NUFFIC Glossary

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This page contains a copy of the last version of the Nuffic Glossary. Please note that the original author, Nuffic, in no way ensorses either myself (Michael Beijer) or my views, this website or the derived version of the glossary available on this site.

Final version of the now discontinued Glossary[edit | edit source]

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Dutch English Description
aangewezen approved Higher education institutions that are recognised by the government fall into two categories: bekostigd and aangewezen. The first category is fully funded by the government. Institutions in the second category have been evaluated according to the same quality assurance procedures as the funded institutions, and have been ‘approved’, but they do not receive any government funding.
aangewezen instellingen Education institutions that are not subsidised by the government but nevertheless may award diplomas and titles that are officially recognised. There are many such institutions in the private HBO sector.Source: Werkgroep Voorlichting over het Nederlandse Hoger Onderwijs, 1999.
aangewezen opleiding approved study programme Although the government does not fund such a programme, the diploma awarded upon its completion is officially recognised.
aanstaande student prospective student Source: RUG Teminology list
aantekening A note added to a diploma or certificate which indicates that the person has supplemented the basic qualification by acquiring extra skills.
aanvullend onderzoek supplementary examination
aanvullende beurs supplementary grant, additional grant This grant supplements the basic student grant provided by the government.
aanvullende eis supplementary requirement
ACA Academic Cooperation Association Non-profit European consortium of nationally based agencies that are responsible for promoting international academic cooperation. Founded in 1993, the ACA has its secretariat in Brussels.Go to the ACA website
academicus university graduate; an academic In Dutch this term is associated more specifically with the university than it is in English and then only research universities, not universities of applied sciences. In English it usually refers more generally to someone who teaches or does research.
academisch academic; university (as adjectives) The Dutch word applies specifically to university education and then only research universities, not universities of applied sciences. In English the term is more general and can simply mean pertaining to education. A secondary school might have an academic dean and a student dean, for example. Therefore, if you mean university it is best to use the word university.
academisch jaar academic year
academisch ziekenhuis (AZ) university teaching hospital Another term often used for these teaching hospitals is universitair medisch centrum.
academische graad university degree This usually refers to a degree from a research university, not from a university of applied sciences (hogeschool).
accreditatie accreditation Degree programmes that meet a set of standard criteria are accredited by the Accreditation Organisation of the Netherlands and Flanders. This makes the programmes eligible for government funding. Students are eligible for a student grant and will graduate with a recognised degree only if they are enrolled in an accredited degree programme. Accreditation was introduced in the Netherlands in 2002.
accreditering accreditation
actuariële wetenschappen actuarial science Degree programme in the economics sector.
adaptief onderwijs adaptive education
A-deel A category, category-A funds Before 1992 funds were allocated on the basis of the PGM model (Plaatsen Geld Model). Funds were divided into categories and category A funds were mainly for teaching and for services to the community (as opposed to category-B funds, which were for research).
AEGEE European Students' Forum The abbreviation stands for Association des États Généraux des Étudiants de lEurope.
afbouwfase (opleiding) period during which a study programme is phased out
afrikanistiek African studies Degree programme in the language and culture sector. Broad programme that includes language, literature, religion, family and society, economics, politics, art and current events - all from an historical point of view.
afsluitend examen final review of a student's academic record; degree audit [AE]; final assessment The review of a students achievements to see whether or not all the requirements for a degree programme have been met and whether the student can be awarded a certificate.
afstandsonderwijs distance learning
afstudeeropdracht final project
afstudeerrichting specialisation; main subject [BE]; major field [AE]. The subject in which a student specialises in the final period before graduation. One opleiding (study programme) may have several afstudeerrichtingen from which the student can choose.
afstudeervariant specialisation; option
afstuderen graduate; obtain one's degree; qualify; take one's degree; complete one's studies For example: Afstuderen aan de technische universiteit = to graduate from the university of technology. Een pas afgestudeerde leerkracht = a newly qualified teacher.
afwijzen fail; reject (someone) For example: Een kandidaat afwijzen = to fail (or reject) a candidate.
agrarisch opleidingscentrum (aoc) agricultural education centre Agricultural education centres provide courses related to nutrition, nature and environment.
agrarische accountancy agricultural accountancy Degree programme in the sector of agriculture and the natural environment.
agrarische bedrijfskunde agri-business Degree programme in the sector of agriculture and the natural environment. Training for work in the industry that supplies and serves farmers, and buys and processes their products. Includes business economics, technology, computer science, marketing, organisational studies, and the development of social and communication skills.
agrarische economie agricultural economics Degree programme in the sector of agriculture and the natural environment.
agrarische sociologie van de niet-Westerse gebieden agrarian sociology of non-Western regions; sociology of rural development Degree programme in the sector of agriculture and the natural environment.
agrologistiek agricultural logistics Degree programme in the sector of agriculture and the natural environment.
agroproduktkunde agricultural products Degree programme in the sector of agriculture and the natural environment.
agrosysteemkunde agricultural systems Degree programme in the sector of agriculture and the natural environment. Methods from mathematics, statistics and systems theory are used for solving complex problems in the fields of food, environment and agriculture.
aio-schap research traineeship This is the position from which most doctorates are earned in the Netherlands. It is comparable to a PhD studentship in other countries, except that in the Netherlands an AIO is an employee and receives a salary.
akte Q certificate in education theory This is no longer awarded.
akte van bekwaamheid teaching certificate; teaching qualification
akte van bekwaamheid A tot het geven van middelbaar onderwijs (akte MO-A) teaching qualification, second level (MO-A) This teaching qualification could be earned through part-time study until about 1982. The holder was qualified to teach in schools that now fall under VMBO, and in the first three years of HAVO and VWO.
akte van bekwaamheid B (akte MO-B) teaching qualification, first level (MO-B) This teaching qualification could be earned through part-time study until about 1982. The holder was qualified to teach a particular subject at the highest levels of secondary education.
alfa-informatica computer applications in the humanities Degree programme in the language and culture sector. Computers are used to work with written language, music, and speech, and for artificial intelligence and the processing and storage of historical and cultural information.
alfa-wetenschappen arts subjects The distinction between alpha, beta and gamma subjects (and aptitudes) is peculiar to the Netherlands. It should always be explained in English texts.
algemeen vormende vakken (AVV) These were general courses that third- and fourth-year students at the University of Groningen could take in a discipline other than their own, before 2010. In the 2010-2011 academic year this was replaced by the major-minor system.Source: University of Groningen
algemene economie general economics Degree programme in the economics sector.
algemene en vergelijkende Romanistiek Romance languages and literature Degree programme in the language and culture sector.
algemene industriële vormgeving general industrial design Degree programme in the language and culture sector (arts course).
algemene juridische economie economics and law Degree programme in the economics sector.
algemene letteren general arts; liberal arts [AE] Degree programme in the language and culture sector. Flexible study programme allowing broad exposure to the humanities before the student selects one of a large number of specialisations.
algemene literatuurwetenschap theoretical and comparative literature; theory of literature Degree programme in the language and culture sector. Study of the relationships, similarities and differences among the literature of various language areas and periods; of methods for analysing literature; and of the relationship between literature and society.
algemene natuurwetenschappen general science A subject in upper secondary education introduced 1999-2000.Source: Dutch Educational System, Nuffic (updates in 2000 and 2003)
algemene operationele technologie operational technology Degree programme in the engineering and technology sector. Broad training in working with machines and process equipment that are part of larger systems.
algemene taalwetenschap linguistics Degree programme in the language and culture sector. Study of the structure of human language, the ability to learn language, and the general functions of language and speech. Topics include grammar, semantics, psycholinguistics, language learning, bilingualism and language pathology.
allochtone student student belonging to an ethnic minority; student of non-Dutch background
allochtonen en minderheden ethnic minorities HBO degree programme in the behaviour and society sector.
amanuensis laboratory assistant; laboratory technician
ambtsopleiding ecclesiastical training
ambulante begeleiding peripatetic supervision A form of extra support for special needs pupils in primary, secondary and vocational education.Source: Europees Platform
Amerikanistiek American studies Degree programme in the language and culture sector. Study of the history, culture and society of the United States.
analytische proces- en laboratoriuminstrumentatie process and laboratory instrumentation Degree programme in the engineering and technology sector.
Anglo-Saxon Purists find this term unacceptable for describing the education model of the English-speaking countries. ‘Anglo-Saxon’ refers to the people of England between the fifth century and the Norman Conquest.
antwoordsleutel answer key Source: RUG terminology list
AO-formulier student grant application form
applicatiecursus supplementary course A course with which a person supplements an earlier qualification in order to meet certain requirements for further study. Or a course to earn a supplementary teaching qualification.
Arabische, Nieuwperzische en Turkse talen en culturen Arabic, modern Persian and Turkish: languages and cultures Degree programme in the language and culture sector.
arbeidsmarkt labour market; job market; workforce The English term workforce is often used in this context. For example, With a bachelors degree you can either join the workforce or continue studying.
arbeidsmarktfixus restricted intake in connection with labour market requirements
arbeidsmarktpolitiek/personeelsbeleid (hbo-ap/pb) personnel policy and human resources Degree programme in the behaviour and society sector.
archeologie archeology Degree programme in the language and culture sector. Study of the material remains of past civilisations or cultural phases, on the basis of which conclusions are drawn about the societies in question.
architectuur, opleiding voor beroepen op het terrein van specialisations in architecture Degree programme in the language and culture sector (advanced course in architecture).
assistant professor See associate professor
Assistent Geneeskunde In Klinische Opleiding (AGIKO) Clinical research trainee
assistentenopleiding (mbo) assistant training The first level of secondary vocational education, which lasts six months to one year. Pupils learn to perform simple tasks.
assistent-geneeskundige in opleiding (AGIO) trainee medical specialist; medical intern [AE] A medical school graduate (basisarts) who is training as a specialist.
assistent-in-opleiding (aio) trainee research assistant (AIO) A full-time appointment that enables a new university graduate - under supervision - to gain experience in conducting independent research. Some teaching duties may be included. Appointments for the purpose of earning a doctorate are for four years. Appointments for collaboration on a project (as a trainee researcher), or for designing a piece of equipment (as trainee design engineer), are for two years. An AIO position is comparable to a PhD studentship in other countries, except that an AIO is an employee and receives a salary.
associate professor In the American system, there are four levels of academic staff. At the top is the professor (hoogleraar). An associate professor, one level down, has tenure. An assistant professor, two levels down, does not have tenure. The entry-level position is instructor. If you choose to use the American terms rather than British terms (professor, senior lecturer/scientist, lecturer) be aware that you will be calling many people professor whom you would not call hoogleraar.
atelierwerk workshop project; studio work
atheneum There is no equivalent in English. Explain that this is a form of pre-university education similar to gymnasium, but without Latin or Greek.
auditor 'auditor' This was an enrolment status until 1996. An auditor did not qualify for a student grant and therefore paid a higher tuition fee than other students.
autotechniek automotive engineering Degree programme in the engineering and technology sector.
avondonderwijs evening classes
baccalaureus (bc.) 'baccalaureus' Under the old higher education system, this title was awarded to graduates of full-time, four-year programmes at universities of applied sciences (then HBO programmes) in non-technical fields. The abbreviation was written after the name, and could be followed by other letters to indicate the professional field. HBO students now earn bachelors degrees but they may also use the title baccalaureus if they wish. Since 1986 HBO graduates have been entitled to use the title Bachelor, abbreviated to B. and written after the name.
bacheloropleiding bachelor's degree programme Source: Wet op het hoger onderwijs en wetenshappelijk onderzoek, art. 7.4, 7.4a 7.4b.
bachelorverklaring medical student declaration This is a declaration made by new medical students that they will behave respectfully towards fellow students, teachers and patients.
bama bachelor’s-master’s degree structure The Netherlands is not the only country to use the slang abbreviation ‘bama’, but it is safer to use the full term. The vast majority of readers would have no idea what bama means, and they cannot find it in their dictionaries. It is jargon that is used more on the continent than in the English-speaking countries.
basisarts medical school graduate This person has earned a university degree in medicine at masters level, has met the internship requirements, but has not yet acquired a specialisation (General practice is a specialisation).
basisberoepsgerichte leerweg basic vocational track One of four options for the last two years of VMBO.Source: Dutch Educational System, Nuffic (updates in 2000 and 2003).
basisberoepsopleiding (mbo) basic vocational training The second level of secondary vocational education, which lasts two to three years. Pupils learn to perform tasks as instructed. Formerly known as mbo-kort (short course of secondary vocational education) and primair leerlingwezen (basic apprenticeship).
basisbeurs basic student grant, base grant In the Netherlands all students who meet the basic requirements and are enrolled in a recognised study programme were entitled to a student grant from the government.The basic grant for students in higher education was replaced by the student loan in 2015. From 2015 onwards new students can lend money from the government and are obliged to pay it back.
basiseducatie basic education (for adults); adult basic education
basisonderwijs primary education The first eight years of schooling, which begins at age 4 but is compulsory from the age of 5. Also referred to by the abbreviation p.o. (primair onderwijs).
basisonderwijs, opleiding tot leraar teacher training for primary education Degree programme in the education sector.
basisschool primary school [BE]; elementary school [AE]; school for primary education
basisvorming basic curriculum All programmes of secondary education spend the first few years on the same 15 compulsory subjects. The nature and level of the content depends on the type of school, however.Source: Dutch Educational System, Nuffic (updates in 2000 and 2003).
B-deel B category, category-B funds Before 1992, were allocated to universities on the basis of the PGM model (Plaatsen Geld Model). Funds were divided into categories and categorie-B funds were mainly for research (as opposed to category-A funds, which were mainly for teaching and services to the community).
bedrijfscommunicatie business communication studies Degree programme in the language and culture sector. Training for the acquisition of oral and written language skills for positions in the public, private and international sectors. Includes research on communicative processes within organisations.
bedrijfseconomie business economics; finance and accounting Degree programme in the economics sector. This might sometimes also refer to a programme in the education sector. A programme in the economics sector at a university of applied sciences might be called finance and accounting. Otherwise, use business economics.
bedrijfsgerichte informatica computer science for business and industry Degree programme in the science sector. Emphasis is on the application of computer science to solve complex problems in organisations. Includes economics and business.
bedrijfsinformatica business information technology Degree programme in the economics sector. Training in the setting up of computerised information systems. Graduates are information experts with an understanding of business organisation, and the ability to work with computers.
bedrijfsinformatietechnologie business information technology Degree programme in the engineering and technology sector. Interdisciplinary programme combining training in the design of systems and software with the study of organisations.
bedrijfskader, opleiding voor short course in management Degree programme in the engineering and technology sector.
bedrijfskunde (hbo) technology management; technology and management Degree programme in the engineering and technology sector at a university of applied sciences. Technical training combined with attention for the economic, commercial and social aspects of business. Ing. was the title earned under the old system.
bedrijfskunde (wo) business administration Degree programme in the economics sector. Training in analysis of the financial, legal, commercial, social and technological factors involved in decision-making at management level.
bedrijfskunde algemeen general business administration Degree programme in the behaviour and society sector at a university of applied sciences.
bedrijfskunde van de financiële sector management of finance Degree programme in the economics sector.
bedrijfsopleiding company training course; in-company training course; industrial training scheme
bedrijfswetenschappen business studies; business administration Degree programme in the economics sector. Combines business economics with the study of organisations and information systems.
bedrijfswiskunde en informatica business mathematics and computer science Degree programme in the science sector.
beeldende kunst en vormgeving visual arts and design Degree programme in the language and culture sector (arts course).
beeldende vorming art education
beginnend beroepsbeoefenaar starting VET professional Source: SBB
begintermen starting level(s); entry qualification; entry requirement Minimum qualifications required to start a course.
beiaard, opleiding voor het praktijkdiploma carillon (diploma) Degree programme in the language and culture sector (arts course).
bekostigd subsidised, government-funded Higher education institutions that are recognised by the government fall into two categories: bekostigd and aangewezen. The first category is fully funded by the government.
bekostigde instellingen government-funded institutions
bekostigde opleiding government-funded study programme
bekostiging funding
bekostigingsmodel funding formula
belastingen taxation Degree programme in the economics sector.
beleid en bestuur in internationale organisaties policy and management in international organisations; international policy studies Degree programme in the language and culture sector.
beleid en management gezondheidszorg health care policy and management Degree programme in the health care sector.
beleids- en organisatiewetenschappen policy and organisation studies Degree programme in the behaviour and society sector.
beleidsgerichte economie economic policy studies Degree programme in the economics sector.
beleidsgerichte milieukunde environmental policy studies Degree programme in the behaviour and society sector.
beleidswetenschappen policy studies Degree programme in the behaviour and society sector.
beoordeling assessment; performance review
beoordelingsschaal grading scale Grades (or marks) in the Netherlands are from 1 to 10.
Beraad Internationale Samenwerking Onderwijs Nederland (BISON) BISON This was a forum for informal discussion among the three main organisations concerned with the internationalisation of Dutch education: the European Platform for Dutch Education (for secondary education), CINOP (for vocational and adult education) and Nuffic (for higher education).BISON was commissioned by the Ministry of Education, Culture and Science to produce the annual BISON Monitor of International Mobility in Education with statistics on international student and staff mobility.The BISON Monitor has been succeeded by our publications on student mobility and our Facts figures-dashboards.
beroepenveldcommissie curriculum advisory committee Group of representatives and experts from professional practice, advising institutions on the content of the curriculum for a certain profession.
beroepsbegeleidende leerweg (BBL) work-based pathway, professional pathway, professional learning track One of two possible learning tracks in vocational education. Pupils who choose BBL spend at least 60 per cent of their time as apprentices working for an employer. Those who choose the other option (BOL) spend relatively more time in the classroom.
beroepscompetentieprofiel (bcp) occupational profile, professional profile A term used in the VET sector.Source: SBB
beroepserkenning professional recognition
beroepsgericht onderwijs vocationally oriented education [MBO]; professional education [HBO]
beroepsgerichte kwalificatiestructuur occupation-based qualification structure This term is used mainly in vocational education (MBO).
beroepskeuzewerk careers counselling Degree programme in the behaviour and society sector.
beroepskolom This term refers to the career-based education trajectory: the path from preparatory secondary vocational education (VMBO) to senior secondary vocational education (MBO) and then on to higher professional education (HBO).
beroepskwalificatie vocational qualification [VMBO]; professional qualification [HBO]
beroepsonderwijs vocational education and training (VET) Source: SBB
beroepsonderwijs en volwasseneneducatie (bve) vocational training and adult education This is a large sector of education which was formed in 1996 with the fusion of four types of education: secondary vocational education (MBO), the former apprenticeship system, adult education (VAVO) and basic education. In Britain this is often referred to as further education. In South Africa it is further education and training, or FET.
beroepsopleidende leerweg (BOL) school-based pathway Explain that this is one of two possible learning tracks in vocational education. Pupils who choose BOL spend between 20 and 60 per cent of their time in the classroom. Those who choose the other option (BBL) spend relatively more time working as apprentices for an employer.
beroepsoriëntatie professional orientation
beroepspraktijk professional practice
beroepspraktijkvorming (bpv) work placement Source:SBB
beroepsprofiel professional profile
beroepsvereisten professional requirements There are a number of professions for which requirements have been laid down with respect to the knowledge, skills and understanding that students are expected to acquire during their training. These requirements are laid down by law, usually by the government department concerned. The institutions must ensure that their graduates meet these requirements.
beroepsvoorlichting careers information
bestuurlijke informatiekunde information management and auditing Degree programme in the economics sector. Study of the use of computers in organisations. Training for designing and operating computerised information systems and for working with the systems users.
bestuurs- en organisatiewetenschappen public administration and management science Degree programme in the behaviour and society sector.
bestuurskunde public administration Degree programme in the behaviour and society sector. Includes study of the organisation of public administration, of the main mechanisms and techniques for governing, and of policy and decision-making processes. Interdisciplinary study combining law, economics, political science and sociology.
bestuursraad (hogeschool/Open Universiteit) governing council Together with the college van bestuur, the bestuursraad is one of the two bodies that administer a hogeschool or the Open Universiteit.
bestuursraad (ministerie) executive board Within a ministry, the bestuursraad is the top policy-making and administrative body.
beta-wetenschappen science subjects; science The distinction between alpha, beta and gamma subjects (and aptitudes) is peculiar to the Netherlands. It should always be explained in English texts.
beurspromovendus PhD scholarship student Source: RUG Terminology list.
