more readily available. (Source: YOUNG)
raster gridding A system of uniformly spaced perpendicular lines and horizontal lines running north and south, and east and west on a map, chart, or aerial photograph; used in locating points. (Source: MGH)
reactiekinetiek reaction kinetics That branch of physical chemistry concerned with the mechanisms and rates of chemical reactions. (Source: MGH)
reactor reactor A device that introduces either inductive or capacitive reactance into a circuit, such as a coil or capacitor. (Source: MGH)
reactorveiligheid reactor safety Those studies and activities that seek to minimise the risk of a nuclear reactor accident. (Source: RRDA)
recht law (science) Complex of rules fixed by law or custom which regulate social relations. (Source: ZINZAN)
recht op informatie right to information The individual's right to know in general about the existence of data banks, the right to be informed on request and the general right to a print-out of the information registered and to know the actual use made of the information. (Source: ECHO1)
recht op schadevergoeding right to compensation A legally enforceable claim for payment or reimbursement to pay for damages, loss or injury, or for remuneration to pay for services rendered, whether in fees, commissions or salary. (Source: BLD)
rechten rights 1) Title to or an interest in any property.2) Any interest or privilege recognized and protected by law. (Source: DICLAW)
rechten van het individu rights of the individual Just claims, legal guarantees or moral principles accorded to each and every member of a group or state, including the freedom to do certain things and the freedom from certain intrusions imposed by the collective body. (Source: APS / RHW)
rechten van toekomstige generaties rights of future generations The moral, legal or ethical claims of posterity on present people, based on the recognition that the young and unborn are vulnerable to contemporary decision-making, especially decisions having long-term effect on the societies and environment they inherit. (Source: FUT)
rechterlijk orgaan judicial body Any public organization or branch of government responsible for the administration of justice or the enforcement of laws. (Source: BLD)
rechtsbijstand judicial assistance A program sponsored or administered by a government to guide through and represent in court proceedings persons who are in financial need and cannot afford private counsel. (Source: BLD)
rechtsgang legal procedure Term includes all proceedings authorised or sanctioned by law, and brought or instituted in a court of legal tribunal, for the acquiring of a right or the enforcement of a remedy. (Source: WESTS)
rechtsgebied jurisdiction The power of a court to hear and decide a case or make a certain order. (Source: DICLAW)
rechtsgebied law branch A subdivision of the body of principles and regulations established by a government or other authority, generally defined by its scope or application. (Source: BLD / ISEP)
rechtsgrond(slag) legal basis The fundamental law or judicial precedent that warrants or supports a subsequent decision or action by any governmental, corporate or private entity. (Source: BLD)
rechtsmiddel legal remedy The means by which a right is enforced or the violation of a right is prevented, redressed, or compensated. (Source: BLACK)
rechtsregel judiciary rule Specific norms, regulations and precedents governing the conduct, procedure and arrangement of a judicial system, its various divisions and its officers. (Source: BLD)
rechtsregel legal regulation Any order or rule issued by a government stipulating its procedures for the creation, execution or adjudication of laws. (Source: BLD)
rechtsstelsel judicial system Entire network of courts in a particular jurisdiction. (Source: WESTS)
rechtsstelsel legal system The organization and network of courts and other institutions, procedures and customs, officers and other personnel concerned with interpretation and enforcement of a country's law or with advice and assistance in matters pertaining to those laws. (Source: OCT / RHW)
rechtszaak trial A judicial examination and determination of issues between parties to action; whether they need issues of law or of fact. A judicial examination, in accordance with law of the land, of a cause, either civil or criminal, of the issues between the parties, whether of law or fact, before a court that has proper jurisdiction. (Source: WESTS)
rechtvaardiging van administratieve handelingen motivation of administrative acts The underlying reason or cause, a psychological or social factor, that incites or stimulates managers, executives or supervisors to complete tasks that achieve organizational or company goals. (Source: OED)
rechtvleugeligen orthopteran A heterogeneous order of generalized insects with gradual metamorphosis, chewing mouthparts, and four wings. (Source: MGH)
recombinante DNA technologie recombinant DNA technology Techniques and practical applications associated with recombinant DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid artificially introduced into a cell that alters the genotype and phenotype of the cell and is replicated along with the natural DNA). (Source: DELFIN / KOREN)
recreatievaart cruising Travelling by sea in a liner for pleasure, usually calling at a number of ports. (Source: CED)
reddingsdienst rescue service Service organized to provide immediate assistance to persons injured or in distress. (Source: RRDA)
reddingsstelsel rescue system Any series of procedures and devices used by trained personnel to provide immediate assistance to persons who are in danger or injured. (Source: GT2 / HMD)
redelijkheid reasonableness
reden tot (be)zorg(dheid) cause for concern principle Principle connected with the precautionary principle: it means that, if there are strong reasons for expecting serious or irreversible damage to the environment following a given project, lack of full scientific certainty should not be used as a reason for postponing cost-effective measures to prevent environmental degradation. Critics of this approach are concerned about large commitments of resources to deal with vaguely defined problems. (Source: GILP96a)
referentiedienst reference service The provision of aid by library staff trained to interpret library materials and library organizational structures to meet the informational, educational, cultural, recreational or research needs of the library's clients. (Source: OED / LFS)
referentiemeting baseline monitoring Monitoring of long-term changes in atmospheric compositions of particular significance to the weather and the climate. (Source: YOUNG)
reflectometrie reflectometry The study of the reflectance of light or other radiant energy. (Source: WEBSTE)
regelgeving milieuverontreiniging pollution control regulation A body of rules or orders prescribed by government, management or an international organization or treaty in which limits are established for the emission of substances that harm or adversely alter the environment and human health. (Source: TOE / BLD)
regen rain Precipitation in the form of liquid water drops with diameters greater than 0.5 millimeter. (Source: MGH)
regenwater rain water Water which falls as rain from clouds. (Source: PHC)
regenwormen earthworm Any of numerous oligochaete worms of the genera Lumbricus, Allolobophora, Eisenia, etc., which burrow in the soil and help aerate and break up the ground. (Source: CED)
regenwoud rain forest A forest of broad-leaved, mainly evergreen, trees found in continually moist climates in the tropics, subtropics, and some parts of the temperate zones. (Source: MGH)
regering (kabinet) government (cabinet) A body of top government officials appointed to advise the President or the chief executive officer of a country, usually consisting of the heads of government departments or agencies. (Source: OED)
regering van een grondgebied territorial government An administrative body or system in which political direction or control is exercised over a designated area or an administrative division of a city, county or larger geographical area. (Source: RHW / BLD)
regeringsvorm form of government Form of authority in which an individual or group of individuals wield power over the majority. (Source: WSU)
registratie registration An instance of or a certificate attesting to the fact of entering in an official list various pieces of information in order to facilitate regulation or authorization, including one's name, contact information and, in some instances, data concerning a specific possession or property. (Source: BLD / RHW)