Beurzen Internationaal Onderwijs (BIO) This was the regular portion of the old NFP programme which offered fellowships for study at an institute of International Education.
bevoegdheidsverklaring certificate of competence Often used to refer to a certificate that allows foreign teachers to teach minority languages and culture in Dutch schools.
bewegingstechnologie human movement technology Degree programme in the health care sector. Training for the design and testing of rehabilitation equipment, and of materials and equipment to prevent injuries in sports, on-the-job, and at school.
bewegingswetenschappen science of human movement Degree programme in the health care sector. Study of all aspects of human movement for a variety of purposes including rehabilitation, sport, ergonomics and physiotherapy. The field draws on knowledge and methods from the natural sciences, the bio-medical sciences, and the social sciences.
bibliotheek en documentaire informatie library and information studies Degree programme in the economics sector. Training in professional mediation between the demand for and the supply of information. This means analysing information requirements; locating, selecting and processing information; making it accessible in various ways; and encouraging its use.
bijbelkennis en cultuurgeschiedenis van het Christendom bible studies and the cultural history of Christendom Degree programme in the education sector.
bijvak subsidiary subject; minor subject [AE]; minor [AE] Usually a subject in a field other than the students major field.
bijzonder hoogleraar professor occupying an endowed chair Professor who has been appointed and is paid by a private institution or foundation. Such a post is often temporary, and on a part-time basis.
bijzonder onderwijs private education; private schools; privately-run denominational education Private schools (as opposed to public schools) are either denominational or founded on a particular ideology or educational philosophy. Use of the word private can be misleading, however. It suggests that the schools are privately funded whereas in fact they receive the same government funding as public schools. This should be explained. The word special is not correct either because it suggests that special education is involved.
bijzondere leerstoel endowed chair
bijzondere universiteit special university; denominational university These are the Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, University of Nijmegen, and Tilburg University. Although they were privately founded, they cannot be called private universities because they are funded in exactly the same way as the other universities: that is, by the government. What sets them apart is that they were founded at the initiative of church organisations.
bilaterale samenwerking bilateral cooperation
binaire stelsel binary system This term refers to the fact that the Netherlands has two distinct types of higher education: WO, which is academically oriented and has traditionally been offered at research universities, and HBO, which is more practically oriented towards specific careers and has traditionally been offered at hogescholen (universities of applied sciences). This distinction is maintained even now both types of institution are awarding both bachelors and masters degrees.
binary system and bama Since 2002-2003, both types of Dutch higher education institution are free in principle to offer programmes of both types. This means that if they wish, research universities can offer HBO programmes, and universities of applied sciences (hogescholen) can offer WO programmes. At the same time, both research universities and hogescholen can award bachelor’s degrees and master’s degrees.
bindend studieadvies binding recommendation regarding the next step in a person's education At the end of a students first year of higher education, the institution tells him whether or not he will be allowed to continue in the same study programme.
bio-farmaceutische wetenschappen bio-pharmaceutical sciences Degree programme in the science sector.
biologische laboratoriumopleiding biological laboratory techniques Degree programme in the engineering and technology sector.
biomedische wetenschappen biomedical sciences Degree programme in the health care sector. Study of the principles, methods and techniques of medical-biological, clinical and epidemiological research.
biomedische wetenschappen, fundamentele fundamental biomedical science Degree programme in the science sector. Medical biology.
bioprocestechnologie bioprocess technology Degree programme in the sector of agriculture and the natural environment.
biotechnologie biotechnology Degree programme in the engineering and technology sector and in the sector of agriculture and the natural environment.
blokonderwijs block teaching
bodem, water en atmosfeer soil, water and atmosphere Degree programme in the sector of agriculture and the natural environment.
boek- en informatiewetenschap book and information studies Degree programme in the language and culture sector.
boekhandel en uitgeverij publishing and bookselling Degree programme in the economics sector. Training for the acquisition, creation, production and dissemination of information, including its marketing and management.
Bolognaverklaring Bologna Declaration By signing the ‘Joint declaration of the European Ministers of Education, convened in Bologna on 19 June 1999’ - better known as the Bologna Declaration - ministers of 29 countries commited themselves to creating a ‘European area of higher education’.Among other things, this called for ‘the adoption of a system essentially based on two main cycles, undergraduate and graduate.
bos- en natuurbeheer forestry and environmental management Degree programme in the sector of agriculture and the natural environment.
bosbouw forestry University degree programme in the sector of agriculture and the natural environment.
bouwkunde (hbo) architecture and construction engineering Degree programme in the engineering and technology sector at a university of applied sciences. Broad training in the construction, furnishing and management of spaces for residential purposes, work, and recreation. Programme includes technical subjects (architecture, mechanics, construction physics, materials science, computer applications), plus design, economics, social sciences and urban planning.
bouwkunde I en II building Degree programme in the education sector.
bouwtechniek I en II construction techniques Degree programme in the education sector.
bouwtechnische bedrijfskunde construction management Degree programme in the engineering and technology sector. Training for building contractors and for the companies that serve them.
bpv-overeenkomst work placement contract See beroepspraktijkvorming (bpv).Source: SBB
brancheorganisatie branch organisation Source: SBB
brugklas transition class This is the first year of secondary education. At the end of this year pupils are advised which stream of secondary schooling will be best for them.Source: Dutch Educational System, Nuffic (updates in 2000 and 2003).
buitengewoon hoogleraar professor by special appointment
buitenlandse student foreign student; international student; overseas student [BE]
buitenpromovendus external doctoral student/candidate This is a person who is pursuing a doctorate at his or her own expense, without a scholarship and without an AIO or OIO position.Source: Tilburg University.
buitenschools onderwijs non-formal education Education that takes place outside the school.
bul degree certificate The Dutch term bul refers primarily to the written document rather than to the degree awarded.
Bureau Buitenland Office for International Relations Also: international office; international affairs office.
bureau van de universiteit university office; central administration; university administration
burgerservicenummer (BSN) social security number
bursaal student on a scholarship; scholarship student; scholarship recipient
BuZa Nickname for the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Ministerie van Buitenlandse Zaken).
capaciteitsbeheersing restriction of intake capacity
capaciteitsfixus restriction in connection with teaching capacity This is the limit placed on the number of students admitted to a particular study programme.
capacity building capacity-building This is a priority within Dutch development cooperation and a keystone of sustainable development. The aim is to increase a countrys or organisations capacity for meeting its own needs. The term is development jargon and requires some explanation, however. The hyphen is optional, but it does signal readers that it is a special term.
CEAIE China Education Association for International Exchange The partner organisation in China that helps facilitate the Neso.Go to the CEAIE website.
CEF Common European Framework
CEFR Common European Framework of Reference for languages Source: Council of Europe.
CENESA Cooperation in Education between the Netherlands and South Africa.
Centra voor Werk en Inkomen (CWI) Centres for Work and Income (CWI) These were the Dutch equivalents of the British jobcentres (formerly labour exchanges). In Dutch a CWI used to be called an arbeidsbureau. As of 1 January 2009 CWI is part of UWV and is called UWV Werkbedrijf.
Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek (CBS) Statistics Office of the Netherlands Go to the website of the CBS.
Centraal Planbureau (CPB) CPB: Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis Go to the CPB website.
Centraal Register van Opleidingen in het Hoger Onderwijs (CROHO) Central Register of Higher Education Study Programmes Degree programmes that are officially recognised are registered in CROHO. The CROHO list categorises programmes into several components (or fields of study): agriculture and natural environment, economics, behaviour and society, engineering (or technology), law, health care, nature, education, language and culture, and cross-sectoral.
centrale aanmelding central registration procedure
centrale interfaculteit central combined faculty; joint faculty of… A combined faculty that provides educational programmes for all the other faculties within a university.
Centrum voor Innovatie van Beroepsopleidingen (CINOP) Centre for Innovation in Vocational, Adult and Continuing Education Go to the CINOP website.
certificatie certification
certificering certification
cesuur cutting score; pass mark
cesuurbepaling determination of a pass mark; the setting of a cutting score
chemische en technologische studierichtingen chemistry and engineering for agriculture University degree programme in the sector of agriculture and the natural environment.
chemische laboratoriumopleiding chemical laboratory techniques Degree programme in the engineering and technology sector.
chemische technologie chemical technology Degree programme in the engineering and technology sector. Training for the industry that processes raw materials into products: for example, petrol and plastics from petroleum, and food from farm products.
CIEE Council for International Educational Exchange This is an American organisation.
cijfer mark [BE]; grade [AE]
cijferlijst list of marks [BE]; list of grades [AE]; grades list [AE] This document traditionally accompanies a Dutch diploma.
civiele techniek civil engineering Degree programme in the engineering and technology sector. The design, construction and management of infrastructural facilities (railways, motorways, bridges, tunnels, polders, ports, airports, sluices, dykes, drilling platforms, sewerage systems, water purification plants, and commercial and industrial buildings).
civiele technologie en management civil technology and management University degree programme in the engineering and technology sector. Interdisciplinary programme that trains engineers to solve complex problems of civil engineering in which questions of business and/or public administration also play an important role.
civielrechtelijke opleiding civil law University degree programme in the law sector.
ckv Abbreviation of culturele en kunstzinnige vorming.
coassistent clinical placement student, medical student on clinical rotation/placement, student doctor, (junior/senior) house officer (UK), intern (US)
coassistentschap clinical rotation/placement, postgraduate medical training, medical internship (US), training for junior/senior house doctor or foundation doctor (UK)
cognitieve kunstmatige intelligentie cognitive artificial intelligence University degree programme in the science sector. Study of the structure and function of knowledge; the acquisition, representation and storage of knowledge; and the processing and application of knowledge. Combines study of knowledge systems, logic, information science, psychology and linguistics.
cognitiewetenschap cognitive science University degree programme in the behaviour and society sector. Study of human cognition: how people think, observe and communicate with each other. Combines psychology, information science, linguistics and philosophy in order to produce insights about the human interface with computers.
cohort cohort; intake Large sample of students defined for a longitudinal study. Example: The first-year students of 1981 constitute a cohort.
college lecture; course of lectures
college van beroep voor de examens examination appeals board
College van Beroep voor de Examens (CBE) Board of Appeal for Examinations Every research university has a Board of Appeal where students can go to appeal against decisions such as the result of an exam, a decision on admissions to courses or to exams or the assessment of a thesis.Source: RUG Terminology list.
college van beroep voor het hoger onderwijs higher education appeals tribunal
College van Beroep voor het Hoger Onderwijs (CBHO) The Appeals Tribunal for Higher Education Go to the CBHO website.Source: RUG Terminology list.
college van bestuur executive board
college van decanen committee of deans
college van hoogleraren committee of professors
college van toezicht board of governors
college voor promoties doctorate board
collegegeld tuition fees [BE], tuition [AE]
collegekaart student card
collegezaal lecture hall
colloquium doctum entrance examination; matriculation Special university entrance examination for students 21 years or older who do not have the required formal educational qualifications.
combinatiecijfer combined marks average; combined score average The combined score average (combinatiecijfer) is an additional grade for minor subjects in secondary school for which the students do not do an exam. The combined grade can be used as compensation, under certain conditions, if the exam results are not sufficient for the student to pass.
commerciële bedrijfskunde business and commerce Degree programme in the behaviour and society sector.
commerciële economie commerce; marketing Degree programme in the economics sector. Training for marketing, sales and purchasing.
commissie van beroep appeals committee
Commissie van Overleg Ontwikkelingssamenwerking (COO) Committee for consultation regarding development cooperation.
Commissie van Overleg over Internationalisering (COI) International relations forum for universities.
Commissie Veerman Veerman Committee The Veerman Committee issued a report (Triple Differentiation in Higher Education) in April 2010. Among other things, the committee recommended that universities specialise in a specific area of science and that they work together more closely to be able to compete internationally.
commissie voor geschillen arbitration committee
communicatie communication studies Degree programme in the economics sector. Programmes can include public relations, advertising, and/or management communication.
communicatiekunde communication University degree programme in the language and culture sector. Study of the theory and practice of internal and external communication within organizations. The programme combines courses in applied linguistics with analysis of methods for exchanging information, and includes the study of a foreign language.
communicatiesystemen communication systems Degree programme in the economics sector.
communicatiewetenschap communication University degree programme in the behaviour and society sector. Non-technical study of the functions, organisation and influence of the mass media and mass communication (press, radio and television, posters, films, fashion, rumours, etc.).
competentie competency N.B.: The plural of competency is competencies. The word competence has no plural form.
computerondersteund onderwijs (COO) computer-assisted instruction (CAI); computer-aided learning (CAL)
computertechniek computer engineering Degree programme in the engineering and technology sector. Training in the construction and adaptation of computer hardware, and in programming at both machine and user levels.
concurrency-onderwijs education + concurrent employment In some part-time degree programmes, activities performed for an employer are an integral part of the programme. In such cases, the university or hogeschool can demand that these activities meet certain specifications.
confessioneel onderwijs denominational education
conrector deputy head
consumptieve techniek I en II cooking, baking and serving Degree programme in the education sector.
contactonderwijs face-to-face instruction
continuing education Education provided for adults after they have left the formal education system, consisting typically of short, part-time courses. People who take these courses are usually seeking to upgrade or update their existing knowledge and skills.Source: Oxford English Dictionary.
contractonderwijs contract education; contract teaching Educational institutions, especially in the vocational sector, are sometimes commissioned by companies or organisations to provide courses for specific purposes. Commercial rates are charged for this service.
controle achteraf ex post control The autonomy called for by the Higher Education and Research Act dictates that the government, instead of exercising detailed control before the fact (ex ante control), makes a general examination of performance after the fact (ex post control).
coöperatief hoger onderwijs cooperative higher education Alternating six months of work with six months of study.
Cooperation Organisation for Vocational Education, Training and the Labour Market (SBB). Vocational education and business, trade and industry collaborate within SBB to provide students with practical training.Go to the SBB website.
copromotor second supervisor; co-examiner [BE]; co-supervisor [AE] A copromotor, or second supervisor, is a member of the academic staff who assists a full professor (hoogleraar) with supervision of a PhD student. Where a second supervisor has been appointed, the promotor may be referred to as the principal supervisor.
cortège academic procession
coschap See coassistentschap.
COSPA Coordinating Office for Student Placement Abroad For more information see our page on COSPA (in Dutch).
counterpart In the context of Dutch development cooperation this is understood to be the organisation, educational institution or individual in a developing country who is supposed to benefit from a relationship with a Dutch partner. The word does not carry this connotation in English.It simply means a comparable body: for example, DAAD is the German counterpart of Nuffic. Partner in the South might therefore be a better choice. (N.B.: In development jargon, what used to be called the First and Third Worlds is now called North and South.)
creatief-educatief werk creative activity in social work Degree programme in the behaviour and society sector. Training in helping people to overcome their personal problems through creative activity.
creatieve therapie arts therapy Degree programme in the behaviour and society sector. Training in the application of various forms of creative expression (art, drama, music, dance) to the treatment of psychiatric patients, the mentally and physically handicapped, and difficult children.
CSCSE Chinese Service Centre for Scholarly Exchange
Cultureel Verdrag Cultural Agreement
cultureel werk social work (with the disadvantaged) Degree programme in the behaviour and society sector. Training in activities designed to help people in disadvantaged groups to improve their situation and enhance their personal potential.
culturele antropologie en sociologie der niet-westerse samenlevingen cultural and social anthropology University degree programme in the behaviour and society sector.
culturele en kunstzinnige vorming cultural and artistic appreciation A subject in upper secondary education first introduced in 1999-2000.Source: Dutch Educational System, Nuffic (updates in 2000 and 2003).
culturele en maatschappelijke vorming community work; cultural social work Degree programme in the behaviour and society sector. Broad training that lays the foundation for a wide range of jobs in the field of social welfare, most of which involve working with groups of people who are trying to improve themselves and their situation.
culturele studies cultural studies University degree programme in the language and culture sector. Study of how art is experienced, the function of art and culture, and the transfer of cultural knowledge.
cultuur- en wetenschapsstudies cultural studies University degree programme in the language and culture sector. Combines philosophy, history and sociology to examine fundamental issues underlying society, such as norms and values regarding the meaning of existence and the quality of life, and the political and social choices necessitated by technological developments.
cultuurgeschiedenis cultural history Degree programme in the language and culture sector.
cultuurtechniek soil and water engineering (UK); field engineering (US) University degree programme in the sector of agriculture and the natural environment. Training in planning and conducting the technological interventions required for changing the use of an area of land. In the UK and the US, this is part of agricultural engineering.
cultuurwetenschappen humanities University degree programme in the language and culture sector. Open University programme combining history, art history, literature, music and philosophy.
cum laude cum laude
cursorisch beroepsonderwijs vocational courses
cursorisch onderwijs education through one course at a time In 1978 it became possible to earn a diploma step-by-step, by amassing certificates awarded upon completion of individual courses.
cursusaanbod courses on offer
cursusduur duration or length of a study programme This is the length of time a study programme is supposed to take. In practice, students often require extra time. The duration of a programme is sometimes expressed as a number of credits.
cursusgeld course fees
cursusmateriaal course materials
dagonderwijs daytime classes
dans, opleiding voor het docentschap teacher training course in dance Degree programme in the education sector.
decaan dean (when referring to the head of a faculty or school); school counsellor (when referring to an advisor for students)
decanaat dean's office
deelcertificaat certificate, module certificate, certificate of completion, modular certificate Document certifying that a student has completed one module or component of a study programme. A diploma is awarded once the student has obtained all prescribed certificates.In English, it is not always necessary to translate the deel-component of this term explicitly, as it may be sufficient in the context to say that a certificate is awarded on completion of each module, and that (for example) all three certificates must be obtained before the final diploma can be awarded.If it is necessary to be explicit, module certificate, modular certificate and certificate of completion are useful translations. Linguistic purists may argue that a modular certificate is a certificate earned for a number of modules rather than for a single module. This term should therefore be used with the necessary circumspection. In common with the Dutch term, certificate of completion may imply that the certificate has no other value than being a step on the way to earning a diploma.
deelkwalificatie Completion of one component of a study programme that qualifies a person for a certain profession - teaching, for example. The certificate awarded upon this occasion might also be called a deelkwalificatie.
deeltijdonderwijs part-time study programmes or courses
deeltijds jaarprogramma part-time study programme
DELTA Dutch Education: Learning at Top Level Abroad Programme through which the education ministry enables higher education institutions who are members of a Neso to offer scholarships to students in the host country whom they hope to recruit.
dependance auxiliary branch
derde geldstroom third flow of funds Funds obtained through contract research.
deskundige specialist; expert The Dutch term is often used to refer to a member of staff from a Dutch insitution who is seconded to a university or institution in a developing country, or who goes there to work on a joint project. In English the work expert carries a connotation of superiority. It might be more appropriate to refer to the person by their area of expertise: for example, biologist.
deskundigheidsbevordering staff development; professional development Source: Kees Broekhof: Notebook (Nederlandse en Vlaamse onderwijstermen).
detachering secondment
Deutscher Akademischer Austauchdienst (DAAD) German Academic Exchange Service Go to the DAAD website.
dictaat lecture notes Lecture notes, prepared by the teacher/lecturer, which are reproduced and distributed among the students attending the course.
didactische werkvorm teaching method
didaktiek teaching methods; systematic instruction; (art of) teaching; didactics; instructional psychology; educational psychology The art or science of teaching. The branch of education that deals with the transfer of knowledge, also with regard to a specific subject. In English the term didactics is used only by specialists; most people would talk about teaching methods.
Dienst Uitvoering Onderwijs (DUO) Education Executive Agency Go to the DUO website (in Dutch).
diergeneeskunde veterinary medicine University degree programme in the health care sector.
diermanagement animal management Degree programme in the sector of agriculture and the natural environment. Study of the biology (physiology and behaviour) of animals that are used by human beings for food and other purposes, and of the ways in which they should be treated and used. The focus is on ethical issues.
Dies Natalis official anniversary Term used mainly by universities to indicate the anniversary of the institution.
diploma diploma In the Netherlands the diploma itself offers information about the university, the faculty, the degree awarded, the final marks or grades, the students name, birthdate and birthplace, and the date and place where the diploma was issued.
diploma supplement diploma supplement A document, based on a European model, that accompanies a person’s higher education diploma. It provides a detailed description of the qualification, a list of the individual courses taken and the grades and credits obtained, and a brief description of the national educational framework within which the qualification in question was awarded. It is similar to a transcript.
diplomamobiliteit diploma mobility
diplomawaardering credential evaluation, diploma recognition For more information check our pages on diploma recognition.
diplomering certification
directie harmonie en fanfare, opleiding voor het praktijkdiploma band direction (diploma) Degree programme in the language and culture sector (arts course).
directie koor, orkest, of harmonie en fanfare conducting: choir, orchestra or band Degree programme in the language and culture sector (arts course).
Directoraat-Generaal Internationale Samenwerking (DGIS) Directorate-General for International Cooperation This is the department of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs which is responsible for development cooperation. (In the Netherlands the word cooperation is considered more politically correct than aid or assistance.)
discussiecollege colloquium; seminar; academic meeting
docent lecturer While a docent may teach in higher or secondary education, in the English-speaking world a lecturer or instructor works only in higher education.
docentenopleiding agrarische vakken teacher training course in agricultural subjects Degree programme in the sector of agriculture and the natural environment.
docerend musicus teacher training course in music Degree programme in the language and culture sector (arts course).
doctor (dr.) doctor (dr.) The highest academic title in the Netherlands, conferred only by universities. The title is written before the name.
doctoraal university degree Until 2002, this was the degree awarded after a four- or five-year programme at a research university, considered equivalent to a masters degree. Doctoraal refers to the fact that a person with this degree is entitled to pursue a doctorate.
doctoraal getuigschrift university diploma; university degree certificate Until 2002, this was the degree certificate awarded upon completion of a four- or five-year programme at a research university. It is considered equivalent to a masters degree certificate.
doctoraal programma doctoraal programme Under the old system, this was a four- or five-year programme which can be described as an integrated study and research programme.
doctoraat doctorate Highest university degree awarded upon completion of a programme of research lasting at least four years which includes the writing and defence of a thesis (proefschrift). Dutch universities do not award a PhD; the doctorate is equivalent.
doctoraat honoris causa honorary doctorate
doctorandus (drs) 'doctorandus' This was the title traditionally granted to university graduates in all fields except law, agriculture and engineering, who completed a four- or five-year programme at a research university (before 2002).Literally, doctorandus means one who is qualified to proceed for the title of doctor. The title, abbreviated to drs., is written before the name.Since 1986 a doctorandus has been entitled to use the title Master, abbreviated to MA and written after the name. Under the bachelors-masters degree system, graduates of WO masters degree programmes can still choose to use this title if they wish.
documentaire informatievoorziening documentary information services
documentatiecentrum resource centre; documentation centre
doelmatigheidscontrole efficiency audit
doorlopende leerlijn continuous learning pathway; curriculum continuity
doorstromen progress, transfer To move on (or move up) to another type of education, having received recognition for knowledge, skill or competence acquired.
doorstroommaster follow on master's degree programme A masters degree programme which logically follows on from a particular bachelors programme, usually making the admission for students who have this bachelors degree a formality.Source: RUG Terminology list.
doorstroomprofiel combination of subjects; transfer profile A specific combination of subjects that is required to transfer to another type of education, or to a particular occupational sector.
dossierverklaring (Open Universiteit) transcript; transcript of academic record An offical copy of the record of a student who has completed a combination of courses rather than a prescribed degree programme.
drama, opleiding voor het docentschap teacher training course in drama Degree programme in the education sector.
drempelloos without a threshold Used in connection with courses for which there are no minimum admission requirements.
dual master's One of the many types of university masters degree programmes. This one combines theory and practice and often has extra admission requirements.
duale leerweg work-study programme A student combines study with paid work which is directly related to the curriculum–more closely related than an internship would be.Source: University of Groningen.
dubbel-diploma double diploma
Dublindescriptoren Dublin descriptors The Dublin descriptors are internationally acceptable descriptors which have been developed jointly by stakeholders across Europe. They describe per cycle (bachelors, masters and doctorates) the learning outcomes in terms of knowledge, skills and competences in order to increase understanding of the higher education system at home and abroad.Source: NVAO
Duitse taal- en letterkunde German language and literature University degree programme in the language and culture sector.