registratie van stoffen recording of substances
registratieplicht registration obligation The duty to formally enroll with a government agency or an authority in order to be granted certain rights, particularly trademark or copyright privileges, or the permission to sell and distribute a product. (Source: BLD)
registratieprocedure registration proceeding The course of action or record in which an individual, company or an organization formally enrolls with a government agency or an authority in order to be granted certain rights, particularly trademark or copyright privileges, or the permission to sell and distribute a product. (Source: BLD)
regulerend toezicht regulatory control Government supervision over the obligations and rights of an industry or enterprise for the purpose of providing the public with services that are considered important, vital or necessary to most members of a community or area. (Source: DAM)
regulerende wet regulative law
reiniging cleansing The act or process of washing, laundering or removing dirt and other unwanted substances from the surface of an object, thing or place. (Source: RHW)
reinigingsdienst cleansing department A division, usually within municipal government, responsible for providing services that remove dirt, litter or other unsightly materials from city or town property. (Source: ISEP)
reinigingsmiddel lye The alkaline solution that is obtained from the leaching of wood ashes. (Source: MGH)
reinigingsproduct cleansing product
reiskosten travel cost Expenditure of money or the amount of money incurred for journeying or going from one place to another by some mode of transportation. (Source: ISEP / RHW)
reizen travel Moving from one place to another generally by using a transportation mean. (Source: RRDA)
reizen in de minder drukke periode off-peak travelling Relating to travelling outside rush-hours to avoid overcrowding in public means of transport. (Source: WPRa)
relaties tussen de Aarde en de Zon Earth-Sun relationship The Earth depends on the sun for its existence as a planet hospitable to life, and solar energy is the major factor determining the climate. Hence, conditions on the sun and conditions on Earth are inextricably linked. Although the sun's rays may appear unchanging, its radiation does vary. Many scientists suspect that sunspot activity has a greater influence on climatic change than variations attributed to the greenhouse effect. (Source: WRIGHT)
relationele database relational database A collection of digital information items organized as a set of formally described tables from which the information can be accessed or reassembled in different ways without reorganizing the tables. (Source: WIC)
reliëf relief (land) The physical shape, configuration or general unevenness of a part of the Earth's surface, considered with reference to variation of height and slope or to irregularities of the land surface; the elevation or difference in elevation, considered collectively, of a land surface. (Source: BJGEO)
remmingsbekken retarding basin A basin designed and operated to provide temporary storage and thus reduce the peak flood flows of a stream. (Source: MGH)
remote sensing remote sensing 1) The scientific detection, recognition, inventory and analysis of land and water area by the use of distant sensors or recording devices such as photography, thermal scanners, radar, etc. 2) Complex of techniques for the remote measure of electromagnetic energy emitted by objects. (Source: LANDY / ZINZAN)
remote-sensingcentrum remote sensing centre Centre where remote sensing data are stored, handled and analyzed. (Source: GILP96a)
renaturatie renaturation A process of returning natural ecosystems or habitats to their original structure and species composition. Restoration requires a detailed knowledge of the original species, ecosystem functions and interacting processes involved. (Source: DUNSTE)
rentebetaling debt service The fees or amount of money necessary to pay interest on an outstanding debt, the principal of maturing serial bonds, and the required contributions to an amortization or sinking fund for term bonds. (Source: EFP)
reptielen reptile A class of terrestrial vertebrates, characterized by the lack of hair, feathers, and mammary glands; the skin is covered with scales, they have a three chambered heart and the pleural and peritoneal cavities are continuous. (Source: MGH)
reservaat reserve Any area of land or water that has been set aside for a special purpose, often to prevent or reduce harm to its wildlife and ecosystems. (Source: RHW / DOE)
reservaat voor in het wild levende planten en dieren wildlife sanctuary 1) An area, usually in natural condition, which is reserved (set aside) by a governmental or private agency for the protection of particular species of animals during part or all of the year. 2) An area designated for the protection of wild animals, within which hunting and fishing is either prohibited or strictly controlled. (Source: UNUN / LANDY)
reserve van de biosfeer biosphere reserve Protected land and coastal areas that are approved under the Man and Biosphere programme (MAB) in conjunction with the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES). Each reserve has to have an ecosystem that is recognized for its diversity and usefulness as a conservation unit. The reserves have at least one core area where there can be no interference with the natural ecosystem. A transition zone surrounds this and within it scientific research is allowed. Beyond this is a buffer zone which protects the whole reserve from agricultural, industrial and urban development. Biosphere reserves and buffer zones were regarded as examples of a new generation of conservation techniques. (Source: WRIGHT)
resolutie resolution (parameter) A remote sensing term which has three separate applications: a) spatial resolution, which refers to the ability of a sensor to distinguish between objects that are spatially close to each other. It is a measure of the smallest angular or linear separation between two objects. b) Spectral resolution which refers to the ability of a sensor to distinguish between objects which are spectrally similar. It is a measure of both the discreteness of wavebands and the sensitivity of the sensor to distinguish between electromagnetic radiation intensity levels. c) Thermal resolution which refers to the ability of a sensor to distinguish between objects with a similar temperature. (Source: WHIT)
resorptie resorption Absorption or, less commonly, adsorption of material by a body or system from which the material was previously released. (Source: MGH)
rest residue Any materials, solid or semisolid, left over from incineration, evaporation or other processes. (Source: DEE / ISEP)
restafval residual waste Material left after any waste treatment process, including industrial, urban, agricultural, mining or other similar treatments. (Source: ERG / ISEP)
restanalyse residue analysis Analysis of residues from agricultural chemicals used in food crops and contained in foodstuff. The analyses use gas chromatography, liquid chromatography, mass spectrometry, immunoassays, etc. (Source: RRDA / USDA)
restauratie van gebouwen building restoration The accurate reestablishment of the form and details of a building, its artifacts, and the site on which it is located, usually as it appeared at a particular time. (Source: HARRIS)
resten van bestrijdingsmiddellen residual pesticide A pesticide remaining in the environment for a fairly long time, continuing to be effective for days, weeks, and months. (Source: HMD)
restrisico residual risk Remaining potential for harm to persons, property or the environment following all possible efforts to reduce predictable hazards. (Source: TOE)
restslib residual waste sludge The excess, unusable semi-solids or sediment resulting from a wastewater treatment or industrial process. (Source: RHW / TOE)
reuk odour The property of a substance affecting the sense of smell; any smell; scent; perfume. (Source: LEE)
richtlijn directive The second rank of administrative acts (inferior to regulations, superior to decisions) made by the council or commission of the European Communities on order to carry out their tasks in accordance with the Treaties. They must be addressed to states, not individuals, but many create rights for individuals or allow the directive to be pleaded before municipal court.