Duitslandstudies German studies University degree programme in the language and culture sector.
Dutch Validation Council (DVC) This was set up in 1997 to inspect and validate masters degree courses offered by universities of applied sciences (hogescholen). This is now done by the NVAO.
EADTU European Association of Distance Teaching Universities Go to the EADTU website.
EAIE European Association of International Education Go to the EAIE website.
econometrie econometrics University degree programme in the economics sector.
economie economics University degree programme in the economics sector.
economie van landbouw en milieu agricultural and environmental economics University degree programme in the sector of agriculture and the natural environment.
economische bedrijfstechniek technology and management; economic management techniques Degree programme in the engineering and technology sector. Similar to technische bedrijfskunde. Broad training combining engineering and management that equips graduates to deal with the interplay between the various aspects of business: economic, organisational, social and technological.
economische en historische studies economic and historical studies University degree programme in the language and culture sector. Combines macro-economics, micro-economics, business economics, international relations, and economic history.
economische geografie en internationale economie international economics and economic geography University degree programme in the behaviour and society sector.
economisch-linguïstische opleiding business and languages Degree programme in the economics sector. Training for international business, including study of three foreign languages.
ecotoxicologie ecological toxicology Degree programme in the science sector.
ECTS European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System (also abbreviated as EC in the Netherlands) Sometimes referred to as European Credit Transfer System. The EU introduced this standardised system for measuring study load as a way to facilitate international mobility. The Netherlands adopted ECTS officially in 2002. One ECTS credit represents 28 hours of full-time study, and 60 credits represent one year.
EDF European Development Fund
Edubox (Open Universiteit) Edubox Electronic learning environment at Open Universiteit.Source: Open Universiteit website.
educatieve masteropleiding master's degree programme for teaching Formerly known as the lerarenopleiding. Two-year university masters programme that combines study of a subject with education courses. Students thus earn a regular masters degree and acquire a teaching qualification.Source: University of Groningen.
eerste geldstroom direct funding; first flow of funds; government funding Funds for research which a university or research institute receives directly from the government.
eerstegraads bevoegdheid teaching qualification, first level Qualification for teaching all classes of HAVO and VWO. This teacher training generally takes place at a university after completion of an MA.Because a literal translation of the term eerstegraads (first level) offers little information for readers who are not familiar with the Dutch teaching qualifications framework, it is extremely helpful to offer readers explanatory information, such as The holder of this diploma has qualified teacher status in the Netherlands for teaching the named subjects in all years and all types of secondary education.Source: Dutch Educational System, Nuffic (updates in 2000 and 2003).
eerstegraads onderwijsbevoegdheid teaching qualification, first level This is the highest teaching qualification in the Netherlands, granted upon completion of a university programme of teacher training (ULO). The holder is qualified to teach one subject at all levels of general secondary education and vocational education. It is intended primarily for teachers of the final years of HAVO and VWO.Because a literal translation of the term eerstegraads (first level) offers little information for readers who are not familiar with the Dutch teaching qualifications framework, it is extremely helpful to offer readers explanatory information, such as The holder of this diploma has qualified teacher status in the Netherlands for teaching the named subjects in all years and all types of secondary education.
eerstejaars student first-year student
Egyptische taal en cultuur Egyptian language and literature University degree programme in the language and culture sector.
EHEA European Higher Education Area
eigen bijdrage supplementary fee or contribution; fee paid by the individual
eindcijfer final mark [BE]; final grade [AE] This is derived from the results of several interim examinations.
einddatum voor inschrijving closing date for enrolment
eindexamen school-leaving examination [BE]; final examination; finals [AE] The last and most important examination in secondary education. It in fact consists of a series of examinations in a number of subjects.
eindonderwijs A type and level of education with which a person is qualified to enter the workforce and play an active role in society. It can be considered the final stage in a persons formal education.
eindtermen learning outcomes; exit qualifications; finishing level(s); attainment targets [BE]; achievement level(s) A description of the knowledge, insight, skills and professional attitude that a student should have acquired on completion of the course or programme in question.
eindverhandeling final thesis
elektrotechniek electrical engineering Degree programme in the engineering and technology sector. Training in the design, production and maintenance of electrical or electronic equipment or systems.
elektrotechniek I en II electricity, electrical engineering Degree programme in the education sector.
emeritaat retirement of a university professor
EML educational modelling language Source: Open Universiteit website.
EMMC Erasmus Mundus Masters Courses
Engelse taal- en letterkunde English language and literature University degree programme in the language and culture sector.
Engelstalig onderwijs education conducted in English
ENIC European National Information Centre on Academic Recognition and Mobility A network of the Council of Europe and UNESCO/CEPES.
Erasmus European Community Action Scheme for the Mobility of University Students A component of the LifeLong Learning programme from the European Commission for mobility of higher education in Europe.
Erasmus Mundus Programme of the European Commission to improve the quality of European higher education and to encourage cooperation with countries outside the EU, through joint master’s degree programmes offered by institutions in the EU member states.
erepromotie honorary degree ceremony; conferment of an honorary degree
ergotherapie, opleiding voor occupational therapy Degree programme in the health care sector.
erkende instelling recognised institution
Erkennen van Verworven Competenties (EVC) recognition of acquired competencies; recognition of prior learning (RPL); system for the recognition of prior learning; assessment/accreditation of prior learning (APL); prior learning assessment and recognition (PLAR) Source: Nuffics credential evaluation department .
erkenning recognition; accreditation; validation Recognition is the general term, which in English can refer to the recognition of diplomas, degrees, titles and/or institutions. Depending on the country, an institution that is recognised might also be said to be accredited, whereas a recognised study programme is said to be either accredited or validated.Generally recognition is a legal matter regulated by government, whereas accreditation and validation are in the hands of an independent organisation or association.
ESN Erasmus Student Network
etnische studies en minderheidsvraagstukken ethnic studies and minority issues University degree programme in the behaviour and society sector.
EUI European University Institute Go to the EUI website.
European Credit Transfer System (ECTS) The EU introduced this standardised system for measuring study load as a way to facilitate international mobility. The Netherlands adopted ECTS officially in 2002. One ECTS credit represents 28 hours of full-time study, and 60 credits represent one year.Over time the term accumulation was added: European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System, but because ECTS was already widely used, the abbreviation was not changed.
Europees Ontwikkelingsfonds European Development Fund
Europees Platform - internationaliseren in onderwijs European Platform - internationalisation of education Dutch knowledge centre for internationalisation in primary and secondary education and teacher training. The European Platform and Nuffic have merged in 2015.
Europees Referentiekader (ERK) Common European Framework of Reference (CEF or CEFR)
Europese studies Europese studies University degree programme in the language and culture sector. Broad study of the history, sociology, economics, politics, law and culture of Europe, with a specialisation in the language, literature and culture of one or more EU countries.
EVD Agency for International Business and Cooperation EVD is the Netherlands Foreign Trade Agency, part of the Ministry of Economic Affairs.
examen review of a student's record; examination In the context of the Dutch system of higher education, the term examen is somewhat misleading because an examen is actually a review of the students academic achievements to see whether or not he or she has met all the requirements for a particular study programme.Therefore, when translating, avoid using the word examination. For example: De student is geslaagd voor het doctoraalexamen = the student has satisfied all the requirements for the doctoraal.
examencommissie examination board; board of examiners
examendossier examination file This term requires explanation. The examination file is a document accompanying a HAVO or VWO diploma which provides a record not just of exam grades, but of everything the pupil has done (projects, extra papers, etc.) The ‘examination file’ was introduced in 1999-2000.Source: Dutch Educational System, Nuffic (updates in 2000 and 2003).
examengeld examination fees
examenpakket examination subjects
examenprogramma syllabus of a study programme A description of all the components of a study programme, and the requirements that must be met in terms of credit points, grades, etc. Translators should avoid the term examination since this can be misleading to readers.
examenreglement syllabus, or rules for a study programme A detailed description of all the requirements that must be met before a student has successfully completed a particular study programme. Often this is a relatively thick booklet explaining a complex system for earning the required number of credit points. Translators should avoid the word examination, since this can be misleading to readers.
examinator examiner
expressie door woord en gebaar drama Degree programme in the behaviour and society sector and in the education sector.
extraneus 'extraneus'; external candidate/student This is an enrolment status. An extraneus may take exams and use library and laboratory facilities, but may not attend lectures or apply for a study grant.
f.t.e. full-time equivalent
facilitaire dienstverlening facility management Degree programme in the economics sector. Problem-oriented study of all aspects of small or large households: living, working, dressing, eating and budgeting. Graduates work as facility managers (of the housekeeping, kitchen and security staffs of institutions and organisations) or as information officers for consumer affairs.
facultair of/concerning a faculty
faculteit faculty [BE]; school; division; department The major teaching unit in Dutch universities. In English, faculty can also refer to the academic staff (as opposed to the students). This is not so in Dutch.
faculteit der geneeskunde faculty of medicine; medical school
faculteitsbestuur faculty board Executive body responsible for day-to-day management.
faculteitsraad faculty council
farmacie pharmacy University degree programme in the science sector.
farmacochemie pharmaceutical chemistry University degree programme in the science sector.
fellowship In American English a scholarship for postgraduate study is called a fellowship. Fellowship in British English more often refers to an affiliation with a society. For example, He is a fellow of the Royal Society. Scholarship is therefore the safer choice of term, since it can be used for both undergraduate and postgraduate levels.
film- en opvoeringskunsten film and performing arts University degree programme in the language and culture sector. Theoretical and historical study of dramatic arts. Analysis of dramatic expression and textual content is based on semiotics and psychoanalysis.
film- en televisievormgeving film and television Degree programme in the language and culture sector (arts course). Training in the artistic and technical aspects of creating products for the audio-visual media.
film- en televisiewetenschap film and television University degree programme in the language and culture sector. Study of audio-visual productions, including the various methods for transferring information, and the art of interpreting and evaluating productions.
filosofie philosophy Degree programme in the language and culture sector. University degree programme in the education sector.
financieel-economisch overheidsbeleid public economic policy Degree programme in the economics sector.
financiële sector, hoger onderwijs finance Degree programme in the economics sector. Training for general management positions in banks, insurance companies, and the finance departments of large companies.
Finoegrische talen en letterkunde Finno-Ugric languages and literature University degree programme in the language and culture sector.
FION Federation of Institutes for International Education in the Netherlands
fiscaal-juridische opleiding fiscal law University degree programme in the law sector.
fiscale economie fiscal economics University degree programme in the economics sector. Study of the law and economics of taxation.
fixus-opleiding programme with restricted intake This is a study programme with a quota on the number of places.
fixusregeling regulations restricting intake; quota regulations
fonetiek phonetics University degree programme in the language and culture sector. Study of the process of speaking and understanding - the production, transmission and perception of human speech. Interdisciplinary study including physiology, neurophysiology, acoustics, psychology, communication and linguistics.
Ford Foundation International Fellowships Program (IFP) The Ford Foundation International Fellowships Program (Ford-IFP) provides opportunities to exceptional individuals from eligible IFP countries for advanced study.
fotografische vormgeving photographic design Degree programme in the language and culture sector (arts course).
Franse taal- en letterkunde French language and literature University degree programme in the language and culture sector.
Fries Frisian Degree programme in the education sector.
Friese taal- en letterkunde Frisian language and literature University degree programme in the language and culture sector.
further education Education below degree level for people above school level.
fysiotherapeut, opleiding tot physiotherapy Degree programme in the health care sector.
fysische geografie physical geography University degree programme in the science sector. Study of the variety and distribution of natural phenomena on the earths surface, and their interrelationships.
gamma-wetenschappen social sciences The distinction between alpha, beta and gamma subjects (and aptitudes) is peculiar to the Netherlands. It should always be explained in English texts.
gastdocent guest lecturer; visiting lecturer
gebonden programma (Open Universiteit) structured study programme Study programme through which Open University students earn legally recognized initial degrees. These programmes are more strictly prescribed than other Open University programmes, and students have to meet more specific requirements.
gecommitteerde external examiner
gedrag en maatschappij behaviour and society
Gedragscode Code of Conduct The Gedragscode internationale student in het Nederlandse hoger onderwijs is the Code of Conduct with respect to international students in Dutch higher education. This Code sets out standards for Dutch higher education institutions in their dealings with international students.
geesteswetenschappen humanities
geldstroom flow of funds Refers to the three main sources of research funding. The first flow comes directly from the government. The second flow is from the government via a research organization. And the third flow involves contracts with third parties.
gemeentelijke universiteit municipal university
gemengde leerweg combined track One of four options for the last two years of VMBO. Source: Dutch Educational System, Nuffic (updates in 2000 and 2003).
geneeskunde medicine University degree programme in the health care sector.
geochemie geochemistry University degree programme in the science sector. Study of chemical processes in the earths crust and its surface.
geodesie geodesy; surveying Degree programme in the engineering and technology sector. The mathematical and cartographic description of the shape and surface of the earth.
geofysica geophysics University degree programme in the science sector. Study of the physical properties of, and processes in, the earth, oceans and atmosphere.
geologie geology University degree programme in the science sector.
geosystems geographical information systems Degree programme in the science sector.
geschiedenis en staatsinrichting history and civics University degree programme in the education sector.
getuigschrift certificate; diploma; degree certificate This is the term most often written on Dutch diplomas.
getuigschrift hoger beroepsonderwijs higher professional education diploma; higher professional education degree; higher professional education degree certificate Until 2002, this was the credential awarded upon completion of a programme of higher professional education. Officially, titles were awarded rather than degrees.
getuigschrift van de eerste graad teaching certificate, first level
getuigschrift van de tweede graad teaching certificate, second level
getuigschrift van het doctorale examen university diploma
gewogen loting weighted draw
gezondheidskunde health Degree programme in the education sector.
gezondheidswetenschappen health sciences University degree programme in the health care sector. Study of the effects of the social or physical environment on human health. Programmes vary widely between institutions.
gezondheidszorg health care
gezondheidszorg, opleiding van kader in de health care management Degree programme in the health care sector. Training for heads of hospital units and departments.
godgeleerdheid theology University degree programme in the language and culture sector.
godsdienst religion Degree programme in the education sector.
godsdienst-pastoraal werk religious pastoral work Degree programme in the behaviour and society sector.
godsdienstwetenschap religious studies University degree programme in the language and culture sector. Anthropological study of western and non-western religions in the context of culture and society. Includes sociology, anthropology, psychology and philosophy.
graad degree Under the old Dutch higher education system, academic titles were awarded and not degrees. The only degree defined by law was that of doctor. The term graad was thus limited mainly to colloquial usage. With the new bachelors and masters degrees, this has changed.
graduate As a noun, a graduate is a person who has recently earned a degree, generally a bachelors degree. Graduate as an adjective is used by Americans to refer to all students who are pursuing either a masters degree or a PhD: i.e., graduate students, who go to graduate school.Outside America, all students in these categories are called postgraduate students. Graduate and postgraduate mean the same thing. The word postgraduate offers the advantage that everyone understands it correctly even if they use the other term themselves. The same cannot be said for graduate.The Bologna Declaration is a reason to opt for graduate, however, especially in an EU context. The Bologna Declaration refers to two cycles of higher education, which it calls the undergraduate and the graduate cycles. In any case, you must use one term or the other. They are synonyms so you cannot use both to mean two different things.
graduate school See graduate
grafische techniek I en II graphics technology Degree programme in the education sector.
grafische vormgeving graphic design Degree programme in the language and culture sector (arts course).
grenslandenbeleid higher education policy with respect to countries bordering on the Netherlands
Griekse en Latijnse taal en cultuur Greek and Latin languages and cultures University degree programme in the language and culture sector.
gymnasium gymnasium There is no equivalent in English. Explain that this is a form of pre-university education, comparable to English grammar schools, that includes the study of Latin and/or Greek.
handelseconomisch Duits/Frans, opleiding business German/French Degree programmes in the economics sector.
handvaardigheid handicrafts; manual arts Degree programme in the education sector.
handvaardigheid B (handenarbeid), opleiding voor het staatsdiploma diploma in manual arts B Degree programme in the education sector.
handvaardigheid, opleiding tot leraar voortgezet onderwijs van de eerste graad in teacher training course in handicrafts for secondary schools (grade-one qualification) Degree programme in the education sector.
harde knip bachelor-before-master The bachelor-before-master rule states that students have to obtain a full bachelors degree before they can start a masters programme.
hbo-bachelor Bachelors degree awarded to graduates of bachelors programmes at universities of applied sciences in the Netherlands. Depending on the programme completed, the title is Bachelor (B) followed by the specific field of study or Bachelor of Science/Bachelor of Arts.
hbo-bacheloropleiding undergraduate programme; undergraduate degree programme; undergraduate degree programme of higher professional education; undergraduate degree programme with an applied emphasis; Also known as: HBO undergraduate degree programme; bachelors degree programme; bachelors degree programme of higher professional education; bachelors degree programme with an applied emphasis; HBO bachelors degree programme.Education at a university of applied sciences geared primarily towards the practice of a profession. Students are oriented to the profession and confronted with practical situations that typify it. Internships are an integral and substantial part of every programme. Students acquire a professional attitude, skills for applying knowledge and research results in a wide variety of situations, skills for solving problems in complex situations, and communication skills. A complete programme consists of 240 credits.Source: Report of the Commissie Accreditatie Hoger Onderwijs, 2003.
hbo-getuigschrift See getuigschrift hoger beroepsonderwijs.
hbo-master Masters degree awarded to graduates of masters programmes at universities of applied sciences in the Netherlands. Depending on the programme completed, the title is Master (M) followed by the specific field of study or Master of Science/Master of Arts.
hbo-masteropleiding graduate (or postgraduate) degree programme; graduate (or postgraduate) degree programme of higher professional education; graduate (or postgraduate) degree programme with an applied emphasis; master's degree programme Also known as: professional masters degree programme; masters degree programme of higher professional eduation; masters degree programme with an applied emphasis; HBO masters degree programme.Training that prepares students for professions in specific areas. There are two types of masters programmes at universities of applied sciences: the first builds on the specific competencies acquired during the bachelors phase, and the second adds breadth to a students education. This takes the form of additional theory and an appreciation of multidisciplinarity.In both cases, students become more skilled at acquiring knowledge on their own, at conducting or directing applied research, and at making carefully considered judgements. Professionally oriented masters degree programmes last one or two years (or longer in exceptional cases).Source: Report of the Commissie Accreditatie Hoger Onderwijs, 2003.
HBO-raad Now called Vereniging Hogescholen.
HDI Human Development Index Source: UNDP website.
Helleense studies Hellenic studies University degree programme in the language and culture sector. Study of the modern Greek language and its linguistic history, and of Greek history and literature from Byzantine times to the present.
herexamen re-examination; resit (n.) [BE]; repeated examination; examination that is sat for a second (or….) time
herkansing resit (n.) [BE] It is usually best to explain that it is possible to resit or to repeat a test or interim examination. In any case, put the meaning in the verb. Few people outside Britain would recognise resit as a noun.
ho Whether the Dutch abbreviation is written 'HO' or 'ho' is a matter of style. Nuffic at the moment has opted for 'ho'.
hoger agrarisch onderwijs (hao) higher education in agriculture (HAO) A sector of higher professional education.
hoger algemeen voortgezet onderwijs (havo) senior general secondary education (HAVO) A HAVO diploma is awarded upon successful completion of a five-year course of general secondary education.
hoger beroepsonderwijs (hbo) higher professional education; professionally oriented higher education; higher education with an applied emphasis; HBO One of two types of higher education in the Netherlands, the other being wetenschappelijk onderwijs (wo), or research-oriented higher education. HBO is oriented more towards professions in specific areas than WO, and has traditionally been offered at hogescholen. Internships, which give students practical experience in real work situations, are a central feature of HBO.
hoger economisch onderwijs (heo) higher education in economics and management (HEO) The economics sector of HBO. Business school that awards a degree comparable to the British bachelors degree in business studies. However, the range of programmes is wider. Among others, it includes programmes in journalism, library science, home economics, transport logistics, and translation and interpreting. Before 1993, HEO was known as HEAO (hoger economisch en administratief onderwijs).
hoger gezondheidszorgonderwijs (hgzo) higher education in health care (HGZO) A sector of higher professional education.
hoger hotelonderwijs hotel management HBO degree programme in the economics sector. Training for managers in organizations providing hospitality and services to the public, hotels, restaurants, catering companies, conference centres, recreation and tourist facilities, and services related to care of the sick and elderly.
hoger onderwijs higher education; the universities and hogescholen; the higher education community; the higher education sector In Dutch this term is often used to refer to the entire community or sector of higher education, as in Hoger onderwijs was unaniem in zijn verzet tegen de bezuinigingen. In English you must be more specific than this. The higher education community unanimously resisted the budget cuts.
hoger onderwijs (ho) higher education (HE) Please note that the abbreviation HE is known only among specialists.
hoger onderwijs voor ouderen (hovo) continuing higher education Source: University of Groningen.
hoger onderwijs voor volwassenen higher adult education; higher education for adults
hoger onderwijsinstellingen higher education institutions Do not use institute. It is a narrower term than instelling and is generally used in English to refer to a specialised unit within a university.