richtlijn inzake de waterkwaliteit water quality directive EC Directive establishing the rules relating to water for human consumption. (Source: DIRAMB)
richtlijn voor de waterbescherming water protection directive
richtlijn voor proeven testing guideline
riet reed Any of various types of tall stiff grass-like plants growing together in groups near water. (Source: CAMB)
rif reef A line of rocks in the tidal zone of a coast, submerged at high water but partly uncovered at low water. (Source: WHIT)
rijst rice An erect grass, Oryza sativa, that grows in East Asia on wet ground and has drooping flower spikes and yellow oblong edible grains that become white when polished. (Source: CED)
ringen ringing (wildlife) To attach a numbered ring to the leg of a bird so that its movements can be recorded. Ringing is a very common method of tracing bird movement and providing information about bird's ages. It can also cause stress to the birds. (Source: PHC)
ringwormen annelid Any worms of the phylum Anellida, in which the body is divided into segments both internally and externally. The group includes the earthworms, lugworm, ragworm, and leeches. (Source: CED)
rioolslib sewage sludge A semi-liquid waste with a solid concentration in excess of 2500 parts per million, obtained from the purification of municipal sewage. (Source: MGH)
rioolstelsel sewerage system System of pipes, usually underground, for carrying waste water and human waste away from houses and other buildings, to a place where they can be safely get rid of. (Source: CAMB)
rioolwaterverwerking sewage disposal
risico op kanker cancer risk The probability that exposure to some agent or substance will adversely transform cells to replicate and form a malignant tumor. (Source: APD / HMD)
risico op kernongevallen nuclear hazard Risk or danger to human health or the environment posed by radiation emanating from the atomic nuclei of a given substance, or the possibility of an uncontrolled explosion originating from a fusion or fission reaction of atomic nuclei. (Source: MHD / TOE)
risicoanalyse risk analysis Technique used to determine the likelihood or chance of hazardous events occurring (such as release of a certain quantity of a toxic gas) and the likely consequences. Originally developed for use in nuclear and chemical industry where certain possible events, of low probability, could have extremely serious results. Attempts are being made to use concepts from probabilistic risk analysis to characterise environmental impacts, whose occurrence and nature are not easy to predict with any degree of accuracy. (Source: ERIN)
risicoanalyse danger analysis The process of evaluating the scale and probability of harm caused by any hazard to persons, property or the environment. (Source: ISEP / DDP)
risico-batenanalyse risk-benefit analysis A systematic process of evaluating and assessing the hazards of loss versus the possibility of financial gain or profit. (Source: OED)
risicobeheer risk management The process of evaluating and selecting alternative regulatory and non-regulatory responses to prepare for the probability of an accidental occurrence and its expected magnitude of damage, including the consideration of legal, economic and behavioral factors. (Source: HMD / TOE)
risicobeperking risk reduction Any act, instance or process lowering the probability that harm will come to an area or its population as the result of some hazard. (Source: ISEP / TOE)
risico's risk The expected number of lives lost, persons injured, damage to property and disruption of economic activity due to a particular natural phenomenon, and consequently the product of the probability of occurrence and the expected magnitude of damage. (Source: GUNN / RRDA)
rivier river A stream of water which flows in a channel from high ground to low ground and ultimately to a lake or the sea, except in a desert area where it may dwindle away to nothing. A river and all its tributaries within a single basin is termed a drainage system. (Source: WHIT)
rivier hulpbronnen fluvial resource Any source of supply derived from a river, particularly its water, which is collected, stored and treated, then distributed for domestic, industrial, farm and other uses. (Source: WWC)
rivierbedding river bed The channel containing or formerly containing the water of a river. (Source: BJGEO)
rivierbeheer river management The administration or handling of a waterway or a stream of flowing water. (Source: RHW)
rivierbekkenontwikkeling river basin development Any growth, maturation or change in an area of land drained by a river and its tributaries. (Source: TOE)
rivierlozing river disposal Discharge of solid, liquid or gaseous waste into a river.
rivieroevers; oeverstrook; rivieroeverstrook; rivier oeverstrook riparian zone 1) Terrestrial areas where the vegetation complex and microclimate are products of the combined pressure and influence of perennial and/or intermittent water… and soils that exhibit some wetness characteristics.2) Zone situated on the bank of a water course such as a river or stream. (Source: DUNSTE / GILP96)
rivierverontreiniging river pollution The direct or indirect human alteration of the biological, physical, chemical or radiological integrity of river water, or a river ecosystem. (Source: Landy)
rivierwater river water Water which flows in a channel from high ground to low ground and ultimately to a lake or the sea, except in a desert area where it may dwindle away to nothing. (Source: WHIT)
robbevangst sealing Luting, making watertight, waterproofing. (Source: ECHO2)
rode lijst red list The series of publications produced by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN). They provide an inventory on the threat to rare plants and animal species. Information includes status, geographical distribution, population size, habitat and breeding rate. The books also contain the conservation measures, if any, that have been taken to protect the species. There are five categories of rarity status: endangered species; vulnerable organisms, which are those unlikely to adapt to major environmental effects; rare organisms, which are those at risk because there are few of them in the world, such as plants which only grow on mountain peaks or on islands; out of danger species, which were formerly in the above categories, but have had the threat removed because of conservation actions; and indeterminate species, which are the plants and animals probably at risk, although not enough is known about them to assess their status. (Source: WRIGHT)
roet soot Impure black carbon with oily compounds obtained from the incomplete combustion of resinous materials, oils, wood, or coal. (Source: MGH)
roken smoking The inhalation and exhalation of carcinogenic fumes from burning plant material, usually tobacco. (Source: MED / HHR)
rolgeluid rolling noise Deeply resounding, reverberating noise caused by the friction between car tyres and road surfaces. (Source: CEDa)
rond plein [geografie] geographic circque A deep steep-walled half-bowl-like recess or hollow, variously described as horseshoe- or crescent-shaped or semi-circular in plan, situated high on the side of a mountain and commonly at the head of a glacial valley and produced by the erosive activity of a mountain glacier. It often contains a small round lake, and it may or may not be occupied by ice or snow. (Source: BJGEO)
rondschrijven circular mail A memorandum, letter or notice in either paper or electronic format distributed widely throughout an organization or to a general list of interested parties. (Source: RHW)
röntgenstraling X ray A penetrating electromagnetic radiation, usually generated by accelerating electrons to high velocity and suddenly stopping them by collision with a solid body, or by inner-shell transitions of atoms with atomic number greater than 10; their wavelength ranges from about 10(-5) angstrom to 10(3) angstroms, the average wavelength used in research being 1 angstrom. (Source: MGH)
roofdier predator Animal which kills and eats other animals. (Source: PHC)
roofvogel bird of prey Any of various carnivorous bird of the orders Falconiformes and Strigiformes which feed on meat taken by hunting. (Source: MGH)
rooilijn; lijn alignment The selection and detailed layout of public transport routes in the light of construction, operation, service, technology, and economic criteria. (Source: ECHO2)
rook smoke An aerosol, consisting of visible particles and gases, produced by the incomplete burning of carbon-based materials, such as wood and fossil fuels. (Source: FFD)