Hoger Onderwijssamenwerking voor Basisonderwijs (HOB) Programme for Cooperation between Dutch Universities of Professional Education and Educational Institutions in Developing Countries for the Benefit of Primary Education This programme is being phased out in favour of the NPT.
hoger pedagogisch onderwijs (hpo) teacher training (HPO) A sector of higher professional education.
hoger sociaal-agogisch onderwijs (hsao) higher education in social and community work (HSAO) A sector of higher professional education.
hoger technisch en nautisch onderwijs (htno) higher education in technical and nautical fields (HTNO) A sector of higher professional education.
hoger technisch onderwijs (hto) higher education in engineering and technology (HTO) Before 1993 this type of education was offered at a hogere technische school (HTS). The name of the sector has now been changed to techniek, and programmes in this sector are provided by hogescholen.
hoger toeristisch en recreatief onderwijs tourism and recreation Degree programme in the economics sector.
hogere Europese beroepenopleiding European studies Degree programme in the economics sector. Programme combining study of the languages, history, culture and institutions of European countries, with business studies (economics, marketing and export) and European law and regulations.
hogere informatica (hbo) computer science Degree programme in the engineering and technology sector. Training in the design, creation and maintenance of information systems, which includes the development of software.
Hogere Installatietechniek Elektrotechnische installaties in gebouwen Higher technical engineering for electrical equipment in buildings; Higher installation technology for electrical equipment in buildings
Hogere Installatietechniek Werktuigbouwkundige installaties in gebouwen Higher technical engineering for mechanical equipment in buildings; Higher installation technology for mechanical equipment in buildings
hogere kaderopleiding pedagogiek tertiary programme in education for managerial staff
hogere technische school (hts) institute of technology
Hogescholenoverleg Internationale Betrekkingen (HIB) International relations forum for universities of applied sciences.
hogeschool university of applied sciences; hogeschool A degree-awarding institution which concentrates on the applied sciences, arts and technology, and provides students with the knowledge and skills they will need for professions in specific areas. It is one of the two main types of higher education institutions in the Netherlands offering higher education: universities of applied sciences have study programmes that are more specifically oriented towards professional practice than the more theoretically oriented education traditionally offered at research universities. Internships are an integral part of HBO programmes.Since January 2008, university of applied sciences is the translation preferred by the education ministry and the HBO-raad. Previously, university of professional education had been the translation preferred by the ministry.When referring to the two types of higher education institution, call them research universities and universities of applied sciences.Source: Nuffic, HBO-raad, January 2008.
hoofdfase (van een opleiding) main phase (of a study programme)
hoofdvak main subject; major subject [AE]; major [AE]
hoogleraar professor
hoogleraar op persoonlijke titel professor holding a personal chair A professor awarded a personal title on the basis of his or her academic standing.
HOOP-cyclus 'HOOP' cycle Biennial planning cycle. The planning of higher education and research in the Netherlands is a dynamic process, based on the institutions plan and annual report, and on the planning document published by the government every two years: the Higher Education and Research Plan (HOOP).The Minister discusses the draft HOOP with the universities, hogescholen, teaching hospitals, the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO), the KNAW, and the Royal Library jointly. Before the final version of the plan is adopted (no later than 31 January of the first calendar year to which it relates), the Minister also consults the Lower House of Parliament. Information is furnished and account rendered primarily on an ex post basis.
hoorcollege lecture Formal lecture in which the lecturer presents a topic in oral form. Students listen and take notes.
huishoud- en consumentenwetenschappen household and consumer studies University degree programme in the sector of agriculture and the natural environment. Scientific study of the issues and processes involved in catering to human needs in private and institutional households. Combines economics, sociology and technology to study the household and consumer also in relation to society and environment.
hulppersoneel auxiliary staff
hulpvak subsidiary subject; auxiliary subject; minor subject
humanistiek humanism University degree programme in the language and culture sector.
HUYGENS High-level University Year to Gain Excellence in the Netherlands
hydrografie hydrography Degree programme in the engineering and technology sector. A hydrographer works onshore to collect and process the information needed to build harbours, place constructions on the seabed, lay underwater pipelines, etc.
Immigratie- en Naturalisatiedienst (IND) Immigration and Naturalisation Service The IND is part of the Ministry of Justice.
IMPACT Internships Matra for Pre-Accession Training Programme of internships for civil servants in countries preparing for EU membership.
inbeddingsgarantie CvB institutional guarantee from the Executive Board Source: Tilburg University.
Indische en Iraanse talen en culturen Indian and Iranian languages and cultures University degree programme in the language and culture sector.
individueel voortgezet onderwijs (ivo) individual secondary education Secondary education at the level of a VMBO, which is adapted to the learning abilities and speed of the individual pupil.
Indonesische talen en culturen Indonesian languages and cultures University degree programme in the language and culture sector.
industrieel ontwerpen industrial design engineering University degree programme in the engineering and technology sector. Training in the design of products. Multidisciplinary programme combining construction engineering, ergonomics, aesthetics, and business, including marketing.
industriële vormgeving industrial design Degree programme in the language and culture sector (arts course).
informatica computer technology A subject in upper secondary education introduced in 1999-2000.Source: Dutch Educational System, Nuffic (updates in 2000 and 2003).
informatica (wo) computer science; informatics; computational science Degree programme in the science sector and in the engineering and technology sector. Science of information processing using computer systems. Includes both hardware and software, although students in the science sector are less likely to build hardware than computer science students in the engineering sector. Mathematics is central.
informatica en informatiekunde informatics and information technology Degree programme in the engineering and technology sector.
informatica onderbouw (hbo) basic computer science Degree programme in the engineering and technology sector.
Informatie Beheer Groep (IB-Groep) Information Management Group This body administers the national system of student grants. In January 2010 the IB-Groep and CFI (Centrale Financiële Instellingen) were brought together under the name DUO - Dienst Uitvoering Onderwijs, the executive agency of the Ministry of Education.
Informatiecentrum DiplomaWaardering (IcDW) Credential Evaluation Information Centre Go to the IcDW website.
Informatiecentrum Richtlijn Algemeen Stelsel (IRAS) Centre for information regarding the EUs directive for a general system for the recognition of professional qualifications.
informatietechniek information engineering University degree programme in the science sector which combines electrical engineering and computer science for the design of technical systems (hardware and software).Also a university degree programme in the engineering and technology sector which combines electrical engineering and computer science, for the design and construction of chips and computerised systems (for example, robots and telecommunications).The second programme emphasises hardware and engineering aspects, as opposed to the programme in the science sector, which focusses on software and systems design.
informatietechnologie information technology Degree programme in the engineering and technology sector.
ingenieur (ing.) 'ingenieur' (ing.) Title traditionally awarded to graduates in engineering, agriculture and environmental science at hogescholen. The abbreviation ing. is written before the name. Since 1986 HBO graduates have been entitled to use the title Bachelor, abbreviated to BA and written after the name. Under the new bachelors-masters structure, students at hogescholen (universities of applied sciences) earn bachelors degrees but they may still use the old title if they wish.
ingenieur (ir.) 'ingenieur' (ir.) No English equivalent. This was the title traditionally awarded to university graduates in engineering, technology and agriculture. The abbreviation ir. is written before the name. Since 1986 an ingenieur has been entitled to use the title Master, which is written after the name and abbreviated to MA. Under the bachelors-masters degree system, graduates of masters degree programmes can still choose to use this title if they wish.
ingeschrevene registered student
initiële masteropleiding (hbo) See hbo-masteropleiding.
initiële masteropleiding (wo) See wo-masteropleiding .
initiële opleiding initial degree programme; programme for an initial degree Higher education for a first degree. Under the old system this was the doctoraal for university programmes and the baccalaureus for HBO programmes. Under the new bachelors-masters structure, the initial degree awarded at both research universities and hogescholen (universities of applied sciences) is the bachelors degree. WO masters degree programmes that follow on from a bachelors programme and are fully subsidised are also referred to as initial programmes.
inlotingsprocedure draw procedure
inrichtingswerk social work (in residential institutions) Degree programme in the behaviour and society sector. Training for running day-to-day affairs and solving problems in the small or large institutions that serve as peoples homes on a temporary or permanent basis when for some reason they are unable to live independently.
inschrijving enrolment [BE]; enrollment [AE]; registration
inschrijvingsduur maximum period of enrolment
inschrijvingsformulier registration form; application form
inschrijvingsgeld registration fee
inschrijvingsjaar year of enrolment
inschrijvingsprocedure enrolment procedure; registration procedure
inschrijvingsvoorwaarden conditions of enrolment
inschrijvingsvorm enrolment status
inspecteur-generaal van het onderwijs Inspector-General of Education; senior chief inspector of education
Inspectie Secundair Onderwijs (ISO) Inspectorate for Secondary Education
installatietechniek installation technology University degree programme in the engineering and technology sector.
installatietechniek I en II installation Degree programme in the education sector. Training for the person who puts together, adjusts or installs machinery or equipment.
instapcursus induction course
instellingen Whenever possible, use a term that is more specific than institutions, which carries a slightly different connotation in English and can be misleading. Introduce them as higher education institutions, for example, or universities and hogescholen (universities of applied sciences). Later in the text you can refer to them simply as institutions and the reader will know what you mean.
instellingsbekostiging funding at institutional level
instellingstarief institutional rate Rate of tuition fee for students who have already obtained a bachelor’s or master’s degree and who want to start a second programme leading to a degree at the same level or at a lower level.Source: RUG Terminology Database; TU Delft Glossary.
institution building institution-building This is a priority within Dutch development cooperation. The aim is to achieve a sustainable enhancement of an institutions capacity and thus to improve its overall functioning. The term requires some explanation, however. Someone unfamiliar with development jargon might think that buildings are to be constructed. The hyphen makes the term a bit clearer.
instroom incoming students; intake In the context of student exchanges, instroom refers to incoming foreign students, as opposed to uitstroom domestic students who go abroad). In a more general context, the terms instroom and uitstroom refer to the points in time at which students and pupils start and finish a programme of study. Instroom can also mean the entire group of students who have just been admitted and are starting their studies.
instroombeleid intake policy
instroomprocedure admissions procedure
instroomprofiel admission criteria; the profile of the incoming student
instrumentele technologie instruments technology Degree programme in the engineering and technology sector. Training in the design and manufacture of instruments for measurement and quality control.
integraal management integral management Administrative responsibilities are transferred to lower levels in the organisation.
intercultureel onderwijs intercultural education
interfaculteit joint faculty; combined faculty A unit, engaged in a coherent programme of research and teaching, which has been set up by two or more faculties.
interieurarchitectuur interior architecture HBO degree programme in the language and culture sector (arts course).
Internationaal Baccalaureaat (IB) International Baccalaureate (IB) An examination designed for students in international secondary schools and intended to qualify them for admission to initial university degree programmes.
internationaal diploma supplement (IDS) international diploma supplement Document accompanying a higher education diploma which offers information in English about the academic career of an individual student. It includes data identifying the student and the diploma, a list of subjects taken and marks obtained, and brief descriptions of the national education system, the educational institution, and the study programme.The EU encourages use of the diploma supplement and has provided a model. It is seen as a way to facilitate international mobility.
internationaal onderwijs (io) international education (IE); International Education institutes The system of International Education was established in the 1950s to offer advanced, specialised training to men and women from developing countries. Courses were conducted in English, of short duration, and geared towards mid-career professionals. Most were given at special IE institutes.This system has gradually joined the mainstream. The target group has widened and more and more international courses are now being offered by universities and hogescholen (universities of applied sciences). Some of the IE institutes have been absorbed into universities.
internationaal recht international law University degree programme in the law sector.
internationaal-juridische opleiding international law University degree programme in the law sector.
internationale agrarische handel international agricultural trade Degree programme in the sector of agriculture and the natural environment.
Internationale DiplomaWaardering (IDW) international credential evaluation
internationalisering internationalisation
Interstedelijk Studenten Overleg National Student Organisation
IO-instellingen institutes of International Education; International Education institutes These institutions offer postgraduate education consisting of either masters degree programmes or postgraduate certificate and diploma courses.
ISEP International Student Exchange Program
Islamkunde Islamic studies University degree programme in the language and culture sector.
Islamologie Islamic studies University degree programme in the language and culture sector.
ISO Abbreviation of:Interstedelijk Studenten OverlegorInspectie Secundair Onderwijs
ISPAC International Study Programmes and Courses Database with details of all international study programmes and courses in the Netherlands. This database is maintained by Nuffic.
Italiaanse taal- en letterkunde Italian language and literature University degree programme in the language and culture sector.
jaarindeling annual schedule; academic calendar (in the context of education)
Japankunde modern Japanese studies Degree programme in the economics sector. Study of the Japanese language, of Japanese trade and economics, and of themes in Japanese society from the historical, political, social and cultural points of view.
Japanse en Koreaanse talen en culturen Japanese language and culture, Korean language and culture University degree programme in the language and culture sector.
jeugdwelzijnswerk child welfare work; youth work Degree programme in the behaviour and society sector. Graduates work in creches, nursery schools, day-care centres for handicapped or difficult children, hospitals, community centres, homes, and various organisations that look after the interests of children and youth.
JMF Jean Monnet Fellowship Programme
joint master programma joint master's degree programme A Dutch institution and a partner institution deliver a programme together. The partner institution can be either in the Netherlands or in another country.
journalistiek en voorlichting journalism Degree programme in the economics sector.
juridisch bestuurswetenschappelijke opleiding administrative law and public administration University degree programme in the law sector.
juridisch politiek-wetenschappelijke opleiding law and political science University degree programme in the law sector.
juridisch-bestuurlijke opleiding public administration Degree programme in the economics sector. Broad programme combining law, economics and management.
kaderberoepsgerichte leerweg advanced vocational track One of four options for the last two years of VMBO.
kandidaatsexamen 'kandidaats' examination This was part of the system prior to 1986. University students pursuing initial degrees had to meet all the requirements for the kandidaats before they were allowed to go on to complete their degree (doctoraal).
kenniskring knowledge network
kennismigrant highly-skilled migrant; knowledge migrant
kennisoverdracht transfer of knowledge
kennistechnologie knowledge engineering University degree programme in the science sector. Study of the theory and techniques for creating knowledge-based systems and expert systems.
keramische vormgeving ceramic design Degree programme in the language and culture sector (arts course).
kerkelijk hoogleraar ecclesiastical professor
kerkmuziek, opleiding voor het praktijkdiploma church music (diploma) Degree programme in the language and culture sector (arts course).
kerntaak central task; core business
kernvak core subject
keuzevak option; optional course; elective course [AE]; elective [AE] As opposed to a compulsory subject. A keuzevak is usually a subject in the students major field.
klassieke culturele vorming classics A subject in upper secondary education introduced in 1999-2000.Source: Dutch Educational System, Nuffic (updates in 2000 and 2003).
Koninklijke Bibliotheek (KB) Royal Library See www.kb.nl
Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen (KNAW) Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences Go to the KNAW website.
koordirectie, opleiding voor het praktijkdiploma choir direction (diploma) Degree programme in the language and culture sector (arts course).
kopstudie top-up course Courses that enable people to top up the degree they have already obtained.
Koreaanse taal en cultuur Korean language and culture University degree programme in the language and culture sector.
kort hoger onderwijs programma (kho-programma, Open Universiteit) short higher education course; advanced further education course (KHO programme)
kort wetenschappelijk onderwijs (kwo, Open Universiteit) short university courses Short courses of further education for government officials and management staff in trade and industry and in non-profit organizations. A kwo course approaches the level of a university degree programme.
korte hbo-opleiding short course at a university of applied sciences; short programme (higher professional education)
kort-hbo - bedrijfsinformatica short programme in business information technology Degree programme in the economics sector.
kort-hbo - informatica short programme in computer science Degree programme in the engineering and technology sector at a university of applied sciences.
kort-hbo - logistiek short programme in logistics Degree programme in the engineering and technology sector.
kort-hbo - toeristisch en recreatief onderwijs short programme in tourism and recreation Degree programme in the economics sector.
kunst- en cultuurwetenschappen art and culture University degree programme in the language and culture sector. Study of the nature, historical significance, and organization of art and culture, as well as of its production and consumption.
kunst en techniek (cognitief ergonomisch ontwerpen/interaction design) art and technology (interaction design) Degree programme in the engineering and technology sector. Artists learn to use modern digital technology in order to produce works for the modern media. Includes computer graphics and animation techniques as well as techniques for developing and making products for video and television. Specialization in music technology is an alternative.
kunstbeleid arts policy Degree programme in the language and culture sector.
kunstgeschiedenis en archeologie art history and archaeology University degree programme in the language and culture sector.
kunstmatige intelligentie artificial intelligence University degree programme in the science sector.
kunstvakonderwijs professional programmes in the fine arts and the performing arts
kwalificatiedossier qualification file A term used in the VET sector.Source: SBB
kwalificatiestructuur qualifications framework The Adult and Vocational Education Act of 1996 created a qualifications framework that defines the learning outcomes for approximately 500 occupations as well as the knowledge and skills required for the individual certificates leading up to the final qualification. In 2005 the European ministers for education committed to setting up a National Qualifications Framework for higher education.Source: Dutch Educational System, Nuffic (updates in 2000 and 2003).
kwaliteitsbewaking quality control
kwaliteitszorg quality assurance
laboratorium onderwijs laboratory technician training, laboratory technology
laboratoriuminformatica en automatisering computer science for laboratories; laboratory information and automation Degree programme in the engineering and technology sector. Training in computer hardware and the design of computer software is combined with the study of chemistry to produce engineers capable of setting up computerised systems for laboratory analysis and measurement, and for the management of laboratory information.
laboratoriumtechniek laboratory science Degree programme in the sector of laboratory technology.
lager beroepsonderwijs (lbo) lower secondary vocational education (LBO)
lager onderwijsakte (akte LO) teaching qualification, third level Qualification formerly required for teaching MAVO, LAVO and LBO (all of which now fall under VMBO).
lager technisch onderwijs (lto) lower vocational technical training (LTO)
lagere technische school (lts) lower vocational technical school
land-, water- en milieubeheer land and water management Degree programme in the sector of agriculture and the natural environment. General training for planning how land and water will be used, and for managing its sustainable use.
landbouw agriculture Degree programme in the sector of agriculture and the natural environment.
landbouw en natuurlijke omgeving agriculture and natural environment
landbouwonderwijsakte (akte L) teaching certificate in agriculture subjects
landbouwplantenteelt field crops University degree programme in the sector of agriculture and the natural environment.
landbouwtechniek agricultural engineering University degree programme in the sector of agriculture and the natural environment. Training in developing, producing, using and maintaining equipment, tools, buildings, etc. for farming and horticulture.
landelijk fixus national restriction on intake
landelijk opleidingsoverleg national degree programme consultation
Landelijke Studenten Vakbond (LSVb) Dutch National Union of Students
landgebruikrichtingen land and water use (agricultural sciences) University degree programme in the sector of agriculture and the natural environment.
landinrichtingswetenschappen land use University degree programme in the sector of agriculture and the natural environment.
landschapsarchitectuur landscape architecture University degree programme in the sector of agriculture and the natural environment.
landschapsarchitectuur, opleiding voor beroepen op het terrein van specialisations in landscape architecture Degree programme in the language and culture sector (advanced course in architecture).
langstudeerder a student who falls behind with his or her study This term is generally used in the context of Dutch government proposals to increase the tuition fees for students who fall behind by more than one year in their bachelors or masters programmes.