rookgas flue gas The gaseous combustion product generated by a furnace and often exhausted through a chimney (flue). (Source: APD / Landy)
rookpreventie smoke prevention
rubber rubber A cream to dark brown elastic material obtained by coagulating and drying the latex from certain plants, especially the rubber tree. (Source: CED)
rubberafval rubber waste Any refuse or unwanted material made of synthetic or natural rubber, often the byproduct of rubber processing. (Source: RHW)
rubberverwerkende industrie rubber processing industry A sector of the economy in which an aggregate of commercial enterprises is engaged in the manufacture and marketing of natural or synthetic rubber products. (Source: RHW)
rubberverwerking rubber processing The systematic series of actions in which a solid substance deriving from rubber trees and plants is toughened and treated chemically to give it the strength, elasticity, resistance and other qualities needed for the manufacture of products such as erasers, elastic bands, water hoses, electrical insulation and tires. (Source: RHW)
ruigte brushwood Woody vegetation including shrubs and scrub trees of non-commercial height and form, often seen in the initial stages of succession following a disturbance. Brush often grows in very dense thickets that are impenetrable to wild animals and serve to suppress the growth of more desirable crop trees. However, brush can also serve an important function as desirable habitat for a range or bird, animal, and invertebrate species, and often provides a good source of browse and cover for larger wildlife. It adds structural diversity within the forest and is important in riparian zones. It is also termed scrub. (Source: DUNSTE)
ruilverkaveling land consolidation Joining small plots of land together to form larger farms or large fields. (Source: PHC)
ruimolie bilge oil Waste oil that accumulates, usually in small quantities, inside the lower spaces of a ship, just inside the shell plating, and usually mixed with larger quantities of water. (Source: ERG)
ruimte space
ruimte space
ruimte (uitrustingsprogramma) outer space (allocation plan) Area out of closed settlements or building. (Source: RRDA)
ruimte; interplanetaire ruimte space; interplanetary space Space extending between the sun and the planets of the solar system. Interplanetary space is not empty, but contains dust, particles with an electric charge, and the magnetic field of the sun (also called the IMF, or Interplanetary Magnetic Field). (Source: CED / WINDOW)
ruimte-afval space waste Nonfunctional debris of human origin left in a multitude of orbits about the earth as the result of the exploration and use of the environment lying outside the earth's atmosphere. (Source: MHD / ORB)
ruimtelijke ordening physical planning A form of urban land use planning which attempts to achieve an optimal spatial coordination of different human activities for the enhancement of the quality of life. (Source: LANDY)
ruimtelijke verdeling spatial distribution A distribution or set of geographic observations representing the values of behaviour of a particular phenomenon or characteristic across many locations on the surface of the Earth. (Source: GOOD)
ruimte-onderzoek space research Research involving studies of all aspects of environmental conditions beyond the atmosphere of the earth. (Source: MGH)
ruimtevaart space travel Travel in the space beyond the earth's atmosphere performed for scientific research purposes. (Source: RRDA)
ruimtevaartbeleid space policy A course of action adopted and pursued by government or some other organization, which seeks to support research and the exploration of planets, asteroids and other elements in the region beyond earth's atmosphere or beyond the solar system. (Source: OED)
ruimtevaartkunde astronautics The science of space flight. (Source: MGH)
ruimwater bilge water Water that builds up in the bottom of a ship's bilge. (Source: MGH)
runderachtigen bovid Any animal belonging to the Bovidae family. (Source: CED)
runderachtigen bovine
runderen cattle Domesticated bovine animals, including cows, steers and bulls, raised and bred on a ranch or farm. (Source: MGH)
rustvorm resting form Resistant structure that allows the organism to survive adverse environmental conditions. (Source: ALL2)
ruwe aardolie crude oil A comparatively volatile liquid bitumen composed principally of hydrocarbon, with traces of sulphur, nitrogen or oxygen compounds; can be removed from the earth in a liquid state. (Source: MGH)
salamanders salamander Any of various urodele amphibians, such as Salamandra salamandra of central and S Europe. They are typically terrestrial, have an elongated body, and only return to water to breed. (Source: CED)
salmonella salmonella General name for a family of microorganisms, one of the largest groups of bacteria, that includes those most frequently implicated in food poisoning and gastroenteritis. Unhygienic handling and inadequate cooking of poultry and meat, improper storage of cold meats and, more recently, contamination of battery-reared hen eggs, are the most common sources of salmonella infections. (Source: WRIGHT)
samendrukking compaction Reduction of the bulk of solid waste by rolling and tamping. (Source: LEE)
samendrukking compression Reduction in the volume of a substance due to pressure. (Source: MGH)
samengestelde verontreiniging composite pollution Emissions of ozone-degrading gases (CFCs, halons); emissions of greenhouse gases (carbondioxide, methane, CFCs, nitrous oxides, halons); emissions of acidifying gases (sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides); emissions of substances that contribute to eutrophication (phosphate and nitrogen-containing materials); emissions of toxic materials (pesticides, radioactive substances, priority toxic substances); solid wastes returned to the environment. (Source: UNEP)
samengestelde voeding convenience food Food so prepared and presented as to be easily and quickly ready for consumption. (Source: ECHO2)
samenleving, maatschappij society
samenstelling van afval waste composition The component material types, by percentage or weight, emanating from any source. (Source: AWD)
samenstelling van de atmosfeer atmospheric composition The chemical abundance in the earth's atmosphere of its constituents including nitrogen, oxygen, argon, carbon dioxide, water vapour, ozone, neon, helium, krypton, methane, hydrogen and nitrous oxide. (Source: MGH)
samenstelling van de bevolking composition of population The constituent groupings and proportions of the total inhabitants of a given nation, area, region or city, as seen from various perspectives. (Source: RHW)
samenwerking co-operation
samenwerkingsbeleid co-operation policy Political course of action aiming at establishing trade agreements among the states. (Source: NDGIUR)
samenwerkingsprincipe co-operation principle
saneren cleaning up The process of bringing desert, marsh, sea coast or other waste or unproductive land into use or cultivation. (Source: GOOD)
sanitair sanitary fitting The set of furnishings designed for personal hygiene and the disposal of organic waste. (Source: ZINZAN)
satelliet satellite An object that orbits around a larger one. Artificial satellites orbiting the Earth are used for communications, the gathering of military intelligence, the monitoring of weather and other environmental phenomena, etc. (Source: ALL)
satellietbeeld satellite image A pictorial representation of data projected onto a two-dimensional grid of individual picture elements (pixels) and acquired from a human-made vessel placed in orbit round a planet, moon or star. (Source: RSG)
satellietrekening satellite account A separate financial record or statement that discloses financial activity in a particular area and supplements existing financial records. (Source: RHW)
scenario scenario Conditions of the environment chosen for a given survey or activity. (Source: RRDA)
schaal- en schelpdierencultuur shellfish farming Raising of shellfish in inland waters, estuaries or coastal waters, for commercial purposes. All commercial shellfish beds producing bivalve molluscs must be monitored for microbial contamination. Samples of water and shellfish flesh must be tested for the presence of algal toxins. Periodic monitoring of fish and shellfish must be carried out to check for the presence of contaminants. (Source: WRIGHTa / MAFF)
schaal-en schelpdieren shellfish
schaapachtigen ovine Horned ruminant mammals raised in many breeds for wool, edible flesh, or skin. (Source: AMHER)
schade damage An injury or harm impairing the function or condition of a person or thing. (Source: CED)
schade aan akkers field damage A decline in the productivity of an area of land or in its ability to support natural ecosystems or types of agriculture. Degradation may be caused by a variety of factors, including inappropriate land management techniques, soil erosion, salinity, flooding, clearing, pests, pollution, climatic factors, or progressive urbanization. (Source: GILP96)
schade aan de bodem soil damage Soil impaired as a consequence of human activity. A study financed by UNEP, reporting in 1992, found that about 10,5% of the world's vegetative surface had been seriously damaged by human activity since 1945. The study found that much of the damage had been masked by a general rise in global agricultural productivity resulting from expanded irrigation, better plant varieties, and greater use of production inputs, such as fertilizers and pesticides. More than 1/3 of the damaged land was in Asia, almost 1/3 in Africa, and 1/4 in Central America. Some land had been damaged beyond restoration. The greatest sources of soil degradation were overgrazing, unsuitable agricultural practices, and deforestation. (Source: GILP96)
schade aan dieren animal damage Harm caused to the environment by animals as, for instance, in the case of overgrazing, trampling, etc. Overgrazing damage is reduced by properly located watering facilities to decrease daily travel by livestock. Rotation of grazing areas allows time for recovery of grass. Some land can be easily restored if grazing is allowed only during one season. Animals may cause damage to crops when agriculture land borders on virgin territory or game reserves. In addition wild animals may bring disease in valuable domestic herds. Cattle overstocking has caused serious degradation of habitat, and cattle raising is thus, to some extent, counterproductive. (Source: WPR)
schade aan het bos forest damage Reduction of tree population in forests caused by acidic precipitation, forest fires, air pollution, deforestation, pests and diseases of trees, wildlife, etc. (Source: WPR)
schade ten gevolg van militaire oefeningen damage from military manoeuvres Injury or harm resulting from the planned movement of armed forces or from the tactical exercises simulating war operations that is carried out for training and evaluation purposes. (Source: GT2 / JSS)
schadeloosstellingseis claim for restitution A legal remedy in which a person or party may demand or assert the right to be restored to a former or original position prior to loss, damage or injury. (Source: BLD)
schademinimalisering minimisation of damage The activity of reducing the harm or injury done to the environment or ecosystem. (Source: OED)
schadevergoeding indemnity Financial compensation, reimbursement or security for damages or loss offered by a government, insurance policy or contractual agreement under specified conditions and for specific casualties. (Source: BLD)
schadevergoeding compensation for damage Equivalent in money or other form for a loss sustained for an injury, for property taken, etc. (Source: BLACK)
schadevergoeding; vergoeding compensation Equivalent in money for a loss sustained; equivalent given for property taken or for an injury done to another; recompense or reward for some loss, injury or service. (Source: WESTS)
schadeverzekering damage insurance A commercial product which provides a guarantee against damage to property in return for premiums paid. (Source: RHW / ISEP)
scheepsafval ship garbage Domestic and operational wastes, disposed of continuously or periodically, that are generated during the normal operation of a ship; usually excluding fresh fish waste from fishing operations. (Source: NGT)
scheepsbouw shipbuilding The art or business of designing and constructing ships. (Source: AMHER)
scheepswerktuigkunde marine engineering The design, construction, installation, operation, and maintenance of main power plants, as well as the associated auxiliary machinery and equipment, for the propulsion of ships. (Source: MGH)
scheepvaartongeluk shipping accident An unexpected incident, failure or loss involving a vessel or its contents in the course of commercial transport that poses potential harm to persons, property or the environment. (Source: RHW)
scheider voor lichte vloeistoffen separator of light liquids A mechanical device for separating and removing residues from fuel and lubricating oil from waste water coming from filling stations and industrial plants in order to avoid pollution of water bodies; this system is based on the different specific weights of water and fuel residues that float on the water and can be easily removed. (Source: RRDA)
scheiding bij de bron separation at source Segregating various wastes at the point of generation (e.g. separation of paper, metal and glass from other wastes) to make recycling simpler and more efficient. (Source: EPAGLO)
scheiding van stoffen separation The separation of one substance from another when they are intimately mixed. For example the removal of oil from water, or gas from oil or oil from gas, etc. (Source: BRACK)
scheikunde, stoffen, processen chemistry, substances, processes
scheikunde,chemie chemistry
scherm shielding device Barriers devised for keeping away from people harmful substances. (Source: KORENa)
scherpte van het gehoor hearing acuity Effectiveness of hearing. (Source: CAMB)
schietbaan shooting range Area designed for target shooting. (Source: CED)
schildersbedrijf painting business A commercial service through which paint, a decorative or protective coating product, or similar products are applied to the interiors and exteriors of buildings and other surfaces. (Source: RHW)
schildpad tortoise Any herbivorous terrestrial chelonian reptile of the family Testudinidae, of most warm regions, having a heavy dome-shaped shell and clawed limbs. (Source: CED)
schimmeldodend middel fungicide Chemicals used to kill or halt the development of fungi that cause plant disease, such as: storage rot; seedling diseases; root rots; vascular wilts; leaf blights, rusts, smuts and mildews, and viral diseases. These can be controlled by the early and continued application of selected fungicides that either kill the pathogens or restrict their development. (Source: WRIGHT)
schip ship A vessel propelled by engines or sails for navigating on the water, especially a large vessel that can not be carried aboard another, as distinguished from a boat. (Source: CED)
schip met dubbele romp twin-hull craft Oil tank vessels provided with a double-hull to meet the regulatory safety requirements in oil transportation. Requirements include minimum values for depths and breadth of double bottoms. Also called double-hull tank vessel. (Source: PZa)
schone technologie clean technology Industrial process which causes little or no pollution. (Source: PHC)
school school An institution or building at which children and young people receive education. (Source: CED)
schoolleven school life Any part or the sum of experiences had while attending an instructional institution, or the amount of time spent in such a program. (Source: ISEP / RHW)
schoolonderwijs school teaching Instruction or training received in any educational institution, but especially to persons under college age. (Source: RHW)
schoolwerk schoolwork The material studied in or for an educational institution, comprising homework and work done in the classroom. (Source: RHW)
schoonmaakbedrijf contract cleaner A commercial service provider, usually bound by a written agreement, responsible for the removal of dirt, litter or other unsightly materials from any property. (Source: RHW)
schoorsteen chimney A vertical structure of brick, masonry, or steel that carries smoke or steam away from a fire, engine, etc. (Source: CED)
schoorsteenhoogte chimney height The appropriate height for chimneys serving industrial combustion plants in order to avoid unacceptable pollution. (Source: PORT)
schroot scrap material Recyclable material from any manufacturing process or discarded consumer products. (Source: APD)
schroot scrap metal Any metal material discarded from manufacturing operations and usually suitable for reprocessing. (Source: TOE)
schroothoop scrap dump Area where waste material, especially metal, is dumped. (Source: CED)
schrootmarkt scrap material market The trade or traffic in discarded or leftover materials that can be reused in some way. (Source: RHW / ISEP)
schrootprijs scrap material price The amount of money or the monetary rate at which materials discarded from manufacturing operations can be bought or sold. (Source: TOE / RHW)