Latijnse taal- en letterkunde Latin language and literature University degree programme in the language and culture sector.
lector associate professor, senior lecturer, lector Source: Hogeschool van Utrecht.
lectoraat lectorate
leeractiviteit (Open Universiteit) learning activity
leerbaan (bbl) apprenticeship Source: SBB
leereenheid (Open Universiteit) unit of study
leerlijn learning continuity pathway
leerling (vmbo) apprentice Source: SBB
leerlingwezen apprenticeship system
leermiddel(en) teaching aid; teaching material(s)
leeromgeving learning environment Source: SBB
leeropdracht teaching and research remit [BE]; teaching and research mandate This Dutch term appears in job ads for academic staff. The English translation would seldom appear in an ad. It is therefore better simply to refer to what will be expected of the appointee.
leerplan curriculum
leerplichtambtenaar education welfare officer
leerrecht right to government-funded education
leerstoel chair A professors post in a university. Examples: to establish a chair in philosophy; to hold a chair of philosophy.
leerstofgebied (Open Universiteit) branch of learning The courses offered by the Open University are divided into seven branches of learning. This broad and often multi-disciplinary categorisation was chosen because social and scientific topics tend more and more to extend beyond the boundaries of traditional academic disciplines.
leerweg learning track; learning pathway After completing the basic curriculum (basisvorming), VMBO pupils are placed in one of four ‘learning tracks’ for their last two years. There are four such learning tracks: the theoretical track (theoretische leerweg), the combined track (gemengde leerweg), the advanced vocational track (kaderberoepsgerichte leerweg), and the basic vocational track (basisberoepsgerichte leerweg).Source: Dutch Educational System, Nuffic (updates in 2000 and 2003).
leerwegondersteunend onderwijs (lwoo) Formerly lvbo. This is part of VMBO.
leraar voortgezet onderwijs van de eerste graad, opleiding tot training for grade-one qualification in secondary school teaching
leraar voortgezet onderwijs van de tweede graad in algemene vakken teacher of general subjects in secondary schools, second level A person qualified to teach at all levels of vocational education, at the lower level of general secondary education, and in the first three years of the upper levels of general secondary education.
leraar voortgezet onderwijs van de tweede graad, opleiding tot training for grade-two qualification in secondary school teaching Degree programme in the education sector.
leraar-in-opleiding student teacher; trainee teacher
lerarenopleiding teacher-training institute/college/academy
lerarenopleiding basisonderwijs teacher-training for primary education
lerarenopleiding voortgezet onderwijs teacher-training for secondary education
leren in de praktijk learning by practice Source: SBB
letteren arts University degree programme in the language and culture sector. Humanities programme which students put together themselves from a wide range of possible courses.
levensbeschouwingen ideologies University degree programme in the language and culture sector. Study of the religious and non-religious beliefs of various groups in contemporary society, including the ethnic minorities.
levensmiddelentechnologie (hbo) food processing; food technology and management Degree programme in the sector of agriculture and the natural environment. Programme includes process technology, natural sciences, hygiene, economics, business administration and mechanical engineering.
levensmiddelentechnologie (wo) food science and technology; food science University degree programme in the sector of agriculture and the natural environment.
lexicologie lexicology University degree programme in the language and culture sector.
lichamelijke oefening physical education Degree programme in the education sector.
lichamelijke oefening, opleiding tot leraar voortgezet onderwijs van de eerste graad in teacher training for physical education in secondary schools (grade-one qualification) Degree programme in the education sector.
LINE LINE is the old name of Nuffic Academy.
Lisbon Recognition Convention Convention on the Recognition of Qualifications Concerning Higher Education in the European Region, drafted in 1997 by the Council of Europe and UNESCO.Read more on the website of the Council of Europe.
literatuurwetenschap comparative literature University degree programme in the language and culture sector.
LL.M. Master of Laws degree.
logistiek logistics Degree programme in the engineering and technology sector.
logistiek en economie business logistics Degree programme in the economics sector.
logopedie, opleiding voor speech therapy Degree programme in the health care sector. Training in the development, improvement and recovery of the voice, speech, language and hearing, and in preventative measures to avoid problems in these areas.
lokaal bestuur en beleid local administration and policy Degree programme in the behaviour and society sector.
loting draw (procedure) In fields of study for which there are more applicants than places, a draw (loting) often determines who gets the places.
luchtvaart- en ruimtevaarttechniek aeronautical and aerospace engineering University degree programme in the engineering and technology sector.
lump sum bekostiging block grant funding The government gives the institution a single sum based on a budget which the institution has submitted. Some conditions are attached to this block grant, but by and large the institution is free to allocate the money as it sees fit.
lyceum 'lyceum' This is a type of secondary school similar to the British grammar school and the American high school.
maatschappelijk werk social work Degree programme in the behaviour and society sector.
maatschappelijk werk en dienstverlening social work and social services Degree programme in the behaviour and society sector.
maatschappelijke dienstverlening services to the community
maatschappelijke gezondheidszorg, opleiding tot verpleegkundige in de public health nursing Degree programme in the health care sector.
Maatschappelijke Transformatie (MATRA) Social Transformation This is a foreign-ministry scheme to support transformation in Central and Eastern Europe.
maatschappijgeschiedenis social history University degree programme in the language and culture sector. History as a social science, making use of other social sciences (economics, anthropology, sociology). Events and chronology are less important than societal structures and large-scale developments.
maatschappijleer social studies Degree programme in the education sector.
maatschappijwetenschappen social and behavioural sciences; social and cultural sciences Often the faculty of social sciences covers social sciences, behavioural sciences and cultural sciences. Examples: Cultural Anthropology, Economics, Political Science, Sociology and Psychology.
Machtiging tot Voorlopig Verblijf (MVV) Authorisation for temporary stay
Make it in the Netherlands! Action plan drawn up after the advisory report from the Dutch Social and Economic council to make sure:that all international students feel welcome in the Netherlands;to have as many international students as possible decide to work in the Netherlands after they graduate;to ensure that all international students maintain a bond with the Netherlands after they have completed their studies, even if they return abroad.Read more on our website (in Dutch).
management en organisatie management and organisation A subject in upper secondary education introduced in 1999-2000. It replaced ‘business economics’.Source: Dutch Educational System, Nuffic (updates in 2000 and 2003).
maritiem officier navigation and marine engineering HBO degree programme in the engineering and technology sector. Professional training for the combined job of navigator and ships engineer in the merchant navy.
masteropleiding master's degree programme With the introduction of the bachelors-masters degree structure, Dutch universities and hogescholen are launching a wide variety of masters degree programmes. Often they try to find a different term for each different type. If the distinctions are not essential, however, it is better and less confusing to refer to them in English simply as masters degree programmes and then to explain any special features of the programme in question. A term like top masters might be English, but that does not mean that an English speaker will understand what you mean by it.The minimum number of study credits needed for a masters degree is prescribed by law. For masters programmes in higher professional education (hoger beroepsonderwijs) and for most masters programmes in research-oriented higher education (wetenschappelijk onderwijs), 60 study credits are need. For certain specialised programmes (e.g. dentistry, veterinary medicine, teaching), more credits are needed, varying from between 120 to 240 credits.Source: Wet op het hoger onderwijs, art. 7.
master's by instruction See taught masters.
master's for teaching One of the many types of university masters degree programmes. Students earn a first-level teaching qualification in addition to a masters degree in their subject area.
materiaalkunde materials science Degree programme in the engineering and technology sector.
MBO Raad The Netherlands Association of VET Colleges Go to the website of the MBO Raad.
mbo-school VET College Source: SBB
Medefinancieringsprogramma voor Hoger Onderwijssamenwerking (MHO) Joint Financing Programme for Cooperation in Higher Education This programme was phased out in favour of the NPT. Its aim was to support and strengthen higher education institutions in developing countries. The characteristic feature of the MHO programme was the mobilisation of Dutch expertise through the establishment of long-term, inter-institutional linkages between one institution in a developing country and several Dutch institutions. The purpose of the linkages was institution-building and the transfer of knowledge.
medezeggenschap participation in decision-making
medezeggenschapsraad participation council, representative advisory body
mediaevistiek medieval studies University degree programme in the language and culture sector. Interdisciplinary study of the material and intellectual life of people in Europe during the Middle Ages: their social relations, sacred and secular institutions, political structures, economics and economic systems, religion, philosophy, education, and forms of artistic expression.
medisch beeldvormende en radiotherapeutische technieken medical imaging and radiation therapy techniques Degree programme in the health care sector.
medisch centrum medical centre
medische biologie medical biology University degree programmes in the health care sector and in the science sector. Training for medical research (using animals and cultures).
medische informatiekunde medical information science University degree programme in the health care sector. Study of the scientific and technical aspects of the computerised storage, processing and retrieval of data, and training in the application of this knowledge to medical problems at both macro and micro levels.
medische laboratoriumopleiding medical laboratory techniques Degree programme in the engineering and technology sector.
medische wetenschappen medical sciences University degree programme in the health care sector. Study of medicine for people who do not wish to become physicians.
mediterrane studies Mediterranean studies University degree programme in the language and culture sector. Combines history, social sciences, and the study of two languages.
meeloopdag orientation day
meeneembaarheid studiefinanciering student grant portability This refers to the possibility for Dutch students to use their Dutch government grant to study abroad.
meeneembare studiefinanciering portable student grant
meester in de rechten (mr.) Traditional title for university graduates in law. The abbreviated Dutch title is written before the name. Since 1986, a meester in de rechten has been entitled to use the title Master of Laws, which is written after the name. Many also use the LL.M. title.
MENA Scholarship Programme The MENA Scholarship Programme (MSP) offers scholarships to professionals for short courses in the Netherlands.Read more on www.studyinholland.nl/mena.
mens en techniek man and technology Degree programme in the behaviour and society sector.
meteorologie en fysische oceanografie meteorology and physical oceanography University degree programme in the science sector.
methoden and technieken sociale wetenschappen social science methods and techniques Degree programme in the behaviour and society sector.
middelbaar algemeen voortgezet onderwijs (mavo) junior general secondary education (MAVO) MAVO had a course length of four years. Those who completed it had three options: join the workforce, go on to MBO, or join the last two years of the HAVO stream.In 1999, MAVO and the lower levels of vocational education were combined to form VMBO.
middelbaar beroepsonderwijs (mbo) vocational education and training (VET) Alternatively, you can abbreviate this to vocational education. Mbo is also sometimes referred to as TVET: Technical and Vocational Education and Training. Also called secundair beroepsonderwijs. VET training courses are offered at four levels of difficulty:assistant training (assistentenopleiding);basic vocational training (basisberoepsopleiding);vocational training (vakopleiding);management training (middenkaderopleiding).
middelbaar economisch en administratief onderwijs (meao) upper vocational secondary education in business and administration
middelbaar hoger beroepsonderwijs (mhbo) senior secondary and higher vocational education and training MHBO is a preparation for accessing higher professional education after finishing MBO.
middelbaar onderwijs secondary education
middelbaar technisch onderwijs (mto) senior secondary technical vocational education and training
middelbare technische school (mts) senior secondary technical vocational education and training; technical secondary school (MTS) An MTS diploma is comparable to the British National Diploma in Engineering.
middenkaderopleiding (mbo) management training The fourth level of secondary vocational education, which lasts three to four years. Pupils learn to work for themselves and to perform a wide range of tasks. Formerly known as mbo-lang (long course of secondary vocational education) and tertiair leerlingwezen (advanced apprenticeship).
Midden-Oosten studies Middle-Eastern studies University degree programme in the language and culture sector. Combines cultural history, social science, and study of Arabic and perhaps other languages of the region.
middenstructuur middle management Part of the decentralised organisational structure that is unique to Wageningen University. The university consists of a single faculty within which there are 12 clusters arranged in 5 sectors. The managerial units of these clusters form the middenstructuur which operates between the central administrative bodies (universiteitsraad and college van bestuur) on the one hand, and the departments (vakgroepen) on the other.
mijnbouwkunde en petroleumwinning mining engineering and petroleum production University degree programme in the engineering and technology sector. Exploration for, recovery of, and in some cases processing of substances from the earths crust: gas, oil, minerals, etc. Also the recovery of materials from waste. Processing of oil and gas not included.
milieu en chemie environment and chemistry Degree programme in the science sector.
milieubeleid en -beheer environmental management University degree programme in the science sector.
milieubiologie environmental biology University degree programme in the science sector.
milieugezondheidkunde environment and health University degree programme in the health care sector. Study of the effects of environmental interventions on human health.
milieuhygiëne environmental sciences University degree programme in the sector of agriculture and the natural environment. Study of the sources of environmental pollution, and of the spread, chemical reactions and consequences of harmful substances in the environment.
milieukunde (hbo) environmental science (for agriculture); environmental science Degree programme in two sectors: agriculture and the natural environment, and engineering and technology. The engineering programme consists of interdisciplinary training for detecting, describing and predicting environmental problems, for analysing their causes, and for offering solutions and means of prevention.Technical and economic subjects that are critical for feasibility studies are supplemented with social sciences and organisational studies.
milieukunde (wo) environmental studies; environmental sciences University degree programme in two sectors. In the behaviour and society sector it is the general study of environmental problems, with specialisation in either the relevant social sciences or the relevant natural sciences. This is a distance learning programme.In the science sector it is the interdisciplinary study of the many aspects of environmental problems: geographic, legal, chemical, biological, sociological, and geological.
milieumanagement environmental management Degree programme in the science sector.
milieutechnologie environmental technology Degree programme in the sector of agriculture and the natural environment. University degree programme in the engineering and technology sector.
milieuwetenschappen environmental sciences; environmental studies Degree programme in the science sector. Interdisciplinary study of the many aspects of environmental problems: geographic, legal, chemical, biological, sociological, and geological.
mime, opleiding voor het docentschap teacher training course in mime Degree programme in the education sector.
Ministerie van OCW Ministry of Education, Culture and Science OCW is an abbreviation of Onderwijs, Cultuur Wetenschap.
mobiliteit mobility Most often used to refer to study or work in another country.
mobstacles obstacles to mobility This term was coined at Nuffic to refer to complex immigration procedures (for visas, residence permits, work permits) that can discourage foreign students and academic visitors from coming to the Netherlands. It is jargon and will be understood only by insiders.
modevormgeving fashion design Degree programme in the language and culture sector (arts course).
modulaire opleiding modular study programme
moleculaire wetenschappen molecular sciences University degree programme in the sector of agriculture and the natural environment. Study of the relationships between the physical, biological and chemical properties of molecules and their behaviour, and of the function of complex molecules in living systems.
mondeling examen oral examination
monosectorale hogeschool monosectoral university of applied sciences Offers study programmes in only one sector: for example, teacher-training college.
monumentale vormgeving monumental design, public art Degree programme in the language and culture sector (arts course). Outdoor art for the urban environment, either as a separate object or integrated with architecture or the more general use of space. Examples: sculpture, use of shapes and colour, products of mixed media, and wall decoration.
MOOC abbreviation of: massive open online course Online courses for anyone to follow, open access.
MOST Management of Social Transformations Programme Programme of UNESCO.
motorvoertuigentechniek I en II motor vehicle mechanics Degree programme in the education sector.
multisectorale hogeschool multisectoral university of applied sciences Offers study programmes in more than one sector.
museologie museology Degree programme in the language and culture sector.
Mutatieformulier Studerenden (MS-formulier) amendment form Form for reporting a change of status regarding ones student grant or loan.
muziekdramatische opleiding musical drama Degree programme in the language and culture sector (arts course).
muziekonderwijs A algemene muzikale vorming, opleiding voor het getuigschrift teacher training course in music appreciation Degree programme in the education sector.
muziekonderwijs B schoolmuziek, opleiding voor het getuigschrift teacher training course in music for secondary schools Degree programme in the education sector.
muziekregistratie music registration Degree programme in the language and culture sector (arts course).
muziekwetenschap musicology University degree programme in the language and culture sector.
NACEE Netherlands America Commission for Educational Exchange Now known as the Fulbright Center.
na-ervaringsonderwijs post-experience education The Dutch term is a literal translation from the English. It refers to education received after a person has been professionally active for some time.
NARIC National Academic Recognition Information Centre A network of the EU and EEA.
nascholing refresher courses
Nationale UNESCO Commissie National Commission for UNESCO
natuurkunde physics University degree programme in the science sector.
natuurwetenschappelijke milieukunde environmental science and biology/physics/chemistry University degree programme in the science sector. Environmental science with three options for specialisations: biology, physics or chemistry.
natuurwetenschappen natural sciences University degree programme in the science sector. Broad study of the natural sciences for purposes of policy and management.
NCCIC Netherlands Certification Council for International Courses
NEC Netherlands Education Centre An office in Jakarta that supports the marketing efforts of the Dutch higher education institutions that are its members. This office was the first of its kind but has now become one of several Nesos (Netherlands Education Support Office).
Nederlands als 1e Taal (NT-1) (lessons in) Dutch as a first language Programme by which Dutch student grants can be used to complete entire degree programmes abroad.
Nederlands als 2e Taal (NT-2) (lessons in) Dutch as a second language; (lessons in) Dutch as a foreign language
Nederlands Kwalificatieraamwerk Hoger Onderwijs Higher Education Qualifications Framework in the Netherlands This is the Dutch National Qualifications Framework, set up under the overarching Qualifications Framework for European Higher Education Area (QF-EHEA).
Nederlands recht Dutch law University degree programme in the law sector.
Nederlands recht, internationale/Europeesrechtelijke opleiding Dutch law, international European Law University degree programme in the law sector.
Nederlandse organisatie voor internationale samenwerking in het hoger onderwijs (Nuffic) Netherlands organisation for international cooperation in higher education (Nuffic) The old name was Netherlands Universities Foundation For International Cooperation. Hence the abbreviation.
Nederlandse Organisatie voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek (NWO) Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO) Go to the NWO website.
Nederlandse Raad voor Training en Opleiding (NRTO) Netherlands Board for Training and Education Branche organisation for private training and education institutions (formerly PAEPON).
Nederlandse taal- en letterkunde Dutch language and literature University degree programme in the language and culture sector.
Nederlandse Taalunie Dutch Language Union
Nederlandse universiteiten Dutch universities In the Netherlands, university education is provided by universities, university-level institutions, the Open University, and by teaching hospitals. Nine universities provide education and conduct research in a wide range of traditional disciplines.Of these nine, six are public (non-denominational): Leiden University; Universiteit van Amsterdam; University of Groningen; Utrecht University; Erasmus University, Rotterdam; and University of Limburg. Three are denominational, or special: Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam; University of Nijmegen; and Tilburg University.Four universities offer programmes mainly in engineering and the natural sciences: Delft University of Technology; Eindhoven University of Technology; University of Twente; and Wageningen University.Besides these 13 regular universities, there are eight university-level institutions - six theological universities, one University for Humanist Studies, and the Netherlands Business School (Nijenrode) - which operate independently of, but are approved by, the Ministry of Education, Culture and Science.
Nederlandstalig onderwijs education conducted in Dutch
Nederlands-Vlaamse Accreditatie Organisatie (NVAO) Accreditation Organisation of the Netherlands and Flanders Since 2002, responsibility for quality assurance has been in the hands of this independent organization, which evaluates all degree programmes against a set of standard criteria. Those found acceptable are accredited (e.g. recognised) for periods of six years. In September 2003 the Dutch and Flemish governments signed a treaty agreeing to work together in the area of accreditation. The former NAO then became the NVAO (Nederlands-Vlaamse Accreditatie Organisatie).
NEduDesk Netherlands Education Desk A small office in Hong Kong that supported the marketing efforts of the Dutch higher education institutions that are its members.Now known as Neso China.
Neso Netherlands Education Support Office Offices in Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Mexico, Russia, South Korea, Turkey and Vietnam that support the Dutch knowledge sector abroad
Netherlands Fellowship Programmes (NFP) The Netherlands Fellowship Programmes (NFP) and NICHE entered a new phase on 1 July 2017 and will continue as Kennisontwikkelingsprogramma (KOP).The NFP programme aims to advance the capacity, knowledge and quality of both individuals and institutions of higher and vocational education.
Netherlands Programme for the institutional strengthening of post-secondary education and Training capacity (NPT) Programme funded from the national budget for development cooperation which targets organisations in the South. In 2002 this programme replaced the MHO. The NPT was phased out and replaced by the NICHE programme.
NICHE Netherlands Initiative for Capacity development in Higher Education
niet-bekostigde instelling non-government-funded institution
niet-westerse demografie non-western demography University degree programme in the behaviour and society sector.
Nieuwgriekse taal- en letterkunde modern Greek language and literature University degree programme in the language and culture sector.
nijverheidsonderwijsakte (akte N) vocational teaching certificate
notariële opleiding notarial law University degree programme in the law sector.
NPP Netherlands Periodicals Project
NQF National Qualifications Framework In 2005, the European higher education ministers adopted an overarching framework for qualifications in the European higher education area (QF-EHEA). In this qualifications framework, the joint level descriptions (the so-called Dublin descriptors) form the point of reference for the bachelor’s, master’s and doctorate cycles. The higher education ministers agreed that each country would develop a national higher education qualifications framework which would be compatible with the overarching European framework.Source: NVAO
NUC See Nationale UNESCO Commissie.
Nuffic Academy Nuffic Academy contains information on courses and training for teachers, coordinators and policy makers in internationalisation at education institutions. It allows them to exchange experiences in internationalisation and increase their knowledge and skills in that area.Nuffic Academy was formerly known as LINE.Go to the homepage of Nuffic Academy (in Dutch)
numerus fixus numerus fixus; intake restriction; quota; entry quota; fixed quota; numerus clausus
OCW Jargon, abbreviation used for the Dutch name of the Ministry of Education, Culture and Science (Ministerie van Onderwijs, Cultuur en Wetenschap).
OECD Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development Go to the OECD website.
OESO OECD OESO is the abbreviation of the Dutch name for the OECD: Organisatie voor Economische Samenwerking en Ontwikkeling.
omgangskunde social skills Degree programme in the education sector.
onderwijs education; the field of education; courses or programmes [collectively]; teaching or instruction; education community; the education sector In Dutch this term is often used to refer to the entire community or sector of education, as in Onderwijs was unaniem in zijn verzet tegen de bezuinigingen. In English you must be more specific than this. The education community unanimously resisted the budget cuts.
onderwijs (hbo) education Degree programme in the behaviour and society sector.
Onderwijs- en examenregeling (OER) Course and examination regulations; teaching and examination regulations
onderwijs en vorming (onderwijskunde) education; educational studies University degree programme in the behaviour and society sector.
onderwijsaanbod study programmes; study programmes on offer; courses on offer; curriculum; the programmes or courses offered
onderwijsbestuur Education Committee Source: Tilburg University.
onderwijsbevoegdheid teaching qualification; teaching credential
onderwijsbijdrage course fees
onderwijscapaciteit teaching capacity
onderwijseenheid unit of study Component of a study programme. For example: course, module, subject, or a combination of units. A unit of study is concluded with an interim examination (tentamen).