schubvleugeligen lepidopteran A large order of scaly-winged insects, including the butterflies, skippers, and moths; adults are characterized by two pairs of membranous wings and sucking mouthparts, featuring a prominent, coiled proboscis. (Source: MGH)
schuilplaats shelter Cover or protection, as from weather or danger; place of refuge. (Source: CED)
schuilplaats emergency lodging Housing or dwelling space provided for victims of a sudden, urgent and usually unexpected occurrence, especially when harm has been done to human life, property or the environment. (Source: RHW)
schuimmiddel foaming agent Substances which make it possible to form a homogenous dispersion of a gaseous phase in a liquid or solid medium. (Source: ECHO1)
schuld debt Something owed to someone else. (Source: SCRUZ)
schuld van de ontwikkelingslanden developing countries debt
secundaire behandeling secondary treatment Stage of the process of waste water treatment: following primary treatment by sedimentation, the second step in most wastewater systems in which biological organisms decompose most of the organic matter into a innocuous, stable form. (Source: CORBIT / WQA)
secundaire biotoop secondary biotope In the case of disruption of an existing biotope, secondary biotope can be created as a compensation and substitute measure for the loss of the natural one. (Source: RRDA)
secundaire sector secondary sector The part of a country or region's economy that produces commodities without much direct use of natural resources. (Source: ODE)
sedimentbeweging sediment mobilisation The transport or setting in motion by wind or water of insoluble particulate matter. (Source: APD / RHW)
sedimentologie sedimentology The scientific study of sedimentary rocks and of the processes by which they were formed; the description, classification, origin, and interpretation of sediments. (Source: BJGEO)
sedimentvervoer sediment transport The movement and carrying- away of sediment by natural agents; especially the conveyance of a stream load by suspension, saltation, solution or traction. (Source: BJGEO)
seismiciteit seismic activity The phenomenon of Earth movements. (Source: BJGEO)
seizoensmigratie seasonal migration The periodic movement of a population from one region or climate to another in accordance with the yearly cycle of weather and temperature changes. (Source: RHW)
seizoensverschil seasonal variation In time series, that part of the movement which is assigned to the effect of the seasons on the year. (Source: ECHO2)
selectief fokken van dieren selective breeding of animals Breeding of animals having desirable characters. (Source: MGH)
selectieve plantenteelt selective breeding of plants Breeding of plants having desirable characters. (Source: MGH)
selectieve verspreiding van informatie selective dissemination of information A service provided by a library or other agency that periodically notifies users of new publications, report literature or other data sources in subjects in which the user has specified an interest. (Source: CCL)
selectiviteit selectivity
seleen selenium A highly toxic, nonmetallic element; used in analytical chemistry, metallurgy, and photoelectric cells. (Source: MGH)
sensor sensor The generic name for a device that senses either the absolute value or a change in a physical quantity such as temperature, pressure, flow rate, or pH, or the intensity of light, sound, or ratio waves and converts that change into a useful input signal for an information-gathering system. (Source: MGH)
septische put septic tank A tank, usually underground, into which sewage flows, the deposited matter being wholly, or partially broken down through anaerobic action. The final effluent may be allowed to soak into the ground through a system of agricultural drains, if the soil is suitable. Alternatively, the tank must be emptied at regular intervals by a special road-tanker. (Source: GILP96)
Seveso-richtlijn Seveso Directive Directive issued by the European Community in 1981 that obliged industries to notify the authorities, their own workers, and local residents of dangerous chemicals held, while also laying down rules for the storage of specified chemicals. (Source: GILP96)
silicium silicon A brittle metalloid element that exists in two allotropic forms; occurs principally in sand, quartz, granite, feldspar, and clay. It is usually a grey crystalline solid but is also found as a brown amorphous powder. It is used in transistors, rectifiers, solar cells, and alloys. Its compounds are widely used in glass manufacture, the building industry, and in the form of silicones. (Source: CED)
silo silo A large round tower on a farm for storing grain or winter food for cattle. (Source: CAMB)
simulatie simulation A representation of a problem, situation in mathematical terms, especially using a computer. (Source: CED)
sinteren sintering Forming a coherent bonded mass by heating metal powders without melting, used mostly in powder metallurgy. (Source: MGH)
skieën skiing Gliding over snow on skis, especially as a sport. (Source: CED)
skihelling ski run A trail, slope, or course for skiing. (Source: CED)
slaap sleep A periodic state of physiological rest during which consciousness is suspended and metabolic rate is decreased. (Source: CED)
slaapstoornis sleep disturbance
slachtafval slaughterhouse waste Animal body parts cut off in the preparation of carcasses for use as food. This waste can come from several sources including slaughterhouses, restaurants, stores and farms. (Source: OED)
slachtdier animal for slaughter Animals bred and killed for the production of food. (Source: RRDA)
slachtvee beef cattle Cattle bred for the production of meat. (Source: RRDA)
slak; metaalslak; metaalslakken slag A nonmetallic product resulting from the interaction of flux and impurities in the smelting and refining of metals. (Source: MGH)
slangen snake Any reptile of the suborder Ophidia, typically having a scaly cylindrical limbless body, fused eyelids, and a jaw modified for swallowing large prey: includes venomous forms such as cobras and rattlesnakes, large nonvenomous constrictors, and small harmless types such as the grass snake. (Source: CED)
slechte werking malfunction Failure to function or defective functioning. (Source: CED)
slib silt The fine mineral material formed from the erosion of rock fragments and deposited by rivers and lakes. Its particles are the intermediate form between sand and clay. The particles can range in size from 0.01-0.05 mm in diameter. (Source: WRIGHT)
slib sludge 1) A soft, soupy, or muddy bottom deposit, such as found on tideland or in a stream bed. 2) A semifluid, slushy, murky mass of sediment resulting from treatment of water, sewage, or industrial and mining wastes, and often appearing as local bottom deposits in polluted bodies of water. (Source: BJGEO)
slibgisting sludge digestion A treatment to stabilize raw sludge. The treatment can be either anaerobic process or aerobic process. (Source: LEE)
slibstabilisatie sludge stabilisation Usually anaerobic sludge digestion, a treatment that stabilizes raw sludge. Fully digested sludge has little readily biodegradable organic matter. It is not smelly and about 50% of the solids are inorganic. Sludge can also be digested aerobically.
slibverbranding sludge incineration A method used for drying and reducing sludge volume and weight. Since incineration requires auxiliary fuel to obtain and maintain high temperature and to evaporate the water contained in the incoming sludge, concentration techniques should be applied before incineration. Sludge incineration is a two-step process involving drying and combustion after a preceding dewatering process, such as filters, drying beds, or centrifuges. (Source: CORBIT)
slibverwerking sludge treatment The processing of wastewater sludges to render them innocuous. This may be done by aerobic or anaerobic digestion followed by drying in sand beds, filtering, and incineration, filtering, and drying, or wet air oxidation.
slikbezinkingsvijver sludge settling pond Pond for the removal of settleable solids through which wastewater is passed in a treatment works. (Source: LANDY)
slikwad; wad mud flat A relatively level area of fine silt along a shore (as in a sheltered estuary) or around an island, alternately covered and uncovered by the tide, or covered by shallow water. (Source: BJGEO)
sloopafval demolition waste Masonry or rubble wastes arising from the demolition of buildings or other civil engineering structures.