Onderwijsinspectie the Dutch Inspectorate of Education
onderwijsinstelling educational institution Whenever possible, use a more specific term. For example: university, university of applied sciences, or school.
onderwijsinstituut teaching institute Source: UvA-terminologie vertaalservice.
onderwijskunde education; educational studies University degree programme in the behaviour and society sector. Insights from psychology, pedagogy, law, sociology and economics are combined for bringing improvement to education at either the national or regional level (education policy), or at the level of the school, class or individual (educational support services).
onderwijskundige educationalist; education specialist
onderwijsleergesprek class discussion; plenary class dicussion; reflective discussion
onderwijsmethode teaching method
onderwijsniveau level of education
onderwijsorganisatie organisation of education Degree programme in the behaviour and society sector.
onderwijsprogramma curriculum
Onderwijsraad Education Council
onderwijssector sector of education Primary education, secondary education, and tertiary education are sectors of education.
onderwijssoort type of education
onderwijssysteem education system
onderwijsverzorging education support organisations Strictly speaking, this term applies only to certain organisations that fall under the Ministry of Education, Culture and Science. They offer support of an educational nature (research, development, communication, products, background information, public information and documentation, training, counselling, etc.). They do not provide legal and/or financial-administrative support, however.
onderwijswerkvorm teaching activity
onderwijswetenschappen educational studies University degree programme in the behaviour and society sector.
onderzoekcapaciteit research capacity
onderzoeker-in-opleiding (oio) trainee research assistant (OIO) Similar to AIO, but appointed by research bodies/centres other than universities. Since 1991, the distinction is no longer made, and the term has been dropped. The term AIO is now used for all trainee research assistants.
onderzoekschool research school
onderzoeksgroep research group
onderzoeksinstituut research institute
onderzoeksopleiding research training
ontwikkelings- en tropische studies development studies and tropical studies University degree programme in the sector of agriculture and the natural environment.
ontwikkelingslanden developing countries
ontwikkelingssamenwerking development cooperation
ontwikkelingsstudies development studies University degree programme in the behaviour and society sector. Problems of developing countries, and the problem of underdevelopment itself, are examined from the point of view of the various social sciences, but especially economics and political science.
Oosteuropakunde East European studies University degree programme in the economics sector.
Oosteuropese studies East European studies University degree programme in the language and culture sector.
opbouwwerk community development Degree programme in the behaviour and society sector. Groups of socially disadvantaged people are helped to find each other, pool their resources, defend their own interests, improve their situation (homes, neighbourhood facilities, school, etc.), and establish their own communication media.
open onderwijs open education This term can be used to denote openness of space (open-plan buildings), of time (no schedules), of curriculum (no required subjects), or of the relationship between teaching staff and students.
openbaar onderwijs public education
operationele research en management operational research and management University degree programme in the economics sector.
opleiding study programme; degree programme; course of study; department The term opleiding is used to describe the unique programme of study that is offered in one field at one institution. The WHW defines a study programme (opleiding) as a cohesive entity made up of units of study and designed to achieve well-defined objectives relating to the knowledge, understanding and skills which those who complete the study programme should possess.The term opleiding is also used to denote courses that are not associated with a degree. And it is often used to mean the unit of the university or hogeschool that offers the programme. In such cases, use department or another word referring to the unit rather than to the programme.
opleidingsaanbod study programmes on offer
opleidingscapaciteit intake capacity
opleidingscommissie degree programme advisory committee; degree programme committee
opleidingssector sector; disciplinary sector Higher education programmes in the Netherlands are grouped into the following nine sectors: education; agriculture and the natural environment; science; engineering and technology; health care; economics; law; behaviour and society; and language and culture.
optometrie optometry Degree programme in the health care sector.
oratie oration; inaugural speech (of a professor)
orgel, opleiding voor het praktijkdiploma organ, (diploma) Degree programme in the language and culture sector (arts course).
orkest- en ensemble-leiding, opleiding voor het praktijkdiploma conducting (diploma) Degree programme in the language and culture sector (arts course).
orthopedagoog special education expert; special education and child-rearing professional
ouderejaars student senior student; student approaching graduation
Oudgermaanse taal- en letterkunde old Germanic languages and literature University degree programme in the language and culture sector. Gothic, Old Norse, Old English, Old High German, Old Saxon, Old Frisian, plus the early cultures and religions of the Germanic peoples.
oudheidkunde ancient cultures University degree programme in the language and culture sector. Study of ancient cultures of Greece, Rome, Egypt, Mesopotamia and Israel. Combines theory, archaeology, Hebrew, Assyriology, theology and philosophy. Languages are studied, but are less important than cultural and social subjects such as religion, literature, slavery, architecture, etc.
OV-studentenkaart student pass for public transport
paranimf second, assistant, witness This Dutch term refers to the ceremonial assistant of the doctoral candidate at the PhD defence ceremony. As the van Dale dictionary describes: a person who accompanies and assists someone who presents his/her thesis. There is no direct equivalent in English; any of the above terms may be used, or paranymph with an additional explanation.Source: van Dale.
passend onderwijs inclusive education; suitable education
Pathfinder Formerly known as the Red Carpet Programme.Pathfinder aims to guide international students through the rules surrounding registration and the issue of residence permits in a clear and structured way.It also aims to identify and eliminate unintended obstacles. The programme is kept up-to-date by a large group of organisations, such as the IND (the Immigration and Naturalisation Service), DUO (the Education Executive Agency), Studielink, MBO Raad Nuffic and SBB.
pedagogiek education; educational theory; philosophy of education; education and child-rearing The study and theory of the methods and principles of teaching and learning. The term pedagogy or pedagogics would be used only by specialists; most people would call this field simply education. The Netherlands and Germany integrate education and child-rearing into a single field. In many countries these are separate.
pedagogische academie basisonderwijs (pabo) university for teacher education The Dutch pabo specifically trains teachers for primary education.
pedagoog educationalist; education specialist
pedel beadle This is the traditional officer in charge of protocol at ceremonial academic occasions, for example the diploma presentation ceremony known as a promotie and the inaugural speech of a new professor, known as an oratie. Bedel and bedell are older versions of the English word beadle, which is already quite esoteric.
penvoerder lead agency; lead organisation; budget holder; secretariat
personeel en arbeid personnel policy and human resources Degree programme in the behaviour and society sector.
personeel en organisatie personnel and organisation Degree programme in the behaviour and society sector.
personeelsmanagement personnel management Degree programme in the behaviour and society sector.
personeelswerk human resource management; personnel work Degree programme in the behaviour and society sector.
personeelswetenschappen human resource management University degree programme in the behaviour and society sector. Problem-oriented programme that combines sociology, economics, psychology and law, and provides training in analysing organisations and drafting policy regarding personnel.
P-getuigschrift propedeuse certificate Students have to complete all the requirements of the first year before going on to the rest of the study programme. When they have done so, they receive a certificate known as the P-getuigschrift, or simply the P.
planologie (hbo) town and country planning; spatial planning; territorial planning Degree programme in the engineering and technology sector. Includes urban planning, public housing, architecture, urban renewal, landscape management and traffic, plus economic, financial and legal aspects of development projects.
planologie (wo) town and country planning; spatial planning; territorial planning University degree programme in the behaviour and society sector. Study concentrating primarily on the social aspects of planning, an activity in which social, cultural, economic and environmental interests can conflict. Students study political and social relationships, policy-making, economics, social geography and demography.
plantenteelt crop cultivatiion Degree programme in the sector of agriculture and the natural environment.
plantenteeltkundige richting plant science and production University degree programme in the sector of agriculture and the natural environment.
plantenveredeling plant breeding University degree programme in the sector of agriculture and the natural environment.
plantenveredeling en gewasbescherming plant breeding and crop protection University degree programme in the sector of agriculture and the natural environment.
plantenziektenkunde plant pathology; phytopathology University degree programme in the sector of agriculture and the natural environment.
PLAR Prior Learning Assessment and Recognition
plastische vormgeving sculpture and modelling Degree programme in the language and culture sector (arts course).
Platform van Aangewezen/Erkende Particuliere Onderwijsinstellingen in Nederland (PAEPON) Platform for Officially Recognised Private Educational Institutions in the Netherlands PAEPON has evolved into the NRTO.
politicologie political science University degree programme in the behaviour and society sector.
Portugese taal- en letterkunde Portuguese language and literature University degree programme in the language and culture sector.
positioneren (van het Nederlands hoger onderwijs) establish a place (for Dutch higher education) on international markets Positioning is a marketing term that will not always be understood. It is better to explain that an attempt is being made to establish a position on an international market.
post-academisch onderwijs (pao) postgraduate continuing university education (PAO) Refresher courses for university graduates.
post-doc Both the position and the person who occupies it are referred to as a post-doc. This is usually a temporary position for someone with a new doctorate. Post-doc is slang; in more formal usage the term is post-doctoral position.
postdoctoraal onderzoeker person doing post-doctoraal research Take care to distinguish this from a post-doc, who has a doctorate. The doctoraal degree awarded under the old system was equivalent to a masters degree.
post-doctoraal opleiding post-'doctoraal' programme Under the old system, the term postgraduate had to be avoided because it suggested that the initial university degree (doctoraal) was equivalent to a bachelors rather than a masters. Under the old system there were several types of post-doctoraal programmes: one-year university programmes of teacher-training; a wide variety of short-term, post-degree courses for the purpose of upgrading professional expertise; longer-term research programmes; and four-year programmes of research leading to the doctorate.
post-doctoraal programma advanced diploma programme, advanced certificate programme, post-experience programme Under the old system, programmes of university study following the initial degree were not to be called postgraduate programmes because this implied that the initial degree was at undergraduate level. This in turn implied that they were at bachelors level rather than masters level.Source: Werkgroep Voorlichting over het Nederlandse Hoger Onderwijs, 1999.
postgraduate This can also be spelled post-graduate. In English, the words postgraduate and graduate are synonyms. Some institutions are using the term postgraduate to refer to post-initiële masters and the term graduate to refer to initiële masters. Nuffic advises against this, for the reasons given in the entry for graduate.
post-hoger beroepsonderwijs (phbo) postgraduate continuing professional education (PHBO) Programmes for HBO graduates who are professionally active but who feel a need for more detailed knowledge of a specific subject within their particular field. Many of these programmes will be accredited as masters degree programmes.
post-hoger onderwijs (pho) postgraduate continuing education (PHO) Courses and programmes of continuing education for university and HBO graduates. PHO = PAO + PHBO.
post-initiële masteropleiding When applied to masters degree programmes, the term initiële is used to mean that it follows on directly from a bachelors programme and is fully subsidised by the government. A post-initiële masters degree programme is separate and is often pursued after a period of employment and/or by students who have transferred in from other institutions. It is not subsidised.Because the distinction has more to do with funding than with level, it might not be at all relevant outside the Dutch national context, except as it affects the tuition fee. Moreover, initiële and post-initiële programmes are at a comparable level within one institution, whereas the English terms initial and post-initial imply that they are not.Consider not even attempting to translate the term. Instead, describe the features of the programme.
post-propedeutische opleiding post-propaedeutic study programme Under the old system, this was a study programme without its own propedeuse, or first phase. The prerequisite for entering such a programme was a propedeuse certificate (P-getuigschrift) from another relevant study programme.
practicum practical (training) [BE]; laboratory course [AE]
praktijkhoogleraar professor of professional practice in …. (name of the field) Some Dutch universities offer temporary professorships to professionals working in the field in question. A well-known practising architect, for example, might spend a year lecturing and supervising students.
praktijkopleider workplace trainer Source: SBB
pre- en protohistorie prehistory and protohistory University degree programme in the language and culture sector. Archaeology from the period before writing (prehistory) and from periods for which written sources are scarce (protohistory). Study in which characteristics of human societies and cultures are deduced from materals that are found.
prestatiebekostiging funding on the basis of performance
prestatiebeurs performance-linked student grant The student grant from the government is in fact a loan which does not have to be paid back if the student meets certain conditions. These include earning at least a certain number of credits within a certain amount of time.
primair onderwijs primary education
probleem-gestuurd onderwijs (PGO) problem-oriented education; problem-based learning
pro-decaan deputy dean Source: Tilburg University.
proefschrift (doctoral) dissertation; doctoral thesis Dissertation is the term most often used for the PhD thesis in the USA, and for the masters thesis in Britain. Thesis can be used in all cases but must be qualified. For example: PhD thesis, masters thesis, final thesis.
professional master's This is a Dutch term that might be seen in certain contexts in the USA, but is unknown in the UK. It is used in the Netherlands to distinguish a programme at a university of applied sciences from a programme at a research university.Source: Werkgroep Voorlichting over het Nederlandse Hoger Onderwijs, 1999.
profiel subject cluster A cohesive secondary-school curriculum that prepares pupils for related programmes of study at the tertiary level.Pupils in VWO and HAVO choose one of four subject clusters: 1) Nature and Technology, 2) Nature and Health, 3) Economics and Society, or 4) Culture and Society. In any one cluster, approximately 50% of the subjects are common to all clusters, 30% are specific to the cluster, and 20% are elective subjects.Source: Dutch Educational System, Nuffic (updates in 2000 and 2003).
profileren (van een hoger onderwijs instelling) draw attention to an institution's unique strengths
promotie conferral of a doctorate; pursuit of a doctorate; defence ceremony and presentation of the doctoral degree; process through which a doctorate is earned To be admitted to the promotie means being allowed to pursue a doctorate. But the ceremony is also called a promotie. Under no circumstances should this be translated as promotion, which is what happens when a valued employee is given a better job and a raise in salary.
promotor supervisor; thesis supervisor; PhD supervisor The professor who officially supervises the work of a student who is pursuing a doctorate. The work of the supervisor may be delegated to another member of staff, known as the co-promotor. This term should never be translated as promoter.In English a promoter is most likely to be promoting either a cause or a sporting event. Please note that the word promotor is more specific than the word supervisor or even thesis supervisor. The level of PhD is implicit in the Dutch term so that unless the context makes this clear, you might need to add some explanation to the term supervisor.
promovendus doctoral candidate; student pursuing a doctorate The term for this in most countries is PhD student or PhD candidate, but officially, Dutch universities award the title doctor and not the degree PhD. The student being questioned at a promotie is also called the promovendus.
promoveren to obtain a doctorate; to pursue a doctorate
propedeuse/propaedeuse propaedeutic year; first year of a degree programme The first year or first phase of a degree programme at either a university or a university of applied sciences. All the requirements of this phase must be successfully completed before the student may go on to the next phase of the programme. The propedeuse helps to determine whether or not a student has chosen the right programme.Often a certificate is awarded at this point, and the student will say, Ive got my propedeuse. Do not use the term foundation year because this is used in many countries for a preparatory year, whereas in the Netherlands the propedeuse is part of the degree programme.
propedeutisch examen (P-examen) propaedeutic examination A review, rather than an examination, of the students academic record to see whether he/she completed the requirements of the propaedeutic year.
propedeutisch getuigschrift Certification of completion of the first year of a degree programme.
PTS Postgraduate Technological Studies Programme
publiciteits- c.q. grafische vormgeving commercial art and graphic design Degree programme in the language and culture sector (arts course).
raad van toezicht supervisory board, board of trustees
Raad voor Beroepsonderwijs en Volwasseneneducatie (Bve Raad) Dutch Council for Vocational Training and Adult Education This is now called the MBO Raad.
Raad voor het Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek in het kader van Ontwikkelingssamenwerking (RAWOO) Netherlands Development Assistance Research Council As of 1 January 2008, the RAWOO has ceased to exist.
recht en economie in bedrijf en maatschappij law and economics in business and society University degree programme in the behaviour and society sector.
recht, beleid en management law, administration and management University degree programme in the behaviour and society sector.
rechten law University degree programme in the law sector.
rector magnificus rector; Rector Magnificus; vice-chancellor [BE]; president [AE]
rectorencollege rectors' conference
redzaamheid essential skills, literacy Redzaamheid in lezen = essential skills in reading, reading literacy.Redzaamheid in wiskunde = essential skills in matematics, mathematical literacy.
regionaal opleidingencentrum (ROC) regional training centre
regionaal studiecentrum (Open Universiteit) regional study centre
register van erkende leerbedrijven register of accredited work placement companies Source: SBB
reglement erkenning leerbedrijven SBB SBB regulations for accreditation of work placement companies Source: SBB
regulier onderwijs mainstream education; government-funded education
rekencentrum computer centre
rekentoets math test; arithmetic test The rekentoets is a compulsory part of the school-leaving exam of all pupils in secondary education. It specifically tests the arithmetic skills. There are various levels of the test, corresponding with the various levels of secondary education.Although all pupils have to take the test, the outcome of the test has no impact on the total exam result.For more information check the website of the Dutch Ministry of Education (in Dutch).
religie en levensbeschouwing religion and world view University degree programme in the language and culture sector. Theoretical basis for people active in the practice of (Protestant) religion.
religiestudies religious studies University degree programme in the language and culture sector. Study of contemporary European religions and beliefs from the points of view of theology, history, philosophy, literature, ethics, psychology and sociology.
research master's One of the many types of university masters degree programmes. Two-year programme focussed on scientific research. Often there are extra admission requirements. The term itself does not convey this specifically Dutch meaning, however. In fact, some readers would be misled into a comparison to the MRes degree, which in Britain is a step midway between a first degree and a PhD. It would be safer simply to explain that this is a masters degree programme with a strong research component. (See the entry for mastersopleiding).Source: SENSE forum.
richting (within a degree programme): major, specialisation, subject, course
rijksbijdrage central government grant
rijksgecommitteerde external examiner appointed by the state
rijkshogeschool Do not translate rijks, since this would imply a special status which a rijkshogeschool does not have.Source: Werkgroep Voorlichting over het Hoger Onderwijs, 1999.
rijksuniversiteit Avoid the term state university, since this implies in English that the national government has more control over the university than it does. A Dutch rijksuniversiteit in fact has the same status as the other officially recognized universities. The reason for the name is historical.Source: Werkgroep Voorlichting over het Hoger Onderwijs, 1999.
Roemeense taal- en letterkunde Romanian language and literature University degree programme in the language and culture sector.
Romaanse talen en culturen Romance languages and literature University degree programme in the language and culture sector.
rooster schedule; timetable
roostervrije dag day off
RPL Recognition of Prior Learning
Rubicon-programma Rubicon programme The Rubicon programme awards grants that enable Dutch scientists who have recently been awarded their PhD to acquire research experience abroad, and foreign researchers to conduct research in the Netherlands. The programme is run by the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO).
ruimtelijke ordening en planologie regional planning Degree programme in the engineering and technology sector.
ruimtelijke wetenschappen (1) geographic sciences University degree programme in the science sector.
ruimtelijke wetenschappen (2) planning; town and country planning University degree programme in the behaviour and society sector.
rurale ontwikkelingsstudies rural development studies University degree programme in the sector of agriculture and the natural environment. Pertains to developing countries.
Ruslandkunde Russian area studies University degree programme in the language and culture sector. Study of the history, politics, economics and law of the societies within the former Soviet Union, particularly Russia.
samenwerkingsverband partnership; collaboration; inter-institutional linkage/link The agreement underlying collaboration between two or more persons or institutions. In the context of Dutch development assistance, the term refers to a broad relationship of cooperation between a higher education institution in a developing country and one or more higher education institutions in the Netherlands. This was a feature of the MHO programme, which has now been discontinued.
Scandinavische talen en letterkunde Scandinavian languages and literature University degree programme in the language and culture sector.
schakelprogramma transfer programme; bridging programme; transfer minor A student who does not have the appropriate prior education or degree can often enrol in a transfer programme to prepare them for the actual course they want to follow.Source: RUG Terminology list.
scheepsbouwkunde naval architecture Degree programme in the engineering and technology sector. The design, construction and repair of ships; dockyards and their operation; offshore operations.
scheikunde chemistry University degree programme in the science sector.
scheikundige technologie chemical engineering University degree programme in the engineering and technology sector. Development and improvement of production methods and installations for chemical products. Main concern is the production process and the product.
schilderkundige vormgeving en vormgeving op het gebied van de grafiek painting and graphic arts Degree programme in the language and culture sector (arts course).
scriptie thesis; final paper; final project; essay Written work with which a study programme is rounded off. Dissertation is the American word for proefschrift; the British call it a doctoral thesis.Source: Werkgroep Voorlichting over het Nederlandse Hoger Onderwijs, 1999.
scriptiebegeleider thesis supervisor
sector (in vmbo) sector In their last two years, VMBO pupils have to complete the requirements of one of four discipline sectors: 1) Technology (Techniek), 2) Health and Personal Care and Welfare (Zorg en Welzijn), 3) Economics (Economie), or 4) Agriculture (Landbouw). The VMBO sectors serve the same purpose as the HAVO and VWO subject clusters (profielen).Source: Dutch Educational System, Nuffic (updates in 2000 and 2003).
sector (van hoger onderwijs) educational sector; higher education sector The word sector is applied to higher education in at least two different ways. Degree programmes in the Netherlands are grouped into nine disciplinary sectors. At the same time, there are said to be three education sectors: primary, secondary and tertiary.
sectordirecteur dean of the sector
sectorkamer sectoral committee Source: SBB
sectorkamer Handel sectoral committee for Trade Source: SBB
sectorkamer ict en creatieve industrie sectoral committee for ICT and creative industry Source: SBB
sectorkamer Mobiliteit, transport, logistiek en maritiem sectoral committee for Mobility, transport, logistics and maritime Source: SBB
sectorkamer Specialistisch vakmanschap sectoral committee for Specialist craftsmanship Source: SBB
sectorkamer Techniek en gebouwde omgeving sectoral committee for Technology and built environment Source: SBB
sectorkamer Voedsel, groen en gastvrijheid sectoral committee for Food, green and hospitality Source: SBB
sectorkamer Zakelijke dienstverlening en veiligheid sectoral committee for Business services and security Source: SBB
sectorkamer Zorg, welzijn en sport sectoral committee for Care, well-being and sports Source: SBB
sectoroverstijgend cross-sectoral For degree programmes that cannot be captured in one of the standard fields, or CROHO components.
secundair beroepsonderwijs secondary vocational education This is what used to be called MBO (middelbaar beroepsonderwijs). This type of training is offered in two forms and at several levels of difficulty. The forms, or learning tracks, are known as BBL and BOL, depending on the relative amounts of time the pupil spends in the classroom and working as an apprentice.The levels of difficulty are known as: assistentenopleiding, basisberoepsopleiding, vakopleiding, middenkaderopleiding, and specialistenopleiding.
selectie selection for admission The need to specify that admission to certain programmes is selective can be puzzling to people from countries (like the USA and the UK) where admission is always selective. It might be useful to explain that for most degree programmes in the Netherlands, anyone who meets the criteria has a right to be admitted, but that for certain programmes, intake is restricted and not all qualified candidates can be placed. The result in such cases is selection.
selectie aan de poort selective intake Selection of students for admission to certain programmes based on criteria set by individual institutions, as opposed to central admission or draw procedures. Criteria could include, for instance, high grades in secondary education.
selectieve instroom selective intake
seminar In English the word seminar describes a classroom situation where students and a teacher engage in discussion. If peers are getting together to discuss a topic, it is a symposium, colloquium or one-day conference.
Semitische talen en culturen Semitic languages and cultures University degree programme in the language and culture sector. Languages of Western Asia, past and present. Possibilities include Hebrew, Aramaic, Syrian and Arabic, as well as Assyriology.
SFP Special Fellowships Programme This was part of the old version of the NFP programme.
slagen to pass; to qualify For example: De kandidaat is geslaagd voor het examen = the candidate passed the examination. Zij slaagde voor het artsexamen = she qualified as a doctor.
Slavische talen en letterkunde Slavic languages and literature University degree programme in the language and culture sector. Russian, Polish, Serbo-Croatian and/or Czech.
small business small business Degree programme in the economics sector.
sociaal-culturele wetenschappen socio-cultural studies; studies of women, minorities and the elderly University degree programme in the behaviour and society sector. Multidisciplinary study of one of three groups in society that are at a disadvantage: ethnic minorities, women, or the elderly.Combines poltical science, sociology, cultural anthropology and the sociology of non-western societies. The title socio-cultural studies on its own does not indicate the content of the programme to an English-speaker. If used, it requires a descriptive note.The three components of the programme might be called ethnic studies and minority issues, social gerontology and gender studies.
Sociaal-Economische Raad (SER) Social and Economic Council in the Netherlands
sociaal-pedagogische hulpverlening social work Degree programme in the behaviour and society sector. Broad training for helping young people, and people who live in institutions, with their problems.
sociaal-wetenschappelijke informatica computer applications in social science University degree programme in the behaviour and society sector.
sociaal-wetenschappelijke studie van de godsdienst social science of religion University degree programme in the language and culture sector.
sociale en institutionele economie social and institutional economics University degree programme in the behaviour and society sector.
sociale geografie human geography; human geography and planning University degree programme in the behaviour and society sector.
sociale partners social partners Source: SBB
sociale wetenschappen social sciences (general) University degree programme in the behaviour and society sector. Study of social issues organised around themes such as health, labour, development cooperation, and organisational policy and management. Combines psychology, education, sociology, cultural anthropology and economics.
Spaanse taal- en letterkunde Spanish language and literature University degree programme in the language and culture sector.
speciaal onderwijs (so) special education; special schools Education for children with special educational needs. Such needs are based on educational and developmental considerations in addition to purely medical ones.
speciaal onderwijs voor gehoorgestoorden, opleiding tot leraar teacher training course for teaching the deaf and hard of hearing Degree programme in the education sector.
specialistenopleiding (mbo) specialist training The fourth level of secondary vocational education, which lasts one to two years. Pupils learn to work as independent craftsmen or to exercise special skills. Formerly known as tertiair leerlingwezen (advanced apprenticeship).
SPP SAIL Projects Programme This programme of development cooperation was aimed at strengthening higher education institutions in the South through collaborative projects with Dutch institutes for International Education. It was replaced by NPT.
spraak- en taalpathologie speech and language pathology University degree programme in the language and culture sector. Study of normal and deviant speech and language behaviour. Includes phonetics and phonology, grammar, psychology, anatomy and physiology, plus training in the use of the computer for testing speech.
staats- en bestuursrechtelijke opleiding administrative law University degree programme in the law sector.
staatsexamen state examination
stage internship; work placement [BE]; traineeship; period of practical training An internship, or work placement, is a mandatory element in all programmes of higher professional education. It enables students to get a preview of the working environment or profession they have chosen, and to gain practical experience. Often an internship forms the basis of a thesis or final project.For purposes of credential evaluation it is important to point out that an internship is an integral part of a degree programme, and not just something extra. The term internship used to refer mainly to medical training. This is no longer the case and you see the term used in more and more contexts.Source: Werkgroep Voorlichting over het Nederlandse Hoger Onderwijs, 1999.
stagebegeleider internship supervisor, work placement supervisor [BE]; traineeship supervisor
stageplaats internship place; work placement; internship post; trainee post; practice placement In vocational education (bol) the term stageplaats is referred to as practice placement.
stagiair(e) student intern; student trainee Stagiaire is the feminine form of the word.
stapelen van studies to take one degree on top of another; to take a second (third…) degree
startkwalificatie basic qualification; starting level
statistiek statistics University degree programme in the science sector.
stedebouw, opleiding voor beroepen op het terrein van de specialisations in urban design Degree programme in the language and culture sector (advanced course in architecture).
stelling thesis; proposition; pronouncement Dutch dissertations include a list of pronoucements on subjects which might be totally unrelated to the subject of the doctoral research. These opinions are sometimes picked up by the press. Because this custom is perhaps unique to the Netherlands, it might be preferable to use the Dutch word stelling and offer an explanation.
sterrenkunde astronomy University degree programme in the science sector.
steunpunt studiefinanciering regional office for student grants and loans
Stichting Samenwerkingsverband Instituten van Internationaal Onderwijs en Landbouwuniversiteit (SAIL) Organisation for cooperation between International Education institutes and Wageningen University.
strafrechtelijke opleiding criminal law University degree programme in the law sector.
Strategisch Overleg Internationaal (SOI) Strategic International Consultation An event held several times a year, organised on behalf of Nuffic. Representatives of higher education institutions and umbrella organisations meet and consult with the relevant government bodies about internationalisation policy.
studeerbaarheid a study programme's feasibility from the student's point of view A study programme is feasible from the students point of view when it is geared to the aptitudes, prior knowledge and learning potential of the student and to his or her personal goals, and when factors relating to the learning environment have been taken into proper account.This means that in the absence of negative external factors, a student can probably complete all the requirements within the time the programme is supposed to take.
studeergedrag learning behaviour; study habits
student-assistent student assistant; research assistant A student who assists a professor in his/her teaching and/or research activities.
studentendecaan counsellor; student dean Provides vocational and education guidance, and help with problems in general.
studentenpas student card
studentenraad student council
studentenstatuut students' charter The administration of an institution draws up a charter setting out students rights and obligations as derived from the Higher Education and Research Act.
studentenstop limited student enrolment
studentenvolgsysteem student tracking system
Studeren in Nederland (STUNED) Study in the Netherlands Scholarship programme for Indonesian professionals who wish to earn masters degrees in the Netherlands. STUNED is funded by the Dutch government and managed by the Netherlands Education Centre in Jakarta.
studieadvies recommendation regarding a person's educational future Explain that the school issues a recommendation regarding the pupils next form of schooling. In the case of higher education, the student is told after the first year whether or not he or she should continue in the programme or switch to something else.
studieadviseur tutor [BE]; study advisor Source: RUG Terminology list.
studiebegeleider tutor; student counsellor [BE]; student counselor [AE]; mentor A tutor is the person responsible for the supervision of students academic work, often operating through tutorials. One tutor may be designated as an adviser to students, in which case he or she acts as a counsellor.
studiebelastingsuur (SBU) study point; credit Under the old system, this was the unit used to weight the components of study programmes. One SBU was considered equivalent to 40 hours of work, and full-time study was (and still is) considered equivalent to 40 hours a week. A full four-year degree programme consisted of 168 SBUs.Hours of work include contact hours, hours spent preparing assignments, and hours of independent study. Study load is now measured in ECTS credits. In one year of regular full-time study, a student earns 60 ECTS credits.
studiebeurs student grant, scholarship, fellowship
studiecentrum (Open Universiteit) study centre
studieconsulent (Open Universiteit) student counsellor
studiedossier student record
studieduur duration of studies The length of time students take to complete their studies, which may be more than the cursusduur.
studiefinanciering student grants and loans; (system of) financial assistance for students
studiegids study guide; catalogue [BE] or catalog [AE] of courses
studiehuis ‘study centre’ This term requires explanation because it is not a physical space, as the term suggests, but rather a didactic approach. A secondary school as ‘study centre’ provides an environment where knowledge is pursued rather than transferred, and pupils learn to learn instead of merely receiving instruction. The concept was introduced in HAVO and VWO in 1999-2000.Source: Dutch Educational System, Nuffic (updates in 2000 and 2003).
studiejaar academic year; year of study
studielast study load
studielening student loan
studieloopbaanbegeleider career counsellor; student career counsellor; student guidance counsellor In some cases this position deals specifically with advice on careers after graduation: the first two terms are commonly used for this purpose. In other cases the loopbaan refers to the study itself and then the term guidance counsellor is often used. However, that term sometimes also refers to psychological counselling, so it should be used with caution or with extra explanation.
studiemateriaal (Open Universiteit) study materials; distance-learning materials
Studienet Studienet Special extranet for students of the Open University.Source: Open Universiteit website.
studieopbouw structure of the study programme Description of a study programme including subjects, options, and examination schedules.
studieprestatie academic achievement; academic performance; academic record; output
studieprogramma study programme, degree programme
studiepunt credit Under the old system (before 2002), one credit was equal to 40 hours of study, and one year of full-time study represented 42 credits. Under the new ECTS system (since 2002), one credit represents 28 hours of full-time study and 60 credits represent one year.
studiepuntmobiliteit credit mobility Credit mobility refers to students travelling abroad to attend a partial programme or to take up a work placement during their studies, and within the context of their study programme.
studierendement success rate The percentage of students that finish a particular study programme.Source: RUG Terminology list.
studierichting degree programme
studievergelijking credential evaluation
studievertraging study completion delay; delay in finishing a study programme This term is applied to indicate that a student takes longer to finish his or her study programme than the standard number of years set for that programme.
studievoortgangscontrole monitoring of students' progress
studiewijzer A tool for students to get an insight in their skills and interests, to help them choose a study programme. It can also refer to a planning aid (usually in the context of secondary education): an overview of what pupils need to do for a particular subject: the lessons, homework and assignments attached to dates.
sturing vooraf ex ante control
SUN Southern Universities Network
surveillant invigilator One who supervises the people who are taking an examination to ensure that they start and finish at the correct time, and to prevent cheating.
sys-tentamen (Open Universiteit) SYS exam SYS is a computerised testing system that generates individual tests for each candidate. Students can make an appointment to take a SYS exam instead of waiting for a date on which the same examination is administered to everyone.
taal en cultuur language and culture
taal- en cultuurstudies language and culture studies University degree programme in the language and culture sector. Study of the social aspects of information and culture in general for the purpose of solving problems involving intercultural communicaton and barriers to understanding foreign literature.
taal, informatie en communicatie language, information and communication University degree programme in the language and culture sector. Study of the social aspects of information and culture, with emphasis on the factors affecting texts power to communicate, and on language and artificial intelligence.
taal, spraak en informatica language, speech and computer science University degree programme in the language and culture sector. Study of the use of natural language in computerised systems for storing and retrieving information and documents.
talen en culturen van Latijns-Amerika languages and cultures of Latin America University degree programme in the language and culture sector.
talenkennis language skills
talenpracticum language laboratory
Talentenprogramma This scholarship scheme funded by the Dutch government is unusual by Dutch standards because scholarships are awarded on a competitive basis rather on the basis of objective criteria followed by a draw if demand exceeds supply. Talenten refers to the fact that this programme is for the most outstanding students. But to English speakers the word talent might suggest a natural gift for singing, dancing, drawing, etc. Therefore it is best not to translate the name of the programme. Use the Dutch name and explain that scholarships are awarded to outstanding students on a competitive basis.
Talentvolle Indonesische Studenten (TALIS) Scholarship programme for outstanding Indonesian students.
tandheelkunde dentistry University degree programme in the health care sector.
taught master's Also referred to as a masters by instruction. This is a masters degree programme that consists mainly of lectures, exams and perhaps a short thesis. By contrast, a research masters revolves mainly around the thesis. These terms were coined by the Dutch institutions offering the programmes. They are not standard English usage.Source: Werkgroep Voorlichting over het Nederlandse Hoger Onderwijs, 1999.
techniek engineering; technology Degree programme in the education sector.
techniek en maatschappij technology and society; engineering and society University degree programme in the engineering and technology sector. Study of the relationships between technological innovation and society at various levels. Training for policy-makers, development workers, and researchers. Combines engineering subjects and social sciences.
technisch commerciële confectiekunde clothing engineering and management Degree programme in the engineering and technology sector.
technisch gerichte informatica technical computer science University degree programme in the science sector. Computer science for the automation of production processes and other technical applications such as telecommunications and image processing.
technische bedrijfskunde (ir.) industrial engineering and management science University degree programme in the engineering and technology sector. Combines science and engineering with social sciences and business courses in order to train people to solve management problems that involve technology.
technische bedrijfswetenschappen (drs.) management and technology; technical engineering and management science University degree programme in the economics sector. Business administration oriented towards the industrial product and production management. Courses in business and technology are supplemented with extra mathematics and computer science.
technische bestuurskunde systems engineering, policy analysis and management University degree programme in the engineering and technology sector. Knowledge of technology, policy and organizaton is integrated for solving practical problems faced by government, public utilities, and large companies providing public and infrastructural services.
technische cognitiewetenschap cognitive science and engineering University degree programme in the behaviour and society sector.
technische farmacie technical pharmacy University degree programme in the science sector. Study of pharmacy, with special attention to the industrial development and manufacture of pharmaceutical products.
technische informatica technical informatics; technical computer science University degree programme in two sectors. In the engineering and technology sector it is the study of the technical aspects of computers, networks, software and information systems. Includes some social sciences and business courses alongside the technical subjects. Emphasis on designing and improving software; on consultancy; and on making, introducing and managing computer systems in organizations. The programme in the science sector is focussed on the automation of industrial processes.
technische mechanica technical mechanics; theoretical and computational mechanics University degree programme in the engineering and technology sector.
technische natuurkunde applied physics; engineering physics Degree programme in the engineering and technology sector.
technische planologie technical town and country planning University degree programme in the behaviour and society sector. Training for planning, and drafting policy for, infrastructural projects such as motorways, buldings, sewer systems, pipelines, etc.
technische scheikunde applied chemistry; chemical engineering University degree programme in the engineering and technology sector.
technische universiteit (TU) university of technology Term introduced in 1986 to replace technische hogeschool (TH).
technische vervoerskunde transport engineering Degree programme in the engineering and technology sector. Management of the flow of goods.
technische wiskunde industrial mathematics University degree programme in the engineering and technology sector.
technologisch ontwerper design engineer
tekenen drawing Degree programme in the education sector.
tekenen, opleiding tot leraar voortgezet onderwijs van de eerste graad in teacher training course in drawing for secondary schools (grade-one qualification) Degree programme in the education sector.
tempo-beurs 'tempo' grant Colloquial term for the student grant that, under the WHW (1993), was linked to performance targets. A student who received a basisbeurs was required to earn a minimum number of credits per year. If he/she failed to do so, the grant was converted to an interest-bearing loan. In 1996 this was discontinued in favour of the prestatiebeurs, which goes a step further in encouraging students to hurry up with their studies.
TEMPUS Trans European Cooperation Scheme in Higher Education EU scheme for Central and Eastern Europe.
tentamen examination; interim examination Within an initial degree programme, each unit of study is concluded with an interim examination.
tentameninzage checking of marks; exam review
tertiair onderwijs tertiary education
tewerkstellingsvergunning (TWV) work permit A permit which an employer needs in order to allow a non-EU national to work.
textiele vomgeving textile design Degree programme in the language and culture sector (arts course).
textiele werkvormen textile arts Degree programme in the education sector.
textiele werkvormen, opleiding tot leraar voortgezet onderwijs van de eerste graad in teacher training course in textile arts for secondary schools (grade-one qualification) Degree programme in the education sector.
theater theatre Degree programme in the language and culture sector (arts course).
theaterwetenschap theatre studies; drama and theatre studies University degree programme in the language and culture sector. Study of the theatrical arts and media: stage plays, theatrical dance, films, and television drama.
theologie theology University degree programme in the language and culture sector.
theoretische leerweg theoretical track One of four options for the last two years of VMBO. The theoretical track is most comparable to MAVO. Source: Dutch Educational System, Nuffic (updates in 2000 and 2003). See also: Nuffic.nl: Education systems ➔ The Netherlands ➔ Glossary
theorie der muziek music theory Degree programme in the language and culture sector (arts course).
titulatuur (system of) titles; forms of address
toegangsselectie selection for admission
toegepast onderzoek applied research
toegepaste communicatiewetenschap applied communication science University degree programme in the behaviour and society sector. Interdisciplinary study of communication in and for businesses, social organisations and government agencies.
toegepaste oecologie applied ecology Degree programme in the science sector.
toegepaste onderwijskunde science and technology of education; educational science and technology University degree programme in the behaviour and society sector. Multidisciplinary training in the design of educational materials, especially for industry. Includes pedagogy, sociology, psychology, computer science and media technology.
toegepaste taalkunde applied linguistics University degree programme in the language and culture sector.
toegepaste taalwetenschap applied linguistics University degree programme in the language and culture sector. Study of how foreign languages are taught and learned. Combines language study with psycholinguistics, sociolinguistics, social psychology, learning psychology and didactics.
toegevoegd docent non-tenured lecturer A lecturer without a permanent position.
toegevoegd onderzoeker extraneous research scientist Title of a member of the scientific staff of a research institute that used to be autonomous but has now been brought under the wing of a university (extraneous research staff). This position is not part of the faculty hierarchy of the university and may, unlike the position of toegevoegd docent, be tenured.
toelaatbaarheid admissibility
toelating admission
toelatingsbeperking intake restriction; restriction on admission
toelatingsbewijs (written) confirmation of admission
toelatingscommissie admissions board Source: RUG Terminology list.
toelatingseisen admission requirements; entry requirements
toelatingsexamen entrance examination; matriculation
toelatingsquotum admission quota
toelatingsrecht right to admission
toets test
toetscommissie assessment committee
toetsingmethode method of testing
toezichthouder (1) monitor One who systematically studies the work of students, lecturers or institutions in order to assess levels of performance.
toezichthouder (2) supervisor The person who is administratively responsible for a student who is pursuing a doctorate (aio).
tolk-vertaler, opleiding translation and interpreting Degree programme in the economics sector.
top master's One of the many types of university masters degree programmes. Admission to this type is highly selective. Top masters is not an English term. An explanation is required if readers are to understand what is meant by it. (See the entry for mastersopleiding).
transcript transcript; transcript of academic record; diploma supplement Academic record of an individual student at one institution, or in one faculty or department. Includes basic data on the student, such as name, date and place of birth; basic data on the institution, the study programme and the degree awarded, if any; and a list of the courses and other programme components completed by the student, together with dates and grades.Transcripts are official documents issued by the institution or faculty. They facilitate mobility and are becoming increasingly common in Europe as a result of the ECTS system and the introduction of International Diploma Supplements.
transfernetwerk research liaison network A company or organisation that wants to make use of the knowledge and facilities available at a university can contact the universitys research liaison network, which will bring it in touch with the appropriate department.
transferpunt liaison office; research liaison office
tropisch landgebruik tropical land use University degree programme in the sector of agriculture and the natural environment.
tropische cultuurtechniek tropical land and water use; irrigation and soil and water conservation University degree programme in the sector of agriculture and the natural environment.
tropische landbouw tropical agriculture Degree programme in the sector of agriculture and the natural environment.
tropische plantenteelt tropical crop science University degree programme in the sector of agriculture and the natural environment.
TSP Tinbergen Scholarships Programme
tuin- en landschapsinrichting garden and landscape architecture Degree programme in the sector of agriculture and the natural environment. Training in the design, preparation and management of green areas: gardens, parks, sports fields, recreation areas, preserved rural areas, etc.
tuinbouw horticulture Degree programme in the sector of agriculture and the natural environment. Cultivation and marketing of vegetables, fruit and decorative plants and flowers.
tussentermen intermediate objectives Source: RUG Terminology list.