sloot ditch A long, narrow excavation artificially dug in the ground; especially an open and usually unpaved waterway, channel, or trench for conveying water for drainage or irrigation, and usually smaller than a canal. Some ditches may be natural watercourses. (Source: BJGEO)
sloperij demolition business The activity of reducing buildings or other structures to rubble. (Source: OED)
sluis sluice Vertical sliding gate or valve to regulate the flow of water in a channel or lock. (Source: MGH)
sluisdeur sluice-gate A valve or gate fitted to a sluice to control the rate of flow of water. (Source: CED)
sluiting closing down The cessation, discontinuation or breaking-off of a business transaction, lease, contract or employment arrangement, usually before its anticipated or stipulated end. (Source: BLD)
slurfdieren proboscidean An order of herbivorous placental mammals characterized by having a proboscis, incisors enlarged to become tusks, and pillarlike legs with five toes bound together on a broad pad. (Source: MGH)
smaak van water water taste Taste in water can be caused by foreign matter, such as organic compounds, inorganic salts or dissolved gases. These materials may come from domestic, agricultural or natural sources. Some substances found naturally in groundwater, while not necessarily harmful, may impart a disagreeable taste or undesirable property to the water. Magnesium sulphate, sodium sulphate, and sodium chloride are but a few of these. Acceptable waters should be free from any objectionable taste at point of use. (Source: CORBIT)
smaakstof flavouring A substance, such as an extract or a spice, that imparts flavor. (Source: AMHER)
smeermiddel lubricant A substance used to reduce friction between parts or objects in relative motion. (Source: MGH)
smog smog Air pollution consisting of smoke and fog. The air pollution caused by the action of sunlight on unburned hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides, mostly from car exhaust. It occurs over large industrial areas and urban complexes, and causes eye irritations, breathing problems and damage to plant life. (Source: MGH / WRIGHT)
smogwaarschuwing smog warning Action, device or announcement that serves to give caution or notice to the level of air pollutants typically associated with oxidants in a given area. (Source: TOE / RHW)
sneeuw snow The most common form of frozen precipitation, usually flakes or starlike crystals, matted ice needles, or combinations, and often rime-coated. (Source: MGH)
sneeuwlawine snowslide An avalanche of relatively pure snow; some rock and earth material may also be carried downward. (Source: MGH)
snelheid speed A scalar measure of the rate of movement of a body expressed either as the distance travelled divided by the time taken (average speed) or the rate of change of position with respect to time at a particular point (instantaneous speed). It is measured in metres per second, miles per hour, etc. (Source: CED)
snelheidsgrens speed limit The maximum permitted speed at which a vehicle may travel on certain roads. (Source: CED)
snelle proef rapid test Tests performed in the medical field whose results are available very quickly. (Source: RRDA)
snelle reactor fast reactor Nuclear reactor which produces more fissile material than it consumes, using fast-moving neutrons and making plutonium-239 from uranium-238, thereby increasing the reactor's efficiency. (Source: PHC)
snelverkeer fast traffic
snelweg highway A public road especially an important road that joins cities or towns together. (Source: CAMB)
snoei(-) pruning The cutting off or removal of dead or living parts or branches of a plant to improve shape or growth. (Source: AMHERa)
sociaal beleid social policy A course of action adopted and pursued by government, business or some other organization, which seeks to ensure that all people have acceptable working or living conditions by providing social security, welfare, health care, insurance, fair employment practices, low cost housing or educational opportunities. (Source: MGHME)
sociaal gedrag social behaviour A person or community's general treatment, manner of conduct or action toward others as individuals or as members of variously identified groups. (Source: ISEP / RHW)
sociaal gedrag social-minded behaviour
sociaal probleem social problem A generic term applied to the range of conditions and aberrant behaviours which are considered to be manifestations of social disorganization and to warrant changing via some means of social engineering. Typically, these problems include many forms of deviant behaviour (such as crime, juvenile delinquency, prostitution, mental illness, drug addiction, suicide) and of social conflict (ethnic tension, domestic violence, industrial strife, andso forth).
sociaal systeem social system The concept of system appears throughout the social and natural sciences and has generated a body of literature of its own (general systems theory). A system is any pattern of relationships between elements, and is regarded as having emergent properties on its own over and above the properties of its elements.
sociaal-opvoedkundige activiteit socioeducational activity Instruction or events designed to offer learning or cultural experiences to populations without access to traditional educational institutions due to social or economic barriers. (Source: OED)
sociale analyse social analysis
sociale aspecten, bevolking social aspects, population
sociale aspecten, milieubeleidsmaatregelen social aspects, environmental policy measures
sociale bescherming social protection The monies and programs a society enacts through either public or private entities to provide economic security and general welfare for its members, often on account of old age, unemployment, health, disability or death of a spouse, parent or other benefactor. (Source: RHW)
sociale beweging social movement A organized effort by a significant number of people to change (or resist change in) some major aspect or aspects of society.
sociale dienst(verlening) social service Welfare activities organized by the state or a local authority and carried out by trained personnel. (Source: CED)
sociale differentiatie social differentiation A concept associated with evolutionary theories of history and with structural functionalism. Societies are seen as moving from the simple to the complex via a process of social change based on structural differentiation.
sociale dynamiek social dynamics The pattern, change, development and driving forces of a human group, community or society. (Source: RHW)
sociale geneeskunde social medicine Medicine as applied to treatment of diseases which occur in certain social groups. (Source: PHC)
sociale groep social group A collection of people who interact with one another and share a certain feeling of unity. (Source: SOC)
sociale hulpverlening social relief Public assistance especially financial given to persons in special need or difficulty.
sociale indicator social indicator Easily identified features of a society which can be measured, which vary over time, and are taken as revealing some underlying aspect of social reality. In general, the most commonly used indicators are derived from official statistics, and include unemployment figures, health and mortality data, and crime rates. (Source: SOCIOL)
sociale kosten social cost The price paid or the loss incurred to acquire, produce or maintain an objective or goal in a group, community or society. (Source: ISEP / RHW)
sociale omstandigheden social condition An existing circumstance, situation or state affecting the life, welfare and relations of human beings in community. (Source: RHW)
sociale omstandigheden social framework The underlying structure that connects and supports the various members and parts of a community or human organization. (Source: RHW)
sociale ongelijkheid social inequality Unequal rewards or opportunities for different individuals within a group or groups within a society. If equality is judged in terms of legal equality, equality of opportunity, or equality of outcome, then inequality is a constant feature of the human condition.
sociale ontwikkeling social development The state of nations and the hystorical processes of change experienced by them. The concept of development subsumes associated cultural and political changes as well as welfare measures which reflect distribution of goods, wealth and opportunities. (Source: GOOD)
sociale participatie social participation Collective, civic action shared and performed by a significant number of the community or general population. (Source: RHW)
sociale proces social process A continuous action, operation, or series of changes taking place in a definite manner and pertaining to the life, welfare, and relations of human beings in a community. (Source: RHW)
sociale psychologie social psychology Study of the effects of social structure on cognition and behavior, of processes of face-to-face interaction, and of the negotiation of social order. (Source: SASW)
sociale structuur social structure A term loosely applied to any recurring pattern of social behaviour; or, more specifically, to the ordered interrelationships between the different elements or a social system or society.
sociale vertegenwoordiging social representation A system of values, ideas and practices established to orient individuals in their community and culture and to provide them with naming, classification and communication codes. (Source: SRD)
sociale verzekering social security
sociale voorziening social facility Any structure designed, built or installed to provide space for living or interaction among persons in a community. (Source: RHW)
sociale waarde social value Regarding social values, distinctions are often drawn between values, which are strong, semi permanent, underlying, and sometimes inexplicit dispositions, and attitudes, which are shallow, weakly held, and highly variable views and opinions. Societies can usually tolerate highly diverse attitude, whereas they require some degree of homogeneity and consistency in the values held by people, providing a common fund of shared values which shape social and political consensus. (Source: SOCIOL)
sociale wetenschappen social science The study of society and of the relationship of individual members within society, including economics, history, political science, psychology, anthropology, and sociology. (Source: CED)
socio-culturele groep socio-cultural group A collection of people who interact and share a sense of unity on account of a common ethnic, ancestral, generational or regional identity. (Source: RHW)
socio-economie socioeconomics Economic and social structure of communities, tax rates, characteristic types of development. (Source: PASTU)
socio-economisch effect van biotechnologie socioeconomic impact of biotechnologies Biotechnology is the application of biological and technical solutions to problems, and often refers to the industrial use of microorganisms (perhaps genetically altered) to perform chemical processing, for example of waste or water, or to manufacture hormones or enzymes for medicinal and commercial purposes. Biotechnology offers great potential to increase farm production and food processing efficiency, to lower food costs, to enhance food quality and safety and to increase international competitiveness. (Source: WPR)
socio-economische factor socioeconomic factor An essential element in a society's make-up, organization or behavior that combines financial dimensions with inter-personal or inter-group dynamics. (Source: RHW / ISEP)
socio-economische kant van menselijke nederzettingen socioeconomic aspect of human settlements
sociologie sociology The study of the development, organization, functioning and classification of human societies. (Source: CED)
sociologisch onderzoek social survey Data collections that employ both interviewing and sampling to produce quantitative data-sets, amenable to computer-based analysis. (Source: SOCIOL)
sociologisch onderzoek sociological survey Research on social questions or problems, especially focusing on cultural and environmental factors. (Source: WEBSTE)
sociopolitiek aspect sociopolitical aspect Any part, feature or quality of society that combines governmental dimensions with inter-personal or inter-group dynamics. (Source: RHW)
soepele benadering van milieubescherming flexible approach to environmental protection Plans, referred to in various rules as emissions averaging, or flexible compliance plans, allow facilities to undercontrol some emission points that are too costly to control to mandated levels as long as these units are balanced by overcontrolling other emission units that are more cost-effective to control. (Source: ENVAR)
software software Software is the general term used to describe all of the various programs that may be used on a computer system. Software can be divided into four main categories: systems software, development software, user interface software, applications software. (Source: POPTEL)
softwareontwikkeling software development
soort species A taxonomic category ranking immediately below a genus and including closely related, morphologically similar individuals which actually or potentially inbreed. (Source: MGH)
soort aanspraak type of claim A class or category of interests or remedies recognized in law or equity that create in the holder a right to the interest or its proceeds, typically taking the form of money, property or privilege. (Source: BLD)
soort aanstelling type of tenure The manner in which land is owned and possessed, i.e. of title to its use. (Source: GOOD)
soort bedrijf type of business The class or category of an enterprise or organization involved in an economy. (Source: ISEP / RHW)
soort bedrijfsvoering type of management The different, specific methods of business administration. (Source: OED)
soort document document type Any one of a number of diverse classes of written, printed or digitized items furnishing information or evidence, and distinguished by content, form or function. (Source: RHW)
soort ecosysteem ecosystem type Ecosystems can be classified according to various criteria: from the point of view of energy source, two major types of ecosystems can be distinguished. Autotrophic ecosystems have primary producers as a principal component and sunlight has the major initial energy source; etherotrophic ecosystems depend upon preformed organic matter that is imported from autotrophic ecosystems elsewhere. Ecosystems can also be classified in terrestrial, marine and freshwater. (Source: PARCOR)
soort energie energy type According to the source, energy can be classified as hydroenergy, solar energy, tidal energy, wind energy, waves energy, geothermal energy, etc.. According to the type of fuel used for its production, energy can be classified as nuclear energy, coal derived energy, petroleum derived energy, biomass derived energy, etc. (Source: RRDA)
soort geluid noise type
soort milieuverontreiniging pollution type
soort plantegroei vegetation type A community of plants or plant life that share distinguishable characteristics. (Source: PEM)
soortbescherming protection of species Measures adopted for the safeguarding of species, of their ecosystems and their biodiversity. (Source: ADMIN)
soorten afval waste Material, often unusable, left over from any manufacturing, industrial, agricultural or other human process; Material damaged or altered during a manufacturing process and subsequently left useless. (Source: HMD / OED)
soorten met aanpassingsvermogen adaptable species
soortverarming species impoverishment Loss of species due to factors such as climate change or random events such as persistent drought, natural catastrophe, the emergence of a new predator, or genetic mutation. (Source: WRES)
sorptie sorption The taking up, usually, of a liquid or gas into the body of another material (the absorbent). Thus, for instance, an air pollutant may be removed by absorption in a suitable solvent. (Source: HARRIS)
spaarbekken reservoir An artificial or natural storage place for water, such as a lake or pond, from which the water may be withdrawn as for irrigation, municipal water supply, or flood control. (Source: BJGEO)
spaarbekken water reservoir Artificial or natural area of water, used for storing water for domestic or industrial use. (Source: PHC)
spaarbekken voor overtollig regenwater storm water basin Basin used to hold water which falls as rain during a storm. (Source: RRDA)
spaarzaam energieverbruik energy economics The production, distribution, and consumption of usable power such as fossil fuel, electricity, or solar radiation. (Source: RHW)
spanning stress A stimulus or succession of stimuli of such magnitude as to tend to disrupt the homeostasis of the organism. (Source: MGH)
spasmodische kroep spasmodic croup
speciale vergunning special authorisation An exceptional granting of power or permission or a legislative act authorizing money to be spent on government programs. (Source: RHW)
specialisatie (biologisch) specialisation (biological) Evolutionary adaptation to a particular mode of life or habitat. (Source: LBC)
spectraalband spectral band Closely grouped bands of lines characteristic of molecular gases of chemical compounds (spectroscopy). (Source: DICCHE)
spectroscopie spectroscopy The branch of physics concerned with the production, measurement, and interpretation of electromagnetic spectra arising from either emission or absorption of radiant energy by various substances. (Source: MGH)
speelplaats playground A piece of land used for recreation, especially by children, often including equipment such as swings and slides. (Source: RHW)
spel game (play) An amusement or pastime; diversion. (Source: CED)
spierstelsel muscular system The muscle cells, tissues, and organs that effect movement in all vertebrates. (Source: MGH)
spinnen spider Any predatory silk-producing arachnid of the order Araneae, having four pairs of legs and a rounded unsegmented body consisting of abdomen and cephalothorax. (Source: CED)
splijtstofelement nuclear fuel element A piece of nuclear fuel which has been formed and coated, and is ready to be placed in a reactor fuel assembly. (Source: MGH)
sponsorschap sponsorship A person, firm, organization, etc. that provides or pledges money for an undertaking or event.
sponzen poriferan The sponges, a phylum of the animal kingdom characterized by the presence of canal systems and chambers through which water is drawn in and released; tissues and organs are absent. (Source: MGH)
spoorverkeer rail traffic The movement and circulation of vehicles transporting goods and people on railroad systems. (Source: RRDA)
spoorvervoer rail transport Transportation of goods and persons by railway. (Source: CEDa)
spoorvoertuig railroad vehicle
spoorweg railway A permanent track composed of a line of parallel metal rails fixed to sleepers, for transport of passengers and goods in trains. (Source: CED)
spoorwegnet railway network The whole system of railway distribution in a country. (Source: RRDA)
sporenelementen trace element Any of various chemical elements that occur in very small amounts in organisms and are essential for many physiological and biochemical processes. (Source: CED)
sporenmateriaal trace material 1) Both metals and non-metals, essential for the metabolic processes of algae, invertebrates and vertebrates. Organisms that derive nearly all their energy via photosynthesis are especially dependent upon dissolved trace substances.2) Impurities that are present at small but detectable levels. (Source: NATURE / GEMAIR)
sport sport The complex of individual or group activities pursued for exercise or pleasure, often taking a competitive form. (Source: CED)
sportvoorziening sports facility Buildings, constructions, installations, organized areas and equipment for indoor and outdoor sport activities. (Source: RRDA)