TVET Technical and Vocational Education and Training
tweede fase second phase, upper secondary phase In secondary education, the last two years of HAVO and the last three years of VWO are referred to as the ‘second phase’, or ‘upper secondary education’.Source: Dutch Educational System, Nuffic (updates in 2000 and 2003).
tweede geldstroom second flow of funds, indirect funding mechanism Government funds distributed by a research organization (such as TNO or NOW). Americans speak of unsollicited research projects when research is similarly funded by the National Science Foundation in the USA.
tweedegraads bevoegdheid teaching qualification, second level Qualification for teaching the first three years of HAVO and VWO. This teacher training generally takes place at a university of applied sciences.Because a literal translation of the term tweedegraads offers little information for readers who are not familiar with the Dutch teaching qualifications framework, it is extremely helpful to offer readers explanatory information, such as The holder of this diploma has qualified teacher status in the Netherlands for teaching the named subjects in preparatory secondary vocational education (VMBO) and in the first three years of senior general secondary education (HAVO) or pre-university education (VWO)..Source: Dutch Educational System, Nuffic (updates in 2000 and 2003).
tweedegraads lerarenopleiding verpleegkunde training for a qualification to teach nursing at the second level Degree programme in the education sector.Because a literal translation of the term tweedegraads offers little information for readers who are not familiar with the Dutch teaching qualifications framework, it is extremely helpful to offer readers explanatory information, such as The holder of this diploma has qualified teacher status in the Netherlands for teaching the named subjects in preparatory secondary vocational education (VMBO) and in the first three years of senior general secondary education (HAVO) or pre-university education (VWO).
tweedegraads onderwijsbevoegdheid teaching qualification for secondary education, second level Qualification for teaching one subject at all levels of VMBO and in the first three years of HAVO and VWO.Because a literal translation of the term offers little information for readers who are not familiar with the Dutch teaching qualifications framework, it is extremely helpful to offer readers explanatory information, such as The holder of this diploma has qualified teacher status in the Netherlands for teaching the named subjects in preparatory secondary vocational education (VMBO) and in the first three years of senior general secondary education (HAVO) or pre-university education (VWO).
tweede-kans onderwijs education for mature students
tweedekanser mature student
tweefasenstructuur two-tier structure
tweetalig onderwijs (tto) bilingual education This term is mostly used for secondary education.See also: tweetalig primair onderwijs
tweetalig primair onderwijs (tpo) bilingual primary education
UFP University Fellowships Programme This was part of the old version of the Netherlands Fellowships Programme, before 2002.
uitslagtermijn Period within which marks must be published.Source: RUG Terminology list.
uitstroom students going abroad; outgoing students; outward-bound students; graduating students In the context of student exchanges, uitstroom refers to the institutions own students who go abroad, and instroom refers to the foreign students coming in. The terms uitstroom and instroom are also used in a more general context to refer to the points in time at which pupils or students start and finish a programme of study. In this case, uitstroom can refer to the group of students who are graduating.
uitstroomoverschot Dutch students going abroad outnumber foreign students in the Netherlands.
uitstroomprofiel specialisation; graduate profile; professional profile A study programme might offer several options for specialisation. Each of these is called an uitstroomprofiel, with uitstroom referring to the moment of graduation or completion of the study programme, and profiel referring to the set of skills and knowledge the graduate is expected to possess. This term is used for many types of education, not just higher education.
uitvoerend musicus music performance Degree programme in the language and culture sector (arts course).
uitvoerende beoefening van de dans dance performance Degree programme in the language and culture sector (arts course).
uitvoerende beoefening van de kleinkunst cabaret performance Degree programme in the language and culture sector (arts course).
uitvoerende beoefening van de mime mime performance Degree programme in the language and culture sector (arts course).
uitvoerende beoefening van het drama dramatic performance Degree programme in the language and culture sector (arts course).
uitwisselingsprogramma exchange programme A programme of study in which students are given the opportunity to study part of the programme at another university than the home university. It is usually not an actual exchange in the sense that the universities involved recruit an equal number of exchange students. The minimum duration of the exchange part is usually three months, with a maximum of one year. Students are not awarded a degree from the host university, but only from their home university.
uitwisselingsstudent exchange student
undergraduate Under the old higher education system this term was deliberately avoided when talking about university students working on their initial degree because that degree was considered equivalent to a masters degree, whereas the term undergraduate is generally applied around the world to students working on a bachelors degree. Now that Dutch students are also working on bachelors degrees there is no reason not to call them undergraduates. Moreover, the Bologna Declaration defines two cycles of higher education: the undergraduate cycle and the graduate cycle. The term undergraduate can be applied equally to WO and HBO programmes.
UNDP United Nations Development Programme
universitair docent (UD) university lecturer [BE]; assistant professor [AE] Job title for an academic post. No true equivalent in English.
universitair hoofddocent (UHD) senior university lecturer [BE]; associate professor [AE] Job title for an academic post. No true equivalent in English. For example, in the less pyramidal structure of the American system, a Dutch UHD would often be a full professor.
universitair medisch centrum (UMC) university teaching hospital
universitaire lerarenopleiding (ulo) university programme of teacher-training; university teacher-training department (ULO) The ULO represents the highest level of teacher education available in the Netherlands. This qualification is obtained following completion of a regular degree programme in the subject the person wishes to teach.
universiteit university; research university A degree-awarding institution which prepares students for independent research work in an academic or professional setting; it provides theoretical education and research training up to the doctorate. When talking about both types of higher education institution in the Netherlands (universiteit and hogeschool), use the terms research university and university of applied sciences. (In theory, universiteiten and hogescholen are now both free to offer both types of higher education, and they are increasingly working together to offer study programmes.)Source: Werkgroep Voorlichting over het Nederlandse Hoger Onderwijs, 1999.
universiteitsbestuur administration of a university, university authorities
universiteitshoogleraar university professor The adjective university refers to the fact that this professor has been appointed at a central level and is not part of the universitys regular faculty structure. Generally this person is a particularly distinguished scientist or scholar whom a university invites to give lectures and conduct research. Thus far this construction has been used by the University of Amsterdam and by Utrecht University.
universiteitsprofessor See universiteitshoogleraar
universiteitsraad university council
UWV WERKbedrijf This is the Dutch equivalent of the English jobcentres, providing help and advice on finding a job for people who are unemployed. This used to be called CWI (before 1 January 2009).
vak subject; profession or trade
vakgebied field; field of study; specialisation
vakgroep department A teaching and research unit within a faculty. A smaller unit may be referred to as a section or group.
vakgroepbestuur departmental board
vakinhoud subject matter
vakkencombinatie combination of subjects
vakkenpakketeisen subject requirements
vakopleiding (mbo) vocational training The third level of secondary vocational education, which lasts two to four years. Pupils learn special skills and how to perform tasks independently and at their own initiative. Formerly known as mbo-tussen/lang (medium or long course of secondary vocational education) and tertiair leerlingwezen (advanced apprenticeship).
vakoverschrijdende vaardigheden interdisciplinary skills
vaste commissie van de examens standing committee for the examinations
veehouderij animal husbandry Degree programme in the sector of agriculture and the natural environment.
Verbond van Nederlandse Ondernemingen/Nederlands Christelijk Werkgeversverbond (VNO-NCW) Confederation of Netherlands Industry and Employers (VNO-NCW)
Vereniging Hogescholen Netherlands Association of Universities of Applied Sciences The Netherlands Association of Universities of Applied Sciences is the sectoral association of all government-funded Universities of Applied Sciences in the Netherlands (hogescholen). 44 Universities of Applied Sciences are affiliated to the Association. Formerly known as the HBO-raad and as ‘Netherlands Association of Universities of Professional Education’.
Vereniging kenniscentra beroepsonderwijs bedrijfsleven (Colo) Association of National Centres of Expertise for vocational education, training and the labour market This is now called SBB.
Vereniging van Samenwerkende Nederlandse Universiteiten (VSNU) Association of Universities in the Netherlands
vergelijkende Indo-europese taalwetenschap comparative linguistics (Indo-European) University degree programme in the language and culture sector.
vergelijkende kunstwetenschap: woord en beeld verbal and visual arts; comparative art studies; literature and the visual arts: comparative studies University degree programme in the language and culture sector. Three areas are studied: cultural history (relations through history between visual arts and literature, and the ideas about both in the minds of artists and critics); the differences and simililarities between these two media (to what extent can the same message be contained in both); and the transmission of information via text and pictures. This study programme differs from communicatiewetenschappen in adopting the perspective of art history and literature.
vergelijkende taalwetenschap van andere taalfamilies comparative linguistics (non-Indo-European) University degree programme in the language and culture sector.
verkeerskunde traffic engineering Degree programme in the engineering and technology sector.
verkeerstechniek traffic engineering Degree programme in the enigneering and technology sector.
verlengd tentamen Explain that a student was allowed to repeat or resit an examination.
verpleegkundige in de maatschappelijke gezondheidszorg, opleiding tot public health nursing Degree programme in the health care sector.
verpleegkundige, opleiding tot nursing Degree programme in the health care sector.
verplicht vak compulsory subject
verplichte onderwijseenheid compulsory unit of study
vertaalwetenschap translation studies University degree programme in the language and culture sector.
vervolgopleiding subsequent education; advanced programme Under the old system, this term and its English equivalents were applied to courses and programmes that followed the initial degree. This is because the terms undergraduate and postgraduate were avoided.
verzorging/gezondheidskunde health and care Degree programme in the education sector.
verzorging/huishoudkunde home economics; domestic science Degree programme in the education sector.
verzwaard programma honours programme Programme offering extra-curricular classes and projects for talented, high performing students.
visitatiecommissie review committee; visitation committee In English, the term alone does not tell you that this is a central feature in the Netherlands system of quality assurance for higher education and research. Additional explanation is required.
Visiterende en Validerende Instanties (VVIs) Independent organizations that conduct the evaluations of degree programmes on which the Netherlands Accreditation Organization bases its decisions regarding accreditation.Source: Report of the Commissie Accreditatie Hoger Onderwijs, 2003.
Visum Kort Verblijf (VKV) Short-stay visa A visa which many non-EU nationals need in order to come to the Netherlands for a period of three months or less.
vliegtuigbouwkunde aircraft engineering Degree programme in the engineering and technology sector.
vliegtuigoperatie air transport engineering and management Degree programme in the engineering and technology sector.
voeding en diëtetiek nutrition and dietetics Degree programme in the health care sector.
voeding en marketing food and business Degree programme in the economics sector.
voeding en toxicologie nutrition and toxicology University degree programme in the science sector.
voeding van de mens human nutrition University degree programme in the sector of agriculture and the natural environment.
voertaal in het onderwijs language of instruction
Volledige Internationale Studie in Europa (VISIE) Programme by which Dutch student grants can be used to complete entire degree programmes abroad.
voltijds jaarprogramma full-time study programme
voltijdsonderwijs full-time study programme; full-time education
volwasseneneducatie adult education
volwassenenonderwijs adult education
voorbereidend beroepsonderwijs (vbo) preparatory vocational education Since 1999-2000, VBO and MAVO are together known as VMBO.
voorbereidend hoger onderwijs (vho) upper secondary education, senior stage secondary education This term is sometimes used when referring to the upper classes of HAVO and VWO (class 4 and 5 of the HAVO or class 4, 5 and 6 of the VWO).
voorbereidend jaar preparatory year
voorbereidend middelbaar beroepsonderwijs (vmbo) preparatory secondary vocational education Since 1999-2000, MAVO and the lower levels of vocational education (VBO) have been combined to form VMBO. MAVO had a course length of 4 years. Those who completed it had 3 options: join the workforce, go on to MBO, or join the last 2 years of the HAVO stream.
voorbereidend wetenschappelijk onderwijs (vwo) university preparatory education; pre-university education VWO prepares pupils for university, and as such offers the highest level of general secondary education available in the Netherlands. VWO has a course length of six years. There are three subtypes of VWO: gymnasium, atheneum and ongedeeld VWO. Gymnasium and atheneum were once further subdivided into an A-stream and a B-stream. These subdivisions referred to the emphasis that was placed on either the humanities or the sciences, respectively. This has changed. Now the second phase of VWO has four streams known as the profielen, or subject clusters.
vooropleiding prior education; preparatory course
vooropleidingseis educational entry requirement; educational prerequisite
voortentamen preliminary examination
voortgezet algemeen volwassenen onderwijs (vavo) general secondary education for adults
voortgezet onderwijs (vo) secondary education At present there are basically three types of secondary education in the Dutch system: VWO (6 years of university preparation), HAVO (five years of general education) and VMBO (four years of general and/or vocational education).
voortgezette opleiding advanced training (course); advanced programme; postgraduate programme
voorwaardelijke financiering conditional financing, conditional funding The primary source of funds for research conducted within universities are the lump sums granted directly to universities and research institutes on the basis of approved proposals for programmes of research. These grants, which account for 65% of academic research funding, are for periods of five years.
vrij programma (Open Universiteit) flexible study programme Students of the Open University can put together their own university study programmes by passing courses of their own choice. They need only meet certain basic requirements and obtain the approval of the examination committee for the choices they have made.
vrije instroom unrestricted intake
vrije studierichting flexible degree programme A degree programme that was tailor-made to suit the needs and wishes of an individual student. A flexible programme had to meet the same standards and technical requirements as a regular degree programme with prescribed components. The Dutch term is no longer in use.
vrije vormgeving free-form design Degree programme in the language and culture sector (arts course).
vrijetijdskunde leisure studies Degree programme in the economics sector.
vrijetijdwetenschappen leisure studies University degree programme in the behaviour and society sector. Scientific analysis of processes in leisure-time activities: sport, recreation, tourism, art and the media. Multidisciplinary study combining psychology, economics and sociology.
vrijstelling exemption
wederkerend onderwijs recurrent education Recurrent education can be vocational or professional, or entirely non-vocational, but tends to be associated with the idea of updating professional skills.
welzijnsbeleid social welfare policy Degree programme in the economics sector.
werkcollege tutorial; seminar A meeting between a tutor and one or more students in which the students play a particularly active role. Discussion is often based on a paper or essay submitted by a student.
werkgroep wetenschapsbeoefening working group to facilitate research
werkplaats workshop; workplace
werkstudent student working his/her way through university; student with a part-time job
werkstuk assignment; paper; project
werktuigbouwkunde mechanical engineering Degree programme in the engineering and technology sector.
werktuigbouwkunde I en II mechanics, mechanical engineering Degree programme in the education sector.
werktuigkundige medische technologie bio-mechanical engineering University degree programme in the engineering and technology sector. Design of artificial limbs, organs, etc.; design of equipment for measuring and testing; and study of human and animal mechanics for ergonomic purposes.
Wet Educatie en Beroepsonderwijs Adult and Vocational Education Act This 1996 legislation created a new qualifications framework which defines learning outcomes for approximately 500 occupations. Training courses are categorized according to level (one to four). Whether that level was achieved in the classroom or through an apprenticeship no longer matters.Source: Dutch Educational System, Nuffic (updates in 2000 and 2003).
wet op het hoger onderwijs Higher Education and Research Act Higher Education and Research Act is the translation used by the Ministry of Education, Culture Science.Source: Ministry of Education, Culture and Science
wetenschap science (exact subjects); scholarship (non-exact subjects); knowledge or learning
wetenschappelijk ambtenaar scientific officer [civil servant]
wetenschappelijk directeur director of research
wetenschappelijk hoofdmedewerker senior lecturer; senior scientist
wetenschappelijk medewerker scientist; member of the scientific staff; member of the academic staff
wetenschappelijk onderwijs (wo) WO; research-oriented higher education with an emphasis on theory; academic higher education; higher education at research universities One of two types of higher education in the Netherlands, the other being hoger beroepsonderwijs (HBO, offered at universities of applied sciences). Education at research universities is geared more towards theory and research than education at universities of applied sciences, which is professionally oriented. The term is used also to refer to the institutions that make up the sector, and sometimes to the entire university community.N.B. The term university education is often used as an alternative for WO. This is not always a good idea since the term in many countries is synonymous with higher education in general. If you are referring to one of the two types of Dutch higher education, you should be more specific. Another thing to keep in mind is that in theory, universiteiten and hogescholen are both free to offer both types of higher education, and they are increasingly working together to offer study programmes. You can no longer distinguish the type of higher education by the type of institution that offers it.
wetenschappelijke staf academic staff; scientific staff
wetenschapper scientist; scholar; academic In English the word scientist generally refers to someone working in the exact sciences. The Dutch word wetenschapper is broader, covering also the people who teach and/or do research in other fields. In English this entire group might be referred to as scientists and scholars or academics. An academic is a person who teaches at the tertiary level and/or does research. The English term academic is broader than the Dutch academicus, which is used only in a university context.
wetenschapsbeleid science policy
wetenschapsdynamica dynamics of science University degree programme in the science sector. Analysis of the possibilities for steering scientific developments in certain directions.
wetenschapsleer philosophy of science The branch of philosophy dealing with the nature of knowledge.
wetenschapswinkel research information centre; scientific advice bureau; science shop University bureau that offers scientific advice and mediation to groups in the community that could not otherwise afford to contract scientific research.
wettelijk niet-verplicht vak statutorily optional subject
wettelijk tarief statutory rate In relation to tuition fees: the regular rate for students from within the EU/EEA.
wettelijk verplicht vak statutorily compulsory subject
WHW Abbreviation of wet op het hoger onderwijs.
wijsbegeerte philosophy University degree programme in the language and culture sector.
wijsbegeerte op basis van een niet-wijsgerige propedeuse philosophy University degree programme in the language and culture sector. From second year only.
wijsbegeerte van een bepaald wetenschapsgebied philosophy in a specific discipline University degree programme in the language and culture sector.
wijsbegeerte van wetenschap, technologie en samenleving philosophy of science, technology and society University degree programme in the engineering and technology sector. Besides learning a field of engineering, students examine the field - and science and technology in general - in terms of their history and relationship to society.
wiskunde (hbo) applied mathematics Degree programme in the engineering and technology sector.
wiskunde (wo) mathematics University degree programme in the science sector.
wiskunde en informatica mathematics and computer science University degree programme in the science sector. Training in the development of new systems and techniques, and the teaching of computer science.
wiskunde onderbouw basic mathematics Degree programme in the engineering and technology sector.
wo-bachelor Bachelors degree awarded to graduates of bachelors programmes at research universities in the Netherlands. The title is Bachelor of Science or Bachelor of Arts (BSc/BA), depending on the field of study.Source: NVAO.
wo-bacheloropleiding undergraduate programme, undergraduate degree programme; undergraduate degree programme in an academic discipline; WO undergraduate degree programme; bachelor's degree programme; bachelor's degree programme in an academic discipline; WO bachelor's degree p General education at the tertiary level. Through three-year bachelors programmes, university students acquire academic skills (logic, judgement and communication) and lay the foundation for further study within an academic discipline. A complete programme consists of 180 credits.Source: Report of the Commissie Accreditatie Hoger Onderwijs, 2003.
wo-master Masters degree awarded to graduates of masters programmes at research universities in the Netherlands. The title is Master of Science or Master of Arts (MSc/MA), depending on the field of study.
wo-masteropleiding graduate (or postgraduate) degree programme; graduate (or postgraduate) degree programme in an academic discipline; WO graduate (or postgraduate) degree programme; master's degree programme; master's degree programme in an academic discipline; WO master's Most WO masters degree programmes are oriented towards research, but some provide specialised professional training (in medicine and law, for example). Students in the first category expand on the intellectual development achieved during the bachelors programme, and acquire a scientific attitude as well as research skills and specialised knowledge in their chosen field. Students in the second category prepare for the practice of one of several regulated professions.In both cases, students acquire the general skills needed for functioning in an international, multicultural and multidisciplinary environment. WO masters degree programmes last one, two or three years, depending on the field.Source: Report of the Commissie Accreditatie Hoger Onderwijs, 2003.
zelfevaluatie internal evaluation; an evaluation conducted by the organisation itself To many English speakers, self-evaluation would mean the introspective evaluation of oneself.
zelfstudie independent learning; private study; self-instruction; self-tuition To many English speakers, self-study would mean the introspective study of oneself.
Ziektekostenregeling Nederlandse Universiteiten (ZNU) Health insurance scheme of the Dutch universities.
zij-instromer a person entering teaching from another career background A person with another career background who is encouraged to switch to the teaching profession to help fill a shortage. Unfortunately, there is no easy translation available and some form of explanation is always required. The term lateral-entry teacher has been suggested as a translation option, but is not enough to indicate to the non-Dutch reader what is meant without additional clarification.
Zorg en Welzijn Health and Personal Care and Welfare One of four sectors in VMBO.Source: Dutch Educational System, Nuffic (updates in 2000 and 2003).
zwaarte van de studie weight of a study programme
zwaartepunt focus of research; area(s) of research that a university focusses on

Various titles[edit | edit source]

  • Nuffic Glossary: Dutch-English Terminology for Describing Higher Education in the Netherlands
  • EP-Nuffic Glossary
  • Nuffic’s Nederlandse Hoger Onderwijs Termen in het Engels (HOT)
  • Nuffic Glossary of higher education

Proz thread about the NUFFIC Glossary[edit | edit source]

Nuffic Glossary of higher education nearing launch
Thread poster: Chris Hopley

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2003-11-20

For years, Nuffic’s Nederlandse Hoger Onderwijs Termen in het Engels - or HOT as it's widely known - has been a boon to all translators who have ever had to translate for the higher education field.

Originally published in 1994, a revision was long overdue, so we decided to make a clean break and produce a new glossary. Simply called the Nuffic Glossary, it will only be available through its web interface and will be fully database-driven so that - with a little effort from myself and some feedback from the field - it will be relatively easy to keep up to date and accurate. More interestingly perhaps, it will be completely free to access, with no subscription charge and no registration required.

Currently nearing completion, the all-new Nuffic Glossary will be launched as soon as it has been thoroughly revised and tested. I can't promise an exact launch date at the moment, but it should be towards the end of this year.

If anyone is interested in receiving an e-mail notification when it does come on-line, please drop me an e-mail at chopley @ nuffic.nl with the words 'Nuffic Glossary' in the subject line.

(https://www.proz.com/forum/dutch/16012-nuffic_glossary_of_higher_education_nearing_launch.html)

External links[edit | edit source]